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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 51.8°N
  • 157.53°E

  • 1079 m
    3539 ft

  • 300050
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

There are no activity reports for Ksudach.

 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for Ksudach.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1907 Mar 28 (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Historical Observations Stubel, KSht3 tephra
1750 (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Stubel, KSht2 tephra
1000 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Stubel, KSht1 tephra
0700 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
0350 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (corrected) Stubel
0240 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 6 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ksudach V caldera, Tephra layer KS1
0200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology
3000 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Tephra layer KSbt
4100 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology
4550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology
4750 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology SW part of caldera IV (Paryashchiy Utes)
4900 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ksudach IV caldera, Tephra layer KS2
5200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ksudach IV caldera, Tephra layer KS3
5600 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
7900 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ksudach III caldera, Tephra layer KS4

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Andrews B J, Gardner J E, Tait S, Ponomareva V, Melekestsev I V, 2007. Dynamics of the 1800 14C yr BP caldera-forming eruption of Ksudach volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. In: Eichelberger J, Gordeev E, Izbekov P, Kasahara M, Lees J (eds), Volcanism and Subduction: the Kamchatka Region, {Amer Geophys Union, Geophys Monogr}, 172: 325-342.

Bindeman I N, Leonov V L, Izbekov P E, Ponomareva V V, Watts K E, Shipley N K, Perepelov A B, Bazanova L I, Jicha B R, Singer B S, Schmitt A K, Portnyagin M V, Chen C H, 2010. Large-volume silicic volcanism in Kamchatka: Ar-Ar and U- Pb ages, isotopic, and geochemical characteristics of major pre-Holocene caldera-forming eruptions. J Volc Geotherm Res, 189: 57-80.

Braitseva O A, Melekestsev I V, Ponomareva V V, Kirianov V Y, 1996. The caldera-forming eruption of Ksudach volcano about cal. A.D. 240: the greatest explosive event of our era in Kamchatka, Russia. J Volc Geotherm Res, 70: 49-65.

Braitseva O A, Melekestsev I V, Ponomareva V V, Sulerzhitsky L D, 1995. Ages of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region, Russia. Bull Volc, 57: 383-402.

Erlich E N, 1986. Geology of the calderas of Kamchatka and Kurile Islands with comparison to calderas of Japan and the Aleutians, Alaska. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 86-291: 1-300.

Fedotov S A, Masurenkov Y P (eds), 1991. Active Volcanoes of Kamchatka. Moscow: Nauka Pub, 2 volumes.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kozhemyaka N N, 1995. Active volcanoes of Kamchatka: types and growth time of cones, total volumes of erupted material, productivity, and composition of rocks. Volc Seism, 16: 581-594 (English translation).

Lamb H H, 1970. Volcanic dust in the atmosphere; with a chronology and assessment of its meteorological significance. Phil Trans Roy Soc London, Ser A, 266: 425-533.

Macias J L, Sheridan M F, 1995. Products of the 1907 eruption of Shtyubel' volcano, Ksudach caldera, Kamchatka, Russia. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 107: 969-986.

Masurenkov Y P (ed), 1980. Volcanic Center: Structure, Dynamics and Products. Moscow: Nauka Pub, 299 p (in Russian).

Melekestsev I V, Braitseva O A, Ponomareva V V, Sulerzhitskiy L D, 1995. Holocene catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions of Ksudach volcano, Kamchatka. Volc Seism, 17: 395-422 (English translation).

Melekestsev I V, Braitseva O A, Ponomareva V V, Sulerzhitsky L D, 1990. Ages and dynamics of development of the active volcanoes of the Kurile-Kamchatka region. Internatl Geol Rev, 32: 436-448.

Melekestsev I V, Sulerzhitsky L D, 1987. Ksudach volcano (Kamchatka) over the last ten thousand years. Volc Seism, 1987(4): 28-39 (English translation 1990, 9: 537-556).

Ponomareva V V, 1992. . (pers. comm.).

Selyangin O B, 1987. Geological structure and evolution of the calderas of Ksudach volcano. Volc Seism, 1987(5): p 16-27 (English translation 1990, 9: 690-713).

Vlasov G M, 1967. Kamchatka, Kuril, and Komandorskiye Islands: geological description. In: {Geol of the USSR}, Moscow, 31: 1-827.

Vlodavetz V I, Piip B I, 1959. Kamchatka and Continental Areas of Asia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 8: 1-110.

Volynets O N, Ponomareva V V, Braitseva O A, Melekestsev I V, Chen C H, 1999. Holocene eruptive history of Ksudach volcanic massif, South Kamchatka: evolution of a large magmatic chamber. J Volc Geotherm Res, 91: 23-42.

Ksudach is unique among Kamchatka volcanoes in its morphology and geologic history. It is a large, low-angle stratovolcano, constructed of alternating basaltic-andesitic lavas and dacitic pyroclastics, and is truncated by an intricate complex of five calderas. An array of post-caldera structures is truncated by later calderas, the last three of which formed during the Holocene, about 7900 and 5000 BCE and about 240 CE. The latter eruption was the second largest in Kamchatka during the Holocene, and produced about 20 cu km of rhyodacitic airfall tephra and 3-4 cu km of pyroclastic flows. The eastern part of the caldera complex contains two lakes, the northern of which forms an embayment in Stubel Crater, a low-angle cone that began forming about 1600 years ago in the youngest caldera. The only historical eruption, in 1907, originated from Stubel Crater and was one of Kamchatka's largest in historical time.