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Nemo Peak volcano at the northern end of Onekotan Island in the northern Kuriles is truncated by two nested calderas of preglacial age, the largest of which is 10 km in diameter and extends to the northern coast. A third 5-km-wide caldera formed about 25,000 years ago by collapse of an interglacial cone that was constructed over the glaciated surfaces of the earlier calderas. The 1018-m-high central cone of Nemo Peak is composed of two coalescing andesitic cones that were constructed at the SW side of the youngest caldera and formed in four stages beginning in the early Holocene about 9500 years ago. Construction of the central cone has left the crescent-shaped Chernoe Lake at the NE end of the youngest caldera; lava flows from Nemo Peak form the broad SW shoreline of the lake. The final activity built a lava dome that completely overtops a 350-m-wide crater and has a 150-m-wide crater at its summit. Historical eruptions of Nemo Peak date back to the early-18th century.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1938 Aug 12||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|[ 1932 (?) ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain||SE flank|
|1710 ± 10 years||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|0550 BCE ± 100 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Tephrochronology|
|1850 BCE (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||Tephrochronology|
|3050 BCE (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||Tephrochronology|
|5550 BCE (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||Tephrochronology|
|7050 BCE (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||Tephrochronology|
|7550 BCE (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||Tephrochronology|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Amka-Usyr | Nesige | Nemo-san|
|Steep-sided Nemo Peak, seen here from the south, is the northernmost of two large volcanoes forming Onekotan Island. The 1018-m-high compound central cone of Nemo Peak formed in four stages beginning in the early Holocene. Construction of the cone within the youngest of three large calderas has left a crescent-shaped lake at the NE end of this 5-km-wide caldera. The final activity built a lava dome in the 350-m-wide summit crater. Historical eruptions of Nemo Peak date back to the early-18th century.
Photo by Yoshihiro Ishizuka, 2000 (Hokkaido University).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Braitseva O A, Melekestsev I V, Ponomareva V V, Sulerzhitsky L D, 1995. Ages of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region, Russia. Bull Volc, 57: 383-402.
Erlich E N, 1986. Geology of the calderas of Kamchatka and Kurile Islands with comparison to calderas of Japan and the Aleutians, Alaska. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 86-291: 1-300.
Gorshkov G S, 1958. Kurile Islands. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 7: 1-99.
Gorshkov G S, 1970. Volcanism and the Upper Mantle; Investigations in the Kurile Island Arc. New York: Plenum Publishing Corp, 385 p.
Melekestsev I V, Braitseva O A, Kiryanov V Y, 1990. History of eruptive activity and predicting impending eruptions of the peak Nemo volcano on the Onekotan Island, Kuriles. IAVCEI 1993 Internatl Volc Cong, Mainz, Abs, (unpaginated).
Melekestsev I V, Volynets O N, Antonov A Y, 1997. Nemo III caldera (Onekotan I., the northern Kuriles): Structure, 14C age, dynamics of the caldera-forming eruption, evolution of juvenile products. Volc Seism, 19: 41-64 (English translation).