Avachinsky

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 53.255°N
  • 158.83°E

  • 2741 m
    8990 ft

  • 300100
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

7 May-13 May 2008

Based on information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Avachinsky rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and E on 10 May. [Note: KVERT did not detect ash on satellite imagery nor by direct observation.]

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



 Available Weekly Reports


2008: May
2005: November
2001: October


7 May-13 May 2008

Based on information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Avachinsky rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and E on 10 May. [Note: KVERT did not detect ash on satellite imagery nor by direct observation.]

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 November-22 November 2005

Seismic activity at Avachinsky began to increase significantly on 21 November, with very shallow earthquakes and several hybrid earthquakes recorded at the volcano during 0800-2400. A weak thermal anomaly near the volcano's summit was visible on satellite imagery during 20-21 November. KVERT reported that based on these changes, the possibility of sudden ash explosions had increased. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow as it has since 8 November.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 November-8 November 2005

KVERT reported on 8 November that the number and energy of shallow earthquakes below Avachinsky increased during the previous month. A weak thermal anomaly near the volcano's summit was visible on satellite imagery on 7 November. KVERT reported that based on these changes the possibility of sudden ash explosions at Avachinsky had increased, so the Concern Color Code was raised from Green to Yellow on 8 November.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


31 October-6 November 2001

During 26 October to 2 November seismicity was at background levels, with only weak earthquakes detected (magnitudes less than or equal to 1.2). During 29 October to 1 November, when the volcano was visible, weak-to-powerful gas-and-steam emissions were observed extending to the SE and E. The Concern Color Code was reduced from Yellow to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 October-30 October 2001

During 19-26 October several gas-and-steam plumes rose above Avachinsky's crater, with the highest plume reaching 1 km and extending 20 km to the SE on 20 October. Seismic activity continued above background levels; ten earthquakes occurred with magnitudes of 1.3-2.1. The volcano remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 October-23 October 2001

During 12-19 October gas-and-steam plumes rose above Avachinsky's crater and until 18 October seismicity was at background levels or was not registered. During 18 and 19 October a series of weak local earthquakes were detected ~700 m beneath the summit. On 17 October a fracture was observed in the lava dome that extended E-SE and W-NW, joining the hottest parts of the edifice. The fracture extended 100-150 m down the flanks of the cone.The volcano remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 October-16 October 2001

Intense gas-and-steam plumes rose above the volcano several times during 6-11 October, with the highest plume climbing 500 m. During the report period, weak fumarolic activity occurred and seismicity was at background levels. Satellite imagery on 2 October showed a broad band of warm ground that appeared to follow the rim of the crater, with a small area of warm ground in the center of the crater. The volcano remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


3 October-9 October 2001

During 25 August until at least 5 October several earthquakes, with magnitudes between 1.2 and 2.5, were detected near Avachinsky. On 5 October at 0759 an earthquake inside the volcano's edifice was accompanied by a small gas-and-steam explosion with small amounts of ash that rose less than 1 km above the crater. A thin layer of ash covered the SE sector of the volcano's edifice. The same day at 1000 larger gas-and-steam plumes were observed rising above the volcano. Mudflows traveled 50-100 m down Avachinsky's SE slope. KVERT personnel believe the mudflows were caused by intensive activity at a single fumarole on the SE side of the summit. On 5 October the Concern Color Code at Avachinsky was raised from Green to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2001 Oct 5 2001 Oct 5 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1991 Jan 13 1991 Jan 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1945 Feb 25 1945 Feb 25 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1938 Mar 6 1938 Dec 1 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1926 Mar 27 1927 Mar 14 (?) Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
[ 1910 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1909 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1901 Jul 7 1901 Jul 13 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1894 Oct 1895 Feb Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1881 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1878 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1855 May 28 1855 Sep 4 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1854 Aug 13 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1853 Dec 21 1854 Mar 14 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1851 Nov 26 1852 Feb 14 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1837 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1828 Apr 17 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1827 Jun 27 1827 Jun 29 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
[ 1789 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1779 Jun 15 1779 Jun 16 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1772 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1737 Aug 1737 Aug Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1550 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1400 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1200 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
1100 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
0900 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
0700 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
0400 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
0100 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
1350 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Tephra layer IIAV3
1500 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer AV1
1700 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
2100 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv27
2300 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv26
2500 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv25
2530 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer IAv24; AV2
2650 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv23
2900 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv22
2950 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv21
3200 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer IAv20; AV3
3400 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv19
3500 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv18
3700 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv17
3790 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer IAv16
4050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv15
4200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv14
4250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv13
4340 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer IAv12; AV4
4400 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv11
4460 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer IAv10; AV5
4550 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer IAv7
5450 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv6
5500 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv5
5600 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv4
5700 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv3
5980 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer IAv2
6100 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra layer IAv1

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Braitseva O A, Bazanova L I, Melekestsev I V, Sulerzhitskiy L D, 1998. Large Holocene eruptions of Avacha volcano, Kamchatka (7250- 3700 years B. P.). Volc Seism, 20:1-27 (English translation).

Braitseva O A, Melekestsev I V, Ponomareva V V, Sulerzhitsky L D, 1995. Ages of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region, Russia. Bull Volc, 57: 383-402.

Braitseva O, Ponomareva V, Melekestsev I, Sulerzhitsky L, Pevzner M, 2002-. Holocene Kamchatka volcanoes. http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/volcanoes/holocene/main/main.htm.

Erlich E N, 1986. Geology of the calderas of Kamchatka and Kurile Islands with comparison to calderas of Japan and the Aleutians, Alaska. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 86-291: 1-300.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kozhemyaka N N, 1995. Active volcanoes of Kamchatka: types and growth time of cones, total volumes of erupted material, productivity, and composition of rocks. Volc Seism, 16: 581-594 (English translation).

Krijanovsky N, 1934. Volcanoes of Kamchatka. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 45: 529-549.

Melekestsev I V, Braitseva O A, Dvigalo V N, Bazanova L I, 1994a. Historical eruptions of Avacha volcano, Kamchatka: Attempt of modern interpretation and classification for long-term prediction of the types and parameters of future eruptions. Part 1 (1737-1909). Volc Seism, 15: 649-666 (English translation).

Melekestsev I V, Braitseva O A, Dvigalo V N, Bazanova L I, 1994b. Historical eruptions of Avacha volcano, Kamchatka: Attempt of modern interpretation and classification for long-term prediction of the types and parameters of future eruptions. Part 2 (1926-1991). Volc Seism, 16: 93-114 (English translation).

Melekestsev I V, Braitseva O A, Ponomareva V V, 1989. Prediction of volcanic hazards on the basis of the study of dynamics of volcanic activity, Kamchatka. In: Latter J H (ed), {Volcanic Hazards - Assessment and Monitoring}, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p 10-35.

Melekestsev I V, Kiryanov V Y, 1984. When will Avacha volcano in Kamchatka erupt?. Volc Seism, 1984(6): 107-110 (English translation 1988, 6: 943-951).

Melekestsev I V, Sulerzhitskiy L D, Bazanova L I, Braitseva O A, Florenskaya N I, 1995. Holocene catastrophic lahars at Avacha and Koriakskiy volcanoes in Kamchatka. Volc Seism, 17: 561-570 (English translation).

Ponomareva V V, Melekestsev I V, Dirksen O V, 2006. Sector collapses and large landslides on late Pleistocene-Holocene volcanoes in Kamchatka, Russia. J Volc Geotherm Res, 158: 117-138.

Vlasov G M, 1967. Kamchatka, Kuril, and Komandorskiye Islands: geological description. In: {Geol of the USSR}, Moscow, 31: 1-827.

Vlodavetz V I, Piip B I, 1959. Kamchatka and Continental Areas of Asia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 8: 1-110.

Avachinsky, one of Kamchatka's most active volcanoes, rises above Petropavlovsk, Kamchatka's largest city. Avachinsky began to form during the middle or late Pleistocene and is flanked to the SE by the parasitic volcano Kozelsky, which has a large crater breached to the NE. Avachinsky has a large horseshoe-shaped caldera, breached to the SW, that was formed when a major debris avalanche about 30,000-40,000 years ago buried an area of about 500 sq km to the south underlying the city of Petropavlovsk. Reconstruction of the volcano took place in two stages, the first of which began about 18,000 years before present (BP), and the second 7000 years BP. Most eruptive products have been explosive, with pyroclastic flows and hot lahars being directed primarily to the SW by the breached caldera, although relatively short lava flows have been emitted. The frequent historical eruptions of Avachinsky have been similar in style and magnitude to previous Holocene eruptions.