Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]

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  • Japan - administered by Russia
  • Kuril Islands
  • Complex(es)
  • 2013 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 45.012°N
  • 147.871°E

  • 1158 m
    3798 ft

  • 290070
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

3 April-9 April 2013

SVERT reported that on 3 April at 0755 ash from Grozny Group fell in Kurilsk (23 km N) and Kitovy, producing deposits 2-3 mm thick. Cloud cover prevented observations of the volcano. The next day satellite images showed an ash plume that rose 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)

Index of Weekly Reports


2013: February | March | April
2012: August | September

Weekly Reports


3 April-9 April 2013

SVERT reported that on 3 April at 0755 ash from Grozny Group fell in Kurilsk (23 km N) and Kitovy, producing deposits 2-3 mm thick. Cloud cover prevented observations of the volcano. The next day satellite images showed an ash plume that rose 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)


27 March-2 April 2013

Based on analysis of satellite images, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 30 March a possible eruption from Grozny Group may have produced a plume that rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A later VAAC notice stated that ash had dissipated.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 February-19 February 2013

Based on visual observations, SVERT reported that on 16 February an ash-and-gas plume from Grozny Group rose 3 km a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)


12 September-18 September 2012

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite imagery, SVERT reported that during 10-17 September fumarolic activity at Grozny Group was at a medium intensity. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)


5 September-11 September 2012

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite imagery, SVERT reported that during 4-10 September fumarolic activity at Grozny Group increased. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)


29 August-4 September 2012

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite imagery, SVERT reported that during 23 August-3 September fumarolic activity at Grozny Group increased. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)


22 August-28 August 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, SVERT reported that on 22 August a gas-and-ash plume rose 500 m above Grozny Group and drifted 15 km NE. Fumarolic activity increased during 23-25 August. Observers reported that an ash plume rose to 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. on 25 August. That same day the Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible eruption from Etorofu-Yake-yama, a lava dome of the Grozny Group, may have produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)


15 August-21 August 2012

According to news reports, Ivan Grozny, one of two volcanoes comprising the Grozny Group, erupted on 16 August, after increased gas emissions from the NE flank were observed the day before. An ash plume rose 1.2 km and caused ashfall in Goryachiye Klyuchi (9 km W) and Kurilsk (25 km away). Residents reported a sulfur dioxide odor. By the afternoon ashfall had ceased and the odor subsided.

Sources: Itar-Tass News; RIA Novosti


Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

07/1973 (CSLP 92-73) Single weak explosion

05/1989 (SEAN 14:05) Ash eruption; earthquakes and tremor

12/1989 (SEAN 14:12) Small explosions form new fumaroles; mudflows

02/1990 (BGVN 15:02) New fumaroles formed after predicted ash eruption in June

12/1992 (BGVN 17:12) Additional details about 1989 eruption


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

All times are local (= UTC + 11 hours)

07/1973 (CSLP 92-73) Single weak explosion

Card 1684 (27 July 1973) Single weak explosion

. . . at the beginning of the year there was a single weak explosion from the volcano "Ivan Grozny" on the island of Iturup.

Information Contact: Y.M. Doubik, IV.

05/1989 (SEAN 14:05) Ash eruption; earthquakes and tremor

An abrupt increase in white fumarolic emissions, accompanied by weak explosions of gas and black ash, was observed . . . 3-4 May. A seismograph in Kurilsk (~30 km from the volcano) recorded weak earthquakes at various depths and short-period volcanic tremor for the following 5 days [see also 15:2]. On 8 May at 1330, a strong explosion ejected a black ash column that reached 1,500-1600 m above the summit within 8 minutes. By 1402, winds were dispersing the plume. A low-frequency rumble was heard in Kurilsk and Goryachie Kluchi (9 km W) during the eruption, but witnesses on the Pacific coast (6-8 km S) heard no sounds. On 11 May, images from a NOAA polar orbiting satellite at 1400 and Japan's GMS satellite at 1900 showed no volcanic plume. Small ash explosions occurred after 14 May, and as of 26 May, steam/gas emissions were continuing. More than a week before the eruption, a report in the 25 April Sovetskii Sakhalin newspaper warned that the residents of Goryachie Kluchi village would be at risk if an explosion should occur.

Before the eruption, fumarolic activity was concentrated in the N block along a wide fracture that extended 250-300 m down the W slope from the summit. Geologists who flew over the volcano in a helicopter and airplane 10 days after the eruption (on 18 and 20 May) observed a narrow mudflow, ~20-30 m wide and 1 km long, on the E slope. Fumarolic activity was still visible in the upper portion of the N block fracture. Fumaroles were also observed in the saddle separating the blocks of the dome, near the E slope.

Further Reference. Abdurakhmanov, A.I., Zlobin, T.K., Markhinin, E.K., and Tarakanov, R.Z., 1990, The Ivan Groznyi volcano eruption on the Iturup Island in 1989: Volcanology and Seismology, no. 4, p. 3-9 (in Russian); v. 12, p. 423-430 (in English).

Information Contacts: G. Steinberg, V. Ostapenko, and R. Bulgakov, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk; G. Bogoyavlenskaya and I. Menyailov, IV; T. Baldwin, NOAA/NESDIS.

12/1989 (SEAN 14:12) Small explosions form new fumaroles; mudflows

After an increase in fumarolic emissions and weak ash explosions in May, fumarolic activity remained vigorous. An eruption on 19 June at 2230, accompanied by 2-3 minutes of weak rumbling, sent ash and gas to ~2 km. An early August explosion formed new fumarolic vents on the dome's N flank, ~70-100 m from the summit (figure 1).

Figure 1. September 1989 photograph by A. Samoluk, looking W at the new fumaroles formed by an August explosion on the dome's N side.

On a 16 September ascent of the dome, geologists G. Steinberg and S Tkachenko observed vigorous gas emission from several sulfur-encrusted fissures, and deep narrow craters ~2-3 m in diameter. Two mud flows (4-6 m wide) that extended 1.5-2 km down the dome's N side had destroyed areas of thick vegetation (bushes and bamboo). One flow reached Lake Lopastnye (figure 2). No juvenile material was found in the flows. A small mudflow deposit on the S side of the dome, and another on the W (previously seen 18 and 20 May; reported as E slope in 14:5) were also observed.

Figure 2. September 1989 photograph by A. Samoluk, looking S at two mudflows on the dome's N side. Lake Lopastnye is in the foreground.

Information Contacts: G. Steinberg and R. Bulgakov, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.

02/1990 (BGVN 15:02) New fumaroles formed after predicted ash eruption in June

After the May 1989 activity, geologists performed aerial and field investigations at the request of local authorities. They forecast that vigorous fumarolic activity and rare weak explosions would continue through August, and this assessment was printed in the regional newspaper Suvorovsky Natisc on 15 June 1989, 4 days before the June eruption. Moderate fumarolic activity continued in June.

Seismic activity in a 100-m-wide zone extending NE across the volcano had increased March-May 1989. According to R.Z. Tarakanov, the earthquakes were at 30 and 60 km depths.

Aerial observations in August revealed a new group of fumaroles in the NNE part of the dome. During their 16 September ascent of the dome, Steinberg and Tkachenko measured gas temperatures of 100-104°C. Deep, narrow, craters had formed at the intersections of en-echelon fissures, and the surface around them was covered by andesitic ash (table 1). It is not yet known if the material was juvenile.

Table 1. Chemical analyses of three ash samples collected from fissures in Ivan Grozny's summit dome. Courtesy of G. Steinberg.

    Sample            9     10

    Temp. (°C)      220    160
    H2O (mole %)   92.2   96.6

    Volume % of dry gas
    CO2           83.36   49.88
    H2S           12.63   21.85
    SO2            2.45    2.40
    H2             1.82   18.75
    CO             --      --
    HCl            0.73    7.02
    HF             0.01    0.11
    CH4            0       0

Fumarolic activity was distributed along the summit crater fissure. Before the May explosions, emissions had been observed over the entire cross-section of the crater's fissure and on the E slope of the dome. No fumarolic activity was observed in August on the E outer slope of the dome, only from its uppermost W portion. The floor of the E part of the crater was covered with 30 cm of ash but exhibited no fumarolic activity.

At the request of the local authorities, geologists forecast (and published in the local newspaper Krasny Mayak on 28 September) that the volcano's activity should continue at its present level through February 1990.

Information Contacts: G. Steinberg and R. Bulgakov, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.

12/1992 (BGVN 17:12) Additional details about 1989 eruption

The following description of the 1989 eruption includes information supplementing 14:5 and 14:12. The eruption began on 3 May, as gas emission became more intense in the trench at the central dome's summit and on the dome's NE flank. Ash rose to ~1.5 km above the summit on 8 May. Weaker ash eruptions took place 9-13 May, and lahars were triggered by intense snowmelt. The E lahar moved >600 m down the dome, spreading at its base to form a lithic-rich deposit ~200 m across. Other lahars, no wider than 3-5 m, flowed N toward Lake Lopastnoye (figure 3), destroying dense stands of bamboo; one lahar entered the lake. After the May eruption, gas emission was concentrated in the summit fissure, and gas was no longer emerging from fissures on the dome's NE flank.

Figure 3. Sketch map of Ivan Grozny, showing 1990 gas-sampling sites. Courtesy of G. Steinberg.

Small ash eruptions occurred again on 19 May and during the first 10 days of August. After the August activity, a new zone of fumaroles was observed on the NE part of the dome, 40-50 m below the fissure's N edge. Fissures 2-3 m wide and funnel-shaped vents 4-5 m in diameter that had ejected ash had formed on the NE part of the dome. S and Cl-rich water vapor was emitted vigorously from the new vents and fissures. Gas emission had nearly stopped from the E end of the summit fissure, where its floor was flat and covered with cooled ash. No juvenile material was found in the 1989 tephra.

Information Contacts: G. Steinberg, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.

Etorofu-Yakeyama (Ivan Grozny), is located in the center of Iturup Island. It has a 3-3.5 km diameter caldera that is open to the south, where the large, 1158-m-high andesitic extrusion dome was emplaced. Several other lava domes of Holocene age were constructed to the NE; extrusion of these domes has constricted a former lake in the northern side of the caldera to an extremely sinuous shoreline. Historical eruptions, the first of which took place in 1968, have been restricted to Etorofu-Yakeyama.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Feb 16 2013 Apr 4 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Etorofu-Yake-yama / Ivan Grozny
2012 Aug 16 2012 Aug 25 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Etorofu-Yake-yama / Ivan Grozny
1989 May 3 1989 Aug 5 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Ivan Grozny
1973 May 16 1973 May 17 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Ivan Grozny (N flank of cent. dome)
1973 Jan 1973 Jan Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Ivan Grozny
1970 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Ivan Grozny
1968 Feb 1968 Feb Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Ivan Grozny

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Kochirippusan


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Etorofu-Yakeyama
    Sio Tsirarippu
    Sho-Chirippu
    Etorofu-Yake-yama
    Yake-yama
    Ivan Grozny
Somma volcano 1158 m 45° 0' 43" N 147° 52' 16" E
Malysh Cone
Motonupuri Cone
Rebunshiri Cone


Domes
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Drakon Dome
Ermak Dome
Grozny Dome 45° 0' 29" N 147° 52' 0" E
The Grozny volcano group in central Iturup Island contains the complex volcanoes of Ivan Grozny and Tebenkov. This September 1989 view from the east shows steaming fumaroles that were formed at the time of a minor 1989 eruption on the north flank of the large, 1158-m-high Grozny lava dome. Several other andesitic-dacitic lava domes of Holocene age were constructed to the NE of Grozny dome. Historical eruptions, the first of which took place in 1968, have been restricted to the Ivan Grozny lava-dome complex.

Photo by A. Samoluk, 1989 (courtesy of Genrich Steinberg, Institute for Marine Geology and Geophysics, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk).
Grozny lava dome, seen here from the north with Lake Lopastnye at the lower left, is the largest dome of the Grozny volcanic complex. The two thin light-colored areas descending from the summit region in this September 1989 view mark the paths of small lahars from a minor eruption beginning in May 1989. The left-hand lahar reached the lake. The dark-colored area at the lower right is part of a series of lava flows that extend from beneath the dome's debris apron. The largest of these, on the south flank, reached 6 km to the sea.

Photo by A. Samoluk, 1989 (courtesy of Genrich Steinberg, Institute for Marine Geology and Geophysics, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk).
The steep-sided Ivan Grozny lava dome is seen from the north with lava flows descending into Lopasnoye lake in the foreground. The Grozny volcano group in central Iturup Island contains the complex volcanoes of Ivan Grozny and Tebenkov. The forested Tebenkov volcano lies immediately to the NE of the Grozny dome complex. Historical eruptions, the first of which took place in 1968, have been restricted to Ivan Grozny.

Photo by A. Korablev, 1993 (Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Yuzhno-Sakhalin).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Gorshkov G S, 1958. Kurile Islands. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 7: 1-99.

Gorshkov G S, 1970. Volcanism and the Upper Mantle; Investigations in the Kurile Island Arc. New York: Plenum Publishing Corp, 385 p.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.

Volcano Types

Complex(es)
Caldera
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Intermediate crust (15-25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
39
2,417
6,361

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.