Ebeko

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 50.68°N
  • 156.02°E

  • 1156 m
    3792 ft

  • 290380
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

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    Number

21 July-27 July 2010

On 23 July, KVERT reported that the Aviation Color Code level for Ebeko was lowered to Green. Visual observations and satellite data indicated no activity from the volcano during 16-23 July.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)

Index of Weekly Reports


2010: June | July
2009: February | March | April | May | June | July | October
2007: March
2006: February
2005: January | February | March | June | July | August | September

Weekly Reports


21 July-27 July 2010

On 23 July, KVERT reported that the Aviation Color Code level for Ebeko was lowered to Green. Visual observations and satellite data indicated no activity from the volcano during 16-23 July.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


30 June-6 July 2010

KVERT reported that, according to observers in Severo-Kurilsk about 7 km E, activity from Ebeko increased on 2 July. Explosions produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE. The Level of Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 October-3 November 2009

KVERT reported that on 26 October a gas-and-steam plume from Ebeko was seen by observers in Severo-Kurilsk, about 7 km E of Ebeko, rising 300 m above the crater and drifting 1-2 km NNE. There was no evidence of ash deposits on the snow cover. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 250 m above the crater and drifted 2 km E on 28 October and NNE on 29 October. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 October-27 October 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 26 October a possible eruption plume from Ebeko rose to an altitude of 8.8 km (29,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Emissions continued the next day.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 October-20 October 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 October a possible eruption plume from Ebeko rose to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 July-4 August 2009

On 31 July, KVERT reported that activity from Ebeko had remained at low levels since 13 July. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 June-23 June 2009

KVERT reported that gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. during 13-18 June. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 June-16 June 2009

KVERT reported that during 9-10 June gas-and-steam plumes from Ebeko rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 June an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 May-26 May 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 22 May an ash plume from Ebeko rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 May-12 May 2009

KVERT reported that during 1-8 May observers from Severo-Kurilsk, about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed continued activity. Gas-and-steam plumes containing a small amount of ash were noted on 2 May. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 9-11 May ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and SE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 April-5 May 2009

KVERT reported that during 24 April-1 May observers from Severo-Kurilsk, about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed continued activity. Gas-and-steam plumes with some ash content rose to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 6 km in multiple directions. On 23 April, a small amount of ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk. Satellite imagery revealed strips of ash deposits radiating from the crater in different directions on 29 and 30 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 30 April an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20 km E.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 April-28 April 2009

KVERT reported that during 17-24 April observers from Severo-Kurilsk, about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed continued activity. Gas-and-steam plumes with some ash content rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. during 17-19 April and drifted 8 km NE. On 22 April, light ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 25-26 April ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.1 km (4,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, and W.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 April-21 April 2009

KVERT reported that during 10-17 April observers from Severo-Kurilsk, about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed continued activity. Gas-and-steam plumes with some ash content rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15 km SE. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 17 April an ash plume drifted NE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 April-14 April 2009

KVERT reported that during 3-10 April observers from Severo-Kurilsk, about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed continued activity. Gas-and-steam plumes with some ash content rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 8 km in southerly directions. Light ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 5 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 12 April an ash plume drifted 6 km SE at an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 April-7 April 2009

On 3 April, KVERT reported that the Level of Concern Color Code for Ebeko was raised to Yellow. Observers from Severo-Kurilsk, about 7 km E, reported increased activity; ash-and-gas plumes rose to an altitude of 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 20 km NW and E. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 13, 29, and 31 March up to 0.2 cm thick. Since Ebeko is not monitored by seismic instruments, KVERT relies on visual observations and satellite images for monitoring.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 March-17 March 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 March an ash plume from Ebeko drifted E at an altitude of 0.6 km (2,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 February-17 February 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 11 February an ash plume drifted NE from Ebeko at an altitude of 0.6 km (2,000 ft) a.s.l. On 17 February, an ash plume drifted SW at an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 March-27 March 2007

According to a news article, gas-and-steam clouds from Ebeko rose to 1.3-1.5 km (4,100-4,800 ft) a.s.l. on 22 March. Nearby residents reported smelling sulfur and chlorine.

Source: RIA Novosti


22 February-28 February 2006

KVERT reported that no significant changes in activity at Ebeko had been seen on satellite imagery or via ground observations for several months, so the Concern Color Code was reduced from Yellow to Green, the lowest level. A weak scent of hydrogen sulfide and chlorine gas was sometimes noted in the town of Severo-Kurilsk, ~7 km from the volcano. Ebeko is not seismically monitored. According to KVERT, it is likely that activity will stay at low levels and an explosive eruption is not imminent in the next weeks.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 September-20 September 2005

Strong fumarolic activity continued at Ebeko's crater during 9-16 September. Ebeko remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


7 September-13 September 2005

On 9 September, KVERT raised the Concern Color Code at Ebeko from Green to Yellow due to an increase in activity at the volcano. Fumarolic activity increased at the Ebeko's crater, with gas temperatures of 480 degrees C.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 August-16 August 2005

KVERT reduced the Concern Color Code at Ebeko from Yellow to Green (the lowest level) during 5-12 August. Weak fumarolic activity was observed, and no volcanic activity was visible on satellite imagery during the report week.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


3 August-9 August 2005

During 3-9 August fumarolic activity continued at Ebeko.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


27 July-2 August 2005

KVERT raised the Concern Color Code at Ebeko around 29 July from Green to Yellow. During 22-29 July, new fumaroles were noted in the volcano's active crater, and an explosion in the crater emitted hot steam. These types of strong changes in the crater had not been observed since 1982.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


22 June-28 June 2005

The Russian Emergency Situations Ministry's Sakhalin department reported renewed activity at Ebeko. Emission clouds reportedly rose to a maximum height of 200 m above the crater and drifted SW.

Sources: Gazeta.ru News; RIA Novosti; Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 March-29 March 2005

There was no seismic activity at Ebeko during 18-25 March, so KVERT reduced the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Green, the lowest level.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


9 February-15 February 2005

On 7 February a small emission of steam, gas, and possibly ash from Ebeko rose ~1 km above the volcano's crater and drifted ~12 km SE. On 8 and 9 February plumes rose to 600 m and thin ash deposits were noted in the town of Severo-Kurilsk, ~7 km from the volcano. Ebeko remained at Concern Color Code Yellow .

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 February-8 February 2005

During 28 January to 4 February, heightened volcanic activity continued at Ebeko. On 1 February gas-and-steam plumes rose to 450 m above ~Ebeko's crater and drifted NE. Ebeko remained at Concern Color Code Yellow .

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


26 January-1 February 2005

Due to an increase in volcanic activity at Ebeko, on 30 January KVERT raised the Concern Color Code from Green to Yellow. On 27 and 28 January a strong sulfur scent was detected in the town of Severo-Kurilsk, ~7 km from Ebeko. On the 27th a gas-and-steam plume rose ~400 m above the volcano. During 28-29 January, a plume rose ~300 m above the vent on the on the NE side of the volcano's active crater. Ash deposits that were 2-3 mm thick were found 10 m from the vent. Ash extended about 500 m E. At this time a new 7x12-m turquoise lake emerged in the SW part of the active crater. The lake disappeared on 30 January, and there was intensive fumarolic activity where it had been. During the report period, shallow earthquakes were recorded at the Severo-Kurilsk seismic station.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

10/1987 (SEAN 12:10) Ash ejections to 1 km; steaming fissures form

12/1987 (SEAN 12:12) Explosions continue; minor ashfall

05/1989 (SEAN 14:05) Ash emission from new flank vent; felt seismicity

11/1989 (SEAN 14:11) Mild explosions eject ash to 800 m

08/1993 (BGVN 18:08) Fumarolic activity from 1989 eruption site; sulfur emissions

04/2004 (BGVN 29:04) Weak fuming and notes on Tatarinov, Chikurachki, and Fuss Peak

06/2005 (BGVN 30:06) Small ash deposits in January 2005 but plumes later became infrequent

08/2009 (BGVN 34:08) Occasional steam plumes with ash from mid-2005 to mid-2009

07/2011 (BGVN 36:07) Gas-and-steam plumes and ash plumes in 2009 and 2010


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

All times are local (= UTC + 11 hours)

10/1987 (SEAN 12:10) Ash ejections to 1 km; steaming fissures form

Beginning 14 October, two vents on a sheer wall of the N crater began ejecting fine ash and steam to 300 m above the summit. Pulsations of activity occurred 3 or 4 times a day. Ejections reached 1 km height, with a plume that extended horizontally 10-15 km NE. Fissures that formed on the outer E flank of the crater emitted steam. No seismicity preceded or accompanied the ash-steam ejections. The press reported that ash and gas began to be emitted from the main crater before 2100 on 19 October, and the crater lake was emptied of water. A 1-km-high ash column formed on 27 October and the next day a small amount of ash fell on the town of Severo-Kurilsk (a few kilometers away). No casualties resulted from the eruptions. Additional equipment was installed to monitor the volcano. Variations in gas composition of near-crater fumaroles were observed 4 years ago, and an increase in the temperatures of fumarole emissions has been noted since the October eruption. The press reported that scientists did not rule out the possiblilty of a lahar which could pose a danger to the S part of Severo-Kurilsk.

Information Contacts: S. Fedotov and I. Menyailov, IV; G. Steinberg, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk; Moscow Domestic Service; Soviet Sakhalin newspaper.

12/1987 (SEAN 12:12) Explosions continue; minor ashfall

Explosive eruptions began on 14 October, from two of the three vents in the N summit crater. A gas cloud continuously rose 150-250 m while periodic explosions sent ash plumes to heights between 300-400 m and 1,000-1,200 m (table 1). Similar activity continued 14-20 November. A meteorological station in Severo-Kurilsk (6 km S) recorded the explosions.

Table 1. Large explosions from Ebeko, 27 October-8 November 1987.

    Date          Time   Observations

    27 Oct 1987   1500   --
    28 Oct 1987   0915   --
    29 Oct 1987   0338   --
    31 Oct 1987   0119   Accompanied by a bright flash.
    04 Nov 1987   1640   --
    05 Nov 1987   2100   Minor ashfall and sulfur smell reported
                         in Severo-Kurilsk.
    07 Nov 1987   1650   Sulfur smell reported in Severo-Kurilsk.
    08 Nov 1987   1105   --

No seismic precursors to the eruption were recorded and the seismic station of the Inst of Marine Geology & Geophysics, in Severo-Kurilsk, did not detect any earthquakes in the region during the eruption. The same station recorded earthquakes before and during the more distant (but much larger) 1981 eruption of Alaid (40 km NW). Specialists from the IV, Petropavlovsk, are working at the volcano. Air observations were made by the Inst of Marine Geology & Geophysics.

Further Reference. Menyailov, I.A., Ovsyannokov, A.A., and Shirokov, V.A., 1990, Eruption of Ebeko volcano in October-December 1987: Volc. Seis. (in English), v. 10, p. 493-498.

Information Contacts: G. Steinberg, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk; S. Fedotov, IV.

05/1989 (SEAN 14:05) Ash emission from new flank vent; felt seismicity

An eruption that began 3 February from Ebeko's N crater formed a new flank vent that emitted ash and gas. The explosive activity ejected a plume that rose 2.5 km in April and May, accompanied by felt seismicity. Fumarole temperatures increased by 30°C. The eruption was continuing in late May.

Information Contacts: G. Bogoyavlenskaya and I. Menyailov, IV,.

11/1989 (SEAN 14:11) Mild explosions eject ash to 800 m

Mild explosive activity from the NW portion of Ebeko's N crater was reported in August and September. . . . activity from a vent 100 m across and 50 m deep occurred at 1-3-hour intervals. Ash was ejected to 800 m. No juvenile material was found in the tephra. Volcaniclastic bombs (<=0.2 m) were ejected onto the crater slopes within 500 m of the vent. The position of the observers was not known, but the only audible explosion occurred 23 September at 1422.

Information Contacts: B. Ivanov, IV.

08/1993 (BGVN 18:08) Fumarolic activity from 1989 eruption site; sulfur emissions

On 12 and 13 August, members of an SVE team climbed the volcano and observed fumarolic activity concentrated mainly in the NW vent, the site of the 1989 eruption, and inside the S crater. Small hot water lakes (50-60°C) were present at ~950-1,000 m elev on the outer SE slope of the S crater, ~150 m below the rim. A small cold crescent-shaped lake, slightly acidic, occupied the floor of the N crater. Sulfur deposition from two fumarolic vents 25-40 m N of the hot water lakes at ~950 m elev has produced large vent structures. The smaller structure is bright-yellow, tea-kettle-shaped, and ~1 m high. Pressurized steam, consisting of water vapor and sulfur, was being emitted horizontally towards the E from a small vent opening. The larger structure is ~4-5 m high with two peaks, one on each side of the top. An elongated opening (~2 m long and 60 cm high) in the side of the edifice was emitting a large plume of sulfuric steam, but with less force than at the smaller vent.

Information Contacts: H. Gaudru, SVE, Switzerland.

04/2004 (BGVN 29:04) Weak fuming and notes on Tatarinov, Chikurachki, and Fuss Peak

The last recorded eruption of Ebeko volcano was in 1991. Table 2 summarizes activity on Ebeko from February-April 2004 as reported by observers Leonid and Tatiana Kotenko (observations made on days when clouds did not obscure the volcano).

Table 2. A summary showing Ebeko activity for February-April 2004. Courtesy of Leonid and Tatiana Kotenko.

    2004           Activity       Wind         Gas-steam plume        Comment
                    level       direction    (meters above crater)

    08 Feb          Quiet           --                 --             --
    12 Feb          Quiet           --                 --             --
    23 Feb            --           NW                  --             Strong smell of H2S
    03 Mar-04 Mar     --       Weak to N           <150-200           --
    12 Mar            --            --               <150             --
    16 Mar-17 Mar     --            --               <200             --
    26 Mar            --       Strong to S             --             --
    29 Mar          Quiet           --                 --             --
    31 Mar            --            N                <150             --
    02 Apr          Quiet           --                 --             --
    12 Apr            --       Strong to NE            --             --
    15 Apr            --            N                <100             --
    19 Apr            --            --               <100             --
    28 Apr            --            --               <100             --
    29 Apr            --       Strong to N             --             --

On 14 April 2004 a fishing craft reported a white gas plume emerging from Tatarinov volcano. That volcano lies near the opposite (southern) end of Paramushir Island. The plume came from Tatarinov's fumarolic field and remained at low altitude following the Tukharka river. Also in the southern part of Paramushir island, the volcanoes Chikurachki (last active 17-18 April 2003, SEAN 28:07) and Fuss Peak (SEAN 12:04) were both reported quiet.

Information Contacts: Leonid and Tatiana Kotenko, Severo-Kurilsk, Paramushir Island; Olga A. Girina, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), a cooperative program of the Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia, the Kamchatka Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department (KEMSD), GS RAS (Russia), and the Alaska Volcano Observatory (USA); Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.

06/2005 (BGVN 30:06) Small ash deposits in January 2005 but plumes later became infrequent

A few gas-and-steam plumes from Ebeko were reported during February-April 2004 (BGVN 29:04). The most recent previous eruption was in January 1991. On 30 January 2005 the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) raised the Concern Color Code at Ebeko from Green to Yellow after reports of a strong smell of sulfur on 27 and 28 January in the town of Severo-Kurilsk, ~ 7 km from Ebeko. Observations by Leonid and Tatiana Kotenko in Severo-Kurilsk during May-July 2004 included occasional gas-and-steam plume rising as high as 250 m above the volcano during clear weather and fumarolic plumes moving close to the ground. There was no visible activity in August, but a few plumes were seen again from September to November.

During 28 January, a white gas-and-steam plume was seen from Severo-Kurilsk rising 400 m above the volcano. Summit observations the next day revealed a yellow-gray, 5-m-diameter, column rising 300 m from a vent on the NE side of the active crater. Three ash layers 2-3 mm thick were noted 10 m from the vent, and ash extended ~ 500 m E into the crater. At this time a new 7 x 12 m turquoise lake had developed in the SW part of the active crater. The lake disappeared on 30 January, and there was intensive fumarolic activity where it had been. Shallow earthquakes were recorded at the Severo-Kurilsk seismic station.

On 1 February gas-and-steam plumes rose to 450 m above Ebeko's crater and drifted NE. On 7 February a small emission of steam, gas, and possibly ash rose ~ 1 km above the crater and drifted ~ 12 km SE. On 8 and 9 February plumes rose to 600 m and thin ash deposits were noted in the town of Severo-Kurilsk.

The following information came to KVERT from observers in Severo-Kurilsk (Leonid and Tatiana Kotenko). On 15-16 February a dark-gray column rose up to 500 m above the crater. A dark-gray plume extended 6 km E and a light-gray plume 7 km SE. On 16 February ashfall together with snowfall was noted over the strait to the E of Paramushir Island. On 17 February a white column up to 250 m above the crater was observed. On 12 February and 16-17 February a strong smell of a H2S was noted at Severo-Kurilsk. On 18-19 February white gas-and-steam columns 5 m in diameter rose from the two vents up to 450 m above the crater and a new lake (10 x 10 m) on the floor of the active crater was observed. On 25 February white gas-and-steam plumes rose to 450 m and 1,000 m above the crater. Gas-and-steam plumes were also observed on 1-2, 4-5, and 9 March. No ash was seen. A strong smell of H2S was noted at Severo-Kurilsk on 25 February and 2 March.

About 20 seismic events of less than Ml 2.0 were observed during 1-9 March at the Severo-Kurilsk seismic station. No seismic activity was observed from 12 to 14 March. On 15 March two seismic events were noted. There was no seismicity during 18-25 March, so KVERT reduced the hazard status from Yellow to Green, the lowest level.

The Russian Emergency Situations Ministry's Sakhalin department reported renewed activity on 27 June in the form of emission clouds rising to a maximum height of 200 m above the crater and drifting SW. KVERT did not report any activity, and the Concern Color Code for Ebeko remained at Green.

Information Contacts: Olga Girina, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), a cooperative program of the Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.

08/2009 (BGVN 34:08) Occasional steam plumes with ash from mid-2005 to mid-2009

Our most recent report on Ebeko described minor seismic events between January-June 2005, accompanied by occasional plumes sometimes depositing minor ash (BGVN 30:06). Ebeko lacks a dedicated seismometer; therefore, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) generally monitors the volcano with visual and satellite observations. The town of Severo-Kurilsk, ~ 7 km E of the summit, has been subjected to considerable environmental stress due to emissions in the past several years (Kotenko and Kotenko, 2009). The volcano is located at the N end of Paramushir Island, just S of the Kamchatka Peninsula. The island hosts five other volcanoes active in the Holocene, including Chikurachki, which was active in 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, and as recently as September 2008.

About 29 July 2005, KVERT raised the Concern Color Code from Green (the lowest level) to Yellow. During 22-29 July new fumaroles were noted in the active crater, and there was one explosion reported. This types of activity had not been observed since 1982. During 3-9 August fumarolic activity continued. During the week of 5-12 August 2005 weak fumarolic activity was noted, but no volcanic activity was visible on satellite imagery. Strong fumarolic activity occurred during 9-16 September, and gas temperatures reached 480°C. During the week 22-28 February 2006, KVERT reported that no significant changes in activity had been seen on satellite imagery or via ground observations for several months, so the Concern Color Code was reduced to Green. A weak scent of hydrogen sulfide and chlorine gas was sometimes noted in Severo-Kurilsk.

No additional information was available about Ebeko until March 2007. According to a news article in RIA Novosti, on 22 March gas-and-steam clouds from the volcano rose to an altitude of 1.3-1.5 km. Nearby residents smelled sulfur and chlorine.

Ebeko was not reported on again until February 2009. According to the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) and KVERT, between 11 February and 18 June 2009, the volcano emitted a series of gas-and-steam plumes containing some ash (table 3, figure 1). During 29 January-23 February, the cumulative ashfall was 80 g/m2.

Table 3. Gas-and-steam plumes from Ebeko containing some ash between 11 February 2009 and 18 June 2009. Information was provided by the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center based on an analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, and KVERT.

    Date (2009)       Max. plume      Plume drift
                     altitude (km)     direction

    11 Feb               0.6              NE
    17 Feb               1.2              SW
    13 Mar               0.6              E
    01 Apr-10 Apr      3.2-3.4         Various
    10 Apr-17 Apr      1.5-2.7            SE
    17 Apr-19 Apr        2-3              NE
    24 Apr-01 May      1.2-3.5         Various
    02 May                --              --
    09 May-11 May      2.1-2.4          SW,SE
    22 May               2.4              SE
    09 Jun-10 Jun        2.7              --
    13 Jun               2.1              SW
    13 Jun-18 Jun        1.7              --
Figure 1. Ash layers from Ebeko deposited in ~ 70 cm of snow and excavated and photographed on 26 February 2009. The layers were thin. More layers were deposited later (see text below). Courtesy of Leonid Kotenko (IV&S).

Ashfall deposits in Severo-Kurilsk on 13-14, 18, 29, and 31 March 2009 (figures 2 and 3) were up to 2 mm deep. The town also experienced light ashfall on 5 and 22-23 April. Accordingly, on 3 April 2009 the Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Yellow. On 31 July, KVERT reported that activity had remained low since 13 July, and thus lowered the Level of Concern Color Code to Green.

Figure 2. Ash cloud from Ebeko blowing towards Severo-Kurilsk, Paramushir Island, on 14 March 2009. Photographed by Tania Kotenko (IV&S).
Figure 3. A photo showing an Ebeko explosion on 18 March 2009. Photographed by Leonid Kotenko (IV&S).

Hazards and impacts on Severo-Kurilsk. Kotenko and Kotenko (2009) discussed the environmental impacts of Ebeko on Severo-Kurilsk. Threats include lahars, ashfalls, atmospheric poisoning from volcanic gases (particularly during periods of strong fumarolic activity), and the pollution of potable water supplies. Narrow river gorges descending the volcano can direct volcanic gas into Severo-Kurilsk, which lies in a lowland, accentuating the air pollution problem. The study noted the stresses on inhabitants during strong fumarolic activity of the kind seen during the 2- to 3-year-long intervals leading to eruptions. Historical eruptions occurred in 1793, 1833-34, 1859, 1934-35, 1967-71, and 1987-90.

Reference. Kotenko, Tatyana, and Kotenko, Leonid, 2009, Status of Ebeko volcano (Paramushir Island) and environmental impact of its eruptions, [in Russian] in Volcanism and Geodynamics: Content of 4th Russian symposium on volcanology and paleovolcanology: Yevgeny Gordeev (chief editor), IV&S Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, 23-29 September 2009, v. 2, p. 613-617 [ISBN 978-5-902424-05-5].

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (Email: kvert@kscnet.ru, URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/); Olga Girina (KVERT); Leonid Kotenko, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IV&S); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); RIA Novosti (URL: http://en.rian.ru/).

07/2011 (BGVN 36:07) Gas-and-steam plumes and ash plumes in 2009 and 2010

Our most recent report on Ebeko (BGVN 34:08) described intermittent activity from mid-2005 to mid-2009, primarily plumes that sometimes deposited minor ash. Ebeko lacks a dedicated seismometer; therefore, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) generally monitors the volcano with visual and satellite observations (figure 4). Intermittent plumes continued in 2009-2010.

Figure 4. Topographic map of Paramushir Island (Ebeko volcano sits at the extreme NE end and town of Severo-Kurilsk is nearby). From National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Tactical Pilotage Chart ONC-E10C, as provided by McGimsey and others (2005).

Activity during October 2009. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported two possible eruption plumes from Ebeko in October 2009. The first plume, reported on 15 October 2009, rose to an altitude of 10.7 km and drifted NE. The second plume, on 26 October, rose to an altitude of 8.8 km and drifted E.

KVERT reported that on 26 October a gas-and-steam plume was seen by observers in Severo-Kurilsk (figure 4), a town about 7 km E of Ebeko. The plume rose about 300 m above the crater and drifted 1-2 km NNE. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 250 m above the crater and drifted 2 km E on 28 October and NNE on 29 October 2009.

Activity during June-July 2010. KVERT reported that activity increased on 2 July according to observers in Severo-Kurilsk (figure 5). Explosions produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km and drifted SSE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow. On 23 July, KVERT reported that the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. Visual observations and satellite data indicated no activity from the volcano during 16-23 July.

Figure 5. Photograph of an ash explosion from Ebeko on 2 July 2010 taken from the town of Severo-Kurilsk. Photo taken by Leonid Kotenko.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/).

The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater of Ebeko contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater of Ebeko is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters of Ebeko, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2010 Jul 2 2010 Jul 9 ± 7 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2009 Feb 11 2009 Jul 13 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2005 Jan 29 2005 Feb 16 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1991 Jan 1991 Jan Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Northern crater
1989 Feb 2 1990 Apr 15 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Northern crater and upper east flank
1987 Oct 14 1988 Jan Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Northern crater
[ 1971 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1   Northern crater
1969 Feb 1969 Feb (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Northern crater
1967 Jan 1967 Apr (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Northern crater
1965 Aug (?) 1965 Aug (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Middle Crater
1963 Mar 8 1964 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations North wall of east amphitheater
1934 Oct 4 1935 Oct 15 ± 45 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Sredniy crater
1859 Sep 27 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1833 Dec 31 ± 365 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1793 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1670 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1650 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1600 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0390 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Io-yama | Ruko | Iwo-zan | Mosakiri-yama | Masakari-yama | Chishima-iwo-zan | Assirmatsky | Ottomoi


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Neozhidannyi Cone
Nezametnyi Cone
Poplovaya Vent


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Sredniy Crater
An ash-bearing eruption column rises above the North crater of Ebeko volcano on September 9, 1989. An explosive eruption that began on February 2, 1989 continued until April 1990. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, which occupies the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones at the northern end of Paramushir Island. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters.

Photo courtesy of Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team, 1989.
An ash plume rises above Ebeko volcano on March 18, 2009. Intermittent explosive eruptions began on February 11, 2009 and continued into July, producing plumes up to 3.4 km altitude.

Photo by Leonid Kotenko, 2009 (Institute of Volcanology and Seismology).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Braitseva O A, Melekestsev I V, Ponomareva V V, Sulerzhitsky L D, 1995. Ages of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region, Russia. Bull Volc, 57: 383-402.

Gorshkov G S, 1958. Kurile Islands. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 7: 1-99.

Gorshkov G S, 1970. Volcanism and the Upper Mantle; Investigations in the Kurile Island Arc. New York: Plenum Publishing Corp, 385 p.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Melekestsev I V, Dvigalo V N, Kiryanov V Y, Kurbatov A V, Nesmachnyi I A, 1994. Ebeko volcano, Kuril Islands: eruptive history and potential volcanic hazards, Part II. Volc Seism, 15: 411-430 (English translation).

Menyailov I A, Nikitina L P, Budnikov V A, 1992. Activity of Ebeko volcano in 1987-1991: character of eruptions, composition of erupted material, volcanic hazard for Severo-Kurilsk. Volc Seism, 1992(5-6): 21-33 (English translation 1993, 14: 515-531).

Volcano Types

Somma
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
267
1,076
3,098

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Ebeko Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.