Mutnovsky

Photo of this volcano
Google Earth icon
  Google Earth Placemark
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 52.449°N
  • 158.196°E

  • 2288 m
    7505 ft

  • 300060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 18 June-24 June 2008


KVERT reported that seismic activity in the area of Gorely and Mutnovsky volcanoes decreased during 15-18 June. Moderate fumarolic activity was observed on 17 June; no activity was noted or cloud cover obscured views the other days during 14-20 June. The level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Green on 20 June.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: September 2000 (BGVN 25:09)


Small phreatic(?) eruption on 30 June and continued fumarolic activity

Fumarolic activity continued from June through mid-October 2000. Volcanic tremor was slightly above background levels until it increased markedly at 1800 on 26 June. At 0751 on 30 June, seismicity indicated a short-lived vigorous phreatic(?) eruption. By 4 July, volcanic tremor decreased to background levels. Weak fumarolic activity continued to be observed, and on 22 July, a fumarolic plume rose 200-300 m above the volcano. On the same day, two small volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred between Mutnovsky and neighboring Gorely volcano. Near noon on 31 July, a fumarolic plume rose 500 m above the summit.

A single volcano-tectonic earthquake occurred under the volcano on 9 August. A gas-and-steam plume rose to a height of 200-300 m and drifted 5 km E. On 30-31 August, a gas-and-steam plume rose 100-500 m above the volcano and moved 1 km NW. Fumarolic plumes rose 200-500 m above the summit on 1 and 7 September. Occasional fumarolic activity continued throughout September with plumes reaching up to 300 m above the volcano. On 8 October, gas-and-steam explosions rose 800-1,000 m above Mutnovsky and drifted NW. The following day, similar explosions rose 300-600 m and the plume extended 2 km E.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.

Index of Weekly Reports


2008: January | June
2005: June

Weekly Reports


18 June-24 June 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity in the area of Gorely and Mutnovsky volcanoes decreased during 15-18 June. Moderate fumarolic activity was observed on 17 June; no activity was noted or cloud cover obscured views the other days during 14-20 June. The level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Green on 20 June.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 June-17 June 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity in the area of Gorely and Mutnovsky volcanoes increased on 13 June. There is only one seismic station in the area of the two volcanoes, so the source of the seismicity could not be determined. Activity was not visually noted and satellite imagery was not available at the time of the seismicity increase. The level of Concern Color Code was raised to Yellow on 14 June.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


9 January-15 January 2008

KVERT reported on 11 January that seismic activity in the area of Mutnovsky and Gorely volcanoes was slightly elevated above background levels during the previous three weeks, but increasing activity was not confirmed. There is only one seismic station in the area of the two volcanoes so the source of the seismicity cannot be determined. Activity was not observed on satellite imagery. The level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


8 June-14 June 2005

The Concern Color Code at Mutnovsky was reduced from Yellow to Green during 3-10 June. There were no significant changes in volcanic activity during the week. A thermal anomaly was observed at the volcano on satellite imagery, possibly due to the heat from a thermal field.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

08/1993 (BGVN 18:08) Rock avalanches observed within summit crater

12/1996 (BGVN 21:12) Fumarolic plume up to 1 km above the crater

04/2000 (BGVN 25:04) Two short-lived gas-and-ash explosions on 17 March

05/2000 (BGVN 25:05) 20 years of fumarolic increases precede 17 March eruption

09/2000 (BGVN 25:09) Small phreatic(?) eruption on 30 June and continued fumarolic activity




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


08/1993 (BGVN 18:08) Rock avalanches observed within summit crater

During fieldwork on 17-18 September, two geologists from the IVGG noted large rock avalanches within the summit crater at intervals of several hours and intense melting of the glacier inside the crater. The observations indicate that activity inside the crater has increased compared to last year. The next day, a large rockslide (hundreds of thousands of tons of material) buried ~300 m of a trail in the crater under big blocks up to several meters high. Explosions from a vent in the central part of the crater ejected boiling mud several meters high. IVGG is advising hikers and other visitors to stay out of the crater until further notice.

Mutnovsky consists of four coalescing stratovolcanoes of predominantly basaltic composition with multiple summit craters. Holocene activity has been characterized by slight to moderate phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions. There have been 18 reported eruptions since historical activity began in the 17th century. The most recent activity was from December 1960 to January 1961, when weak explosive eruptions sent a gas-and-ash column 3.5-4 km high.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG.
Download or Cite this Report

12/1996 (BGVN 21:12) Fumarolic plume up to 1 km above the crater

On 25 November, a fumarolic plume was observed rising to a height of 1 km above the crater.

Information Contacts: Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA; Vladimir Kirianov, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia.
Download or Cite this Report

04/2000 (BGVN 25:04) Two short-lived gas-and-ash explosions on 17 March

Prior to 24 March 2000, KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team) had not included Mutnovsky in any activity reports this year. As of 28 April 2000, KVERT temporarily suspended operations because of a lack of funding.

After more precise analysis of visual reports from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and a comparison of signals from several seismic stations, KVERT determined that at 0700 on 17 March, a short-lived explosion sent a gas-and-steam plume to heights of ~1,000 m above the volcano; the plume disappeared within 30 minutes. At 1300 on 17 March, another gas-and-steam plume rose to about the same altitude and extended to the SE; activity ended by 1700. A corresponding shallow seismic event was registered at 1856, followed by a low-frequency (1 Hz) volcanic tremor. The hazard level was originally Yellow but was returned to Green later in the month, although episodes of low-level, low-frequency volcanic tremor continued. The volcano occasionally was obscured by clouds.

An increase in volcanic tremor occurred on 1 April from 1300-2100 and again at 0930-1700 on 13 April. The volcano remained quiet through the rest of April.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
Download or Cite this Report

05/2000 (BGVN 25:05) 20 years of fumarolic increases precede 17 March eruption

Two minor phreatic explosions occurred at Mutnovsky on 17 March 2000 (see BGVN 25:04). Subsequent helicopter observations indicated that the eruption took place in the N crater of the volcano. This crater had been active prior to the middle 1950's, but was snow-and-ice filled over the last 20 years. The recent eruption produced small amounts of ash and blocks of altered rocks.

Clearly expressed precursors had provided strong indications that an eruption could be expected. In effect, scientists noted that over the last 20 years the heat output from the main crater increased and was accompanied by the appearance of new fumarolic grounds and an increase in the fumarolic temperature. They also detected a sudden activation of the alpine glacier had started about 5 years ago. Scientists also observed that during the last 5 years, the relative abundance of the chemical elements S/Cl and S/F in the water of Vulcannaya River, which drains the fumarolic fields of the NE and SE craters, increased 3- to 5-fold.

The low magnitude of the 16 March event, the seismicity which continued afterwards for several months, and the relatively long period of preparation may indicate that the explosion is merely a precursor to a stronger eruption in the near future.

Information Contacts: George Gavrilenko, Institute of Volcanology, Far East Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (Email: volcan@kcs.iks.ru); Yuri Taran, Institute of Geophysics, UNAM, Mexico D.F. 04510 Mexico (Email: taran@tonatiuh.igeofcu.unam.mx).
Download or Cite this Report

09/2000 (BGVN 25:09) Small phreatic(?) eruption on 30 June and continued fumarolic activity

Fumarolic activity continued from June through mid-October 2000. Volcanic tremor was slightly above background levels until it increased markedly at 1800 on 26 June. At 0751 on 30 June, seismicity indicated a short-lived vigorous phreatic(?) eruption. By 4 July, volcanic tremor decreased to background levels. Weak fumarolic activity continued to be observed, and on 22 July, a fumarolic plume rose 200-300 m above the volcano. On the same day, two small volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred between Mutnovsky and neighboring Gorely volcano. Near noon on 31 July, a fumarolic plume rose 500 m above the summit.

A single volcano-tectonic earthquake occurred under the volcano on 9 August. A gas-and-steam plume rose to a height of 200-300 m and drifted 5 km E. On 30-31 August, a gas-and-steam plume rose 100-500 m above the volcano and moved 1 km NW. Fumarolic plumes rose 200-500 m above the summit on 1 and 7 September. Occasional fumarolic activity continued throughout September with plumes reaching up to 300 m above the volcano. On 8 October, gas-and-steam explosions rose 800-1,000 m above Mutnovsky and drifted NW. The following day, similar explosions rose 300-600 m and the plume extended 2 km E.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
Download or Cite this Report

Massive Mutnovsky, one of the most active volcanoes of southern Kamchatka, is formed of four coalescing stratovolcanoes of predominately basaltic composition. Multiple summit craters cap the volcanic complex. Growth of Mutnovsky IV, the youngest cone, began during the early Holocene. An intracrater cone was constructed along the northern wall of the 1.3-km-wide summit crater. Abundant flank cinder cones were concentrated on the SW side. Holocene activity was characterized by mild-to-moderate phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions from the summit crater. Historical eruptions have been explosive, with lava flows produced only during the 1904 eruption. Geothermal development is planned at Mutnovsky, which has the highest heat capacity of any volcano in the Kuril-Kamchatka arc.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2000 Jun 30 2000 Jun 30 Confirmed 1 Hydrophonic
2000 Mar 17 2000 Mar 17 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations North crater
1960 Dec 1961 Jan Confirmed 2 Historical Observations West wall of SW crater
1945 Jun 23 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1939 May Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1938 Nov Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1929 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1928 Jan 25 1928 Feb Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1927 Jan 1927 Feb Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1917 Jul 5 ± 4 days Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1916 Dec Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1916 Jul 15 ± 5 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1904 Apr 2 1904 Jun 26 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1898 Apr 1898 Jul 15 ± 45 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1853 Dec 18 1854 Mar Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1853 Jan Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1852 Mar Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1848 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1750 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1650 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1300 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
0950 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
0750 (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology
0250 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
0050 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
0100 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
0200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
0450 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
2050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
2150 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology
2900 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
3650 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
4050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
4550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
4650 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
4700 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
5000 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
5050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology
5250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
5350 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
5450 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
5800 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
5900 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
6000 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology
7550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Mutnovskaia, Sopka | Mutnaia, Sopka | Povorotnaia Sopka | Asacha | Mutnowskij | Poworotnaja Assatscha | Mutnaja, Sopka

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Akhomten Cone
Otkhodyashchy Cone

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Akkktivnaya Voronka Crater

Thermal

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Donnoye Thermal
Verkhneye Thermal
The small basaltic Visokiy stratovolcano (left center) is surrounded by young lava flows produced by regional basaltic volcanism. The 1234-m-high Visokiy is seen here from the SW with snow-capped Gorely volcano on the distant skyline above and to its right and sharp-topped Mutnovsky volcano on the right-center horizon. In contrast to the large active stratovolcanoes of Gorely and Mutnovsky, no historical eruptions are known from Visokiy volcano.

Photo by Andrei Tsvetkov, 1977.
Massive Mutnovsky (center), one of the most active volcanoes of southern Kamchatka, is formed of four coalescing stratovolcanoes of predominately basaltic composition. Multiple summit craters cap the volcanic complex, which is seen here from the west. Historical eruptions have been explosive, with lava flows produced only during 1904. Geothermal development is planned at Mutnovsky, which has the highest heat capacity of any volcano in the Kuril-Kamchatka arc.

Photo by Andrei Tsvetkov.
The glacier-filled southern summit crater of Mutnovsky volcano is seen here from the NE with Asacha volcano in the right distance. This crater is part of a 1.5 x 2.1 km wide double crater with steep walls 50-250-m high that caps the summits of northern and southern Mutnovsky stratovolcanoes. Four smaller craters cut the northern rims of the double summit crater complex. A vigorous steam plume rises from the historically active crater, which cuts the western rim of northern Mutnovsky crater.

Photo by Oleg Volynets (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
Dark-colored linear volcanic dikes, the conduits of previous eruptions, cut altered pyroclastic rocks exposed in the crater wall of northern Mutnovsky volcano.

Photo by Oleg Volynets, 1971 (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
Steam rises from a sulfur-encrusted fumarolic vent on Mutnovsky volcano. The vent is about 2-m high. Widespread fumarolic activity at Mutnovsky occurs in the northern Mutnovsky crater and in the historically active crater. The Verkhneye fumarole field covers a 3200 sq m area of the NW part of the active crater. The Donnoye fumarole field on northern Mutnovsky occupies a former crater lake.

Photo by Phil Austin, University of Southern Florida, 1992 (courtesy of Pavel Kepezhinskas).
Steam plumes rise from geothermal prospects drilled during the late 1970's on the NE flank of Mutnovsky volcano. The wells yielded a steam-gas mixture from depths of 60-1200 m. The steep-sided Vilyuchik stratovolcano appears in the background to the NE.

Photo by Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team, 1986 (courtesy of Dan Miller, U.S. Geological Survey).
Sharp-topped Vilyuchik volcano (right center) rises NE of Mutnovsky volcano. The steep-sided stratovolcano last erupted during the early Holocene. Clouds fill one of the snow-mantled summit craters of the Mutnovsky volcano complex, one of the most active volcanoes of southern Kamchatka. Koryaksky (left) and Avachinsky (right) volcanoes rise in the distance across cloud-covered Avachinsky bay.

Photo by Oleg Volynets, 1971 (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Fedotov S A, Masurenkov Y P (eds), 1991. Active Volcanoes of Kamchatka. Moscow: Nauka Pub, 2 volumes.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kozhemyaka N N, 1995. Active volcanoes of Kamchatka: types and growth time of cones, total volumes of erupted material, productivity, and composition of rocks. Volc Seism, 16: 581-594 (English translation).

Masurenkov Y P (ed), 1980. Volcanic Center: Structure, Dynamics and Products. Moscow: Nauka Pub, 299 p (in Russian).

Melekestsev I V, Braitseva O A, Ponomareva V V, 1987. Holocene activity dynamics of Mutnovskii and Gorelyi volcanoes and the volcanic risk for adjacent areas (as indicated by tephrochronological studies). Volc Seism, 1987(3): 3-18 (English translation 1990, 9: 337-362).

Melekestsev I V, Braitseva O A, Ponomareva V V, 1989. Prediction of volcanic hazards on the basis of the study of dynamics of volcanic activity, Kamchatka. In: Latter J H (ed), {Volcanic Hazards - Assessment and Monitoring}, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p 10-35.

Selyangin O B, 1993. Mutnovskiy volcano, Kamchatka: new evidence on structure, evolution, and future activity. Volc Seism, 1993(1): 17-35 (English translation 1993, 15: 17-38).

Vlodavetz V I, Piip B I, 1959. Kamchatka and Continental Areas of Asia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 8: 1-110.

Volcano Types

Complex
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Minor
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Dacite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
97
250,858

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Mutnovsky Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.