Akan

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 43.384°N
  • 144.013°E

  • 1499 m
    4917 ft

  • 285070
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

26 November-2 December 2008

JMA reported an eruption from Me-Akan (also known as Meakan-dake, which means Meakan Peak) of the Akan volcanic complex on 28 November. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, E, and SE. Ash was deposited on the E flank up to 4 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at "near-crater warning" (levels 2 and 3 on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



 Available Weekly Reports


2008: September | October | November
2006: March


26 November-2 December 2008

JMA reported an eruption from Me-Akan (also known as Meakan-dake, which means Meakan Peak) of the Akan volcanic complex on 28 November. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, E, and SE. Ash was deposited on the E flank up to 4 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at "near-crater warning" (levels 2 and 3 on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


12 November-18 November 2008

On 17 November, JMA raised the Alert Level for Me-Akan (also known as Meakan-dake, which means Meakan Peak) of the Akan volcanic complex to "near-crater warning" (levels 2 and 3 on a 5-level scale) after the seismic network detected tremor that lasted 171 minutes. On 18 November, the summit was obscured by cloud cover but web camera views showed that the snow-covered S slopes had turned black. During an overflight later that day, JMA scientists noted that the ash covered an area up to 400 m away from Ponmachineshiri crater. Ballistic lithics several tens of centimeters in diameter were deposited around the crater.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


15 October-21 October 2008

On 17 October, JMA lowered the Alert level for Me-Akan (also called Meakan-dake, which means Meakan Peak) of the Akan volcanic complex from near-crater warning to normal. Seismic tremor was no longer detected after 30 September, and seismicity had remained low after 3 October.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


24 September-30 September 2008

Seismic tremor from the Akan volcanic complex that lasted for four minutes on 29 September prompted JMA to raise the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (using a 1-5 scale). The number of earthquakes had increased since 26 September. A white plume rose less than 100 m above the Me-Akan volcano group. [Correction: The numbered Alert Level system was not applied to Akan. Instead, a near-crater warning was issued.]

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


15 March-21 March 2006

A very small eruption occurred at Me-Akan (also called Meakan-dake, which means Meakan Peak) of the Akan volcanic complex on 21 March. Tremor began around 0628, the eruption apparently began around 0637, and an alert was issued by JMA at 0643. The eruption occurred from the volcano's NE flank. Ash was deposited on snow as far as 10 km SE of the volcano. The volcano is in a remote area and no populated areas were threatened. Me-Akan last erupted in 1998.

Sources: Gunma University, Reuters


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2008 Nov 18 2008 Nov 28 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (Ponmachineshiri)
2006 Mar 21 2006 Mar 21 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE flank of Me-Akan
1998 Nov 9 1998 Nov 9 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (Ponmachineshiri)
1996 Nov 21 1996 Nov 21 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (Ponmachineshiri crater no. 4)
1988 Jan 5 1988 Feb 18 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (SE rim of Ponmachineshiri)
1984 May 1 1984 May 1 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (Ponmachineshiri)
1966 Jun 15 ± 5 days 1966 Jun 15 ± 5 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (Nakamachineshiri)
1965 May 15 ± 5 days 1965 May 15 ± 5 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (Nakamachineshiri)
1964 Jun 18 1964 Jul 4 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (Nakamachineshiri)
1962 Apr 28 1962 Apr 28 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (Nakamachineshiri)
1960 Sep 1960 Sep Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (Ponmachineshiri)
1959 May 15 ± 5 days 1959 Oct Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (Naka- and Ponmachineshiri)
1958 Feb 23 1958 Feb 23 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (Ponmachineshiri)
1957 Feb 26 1957 Sep 5 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (Ponmachineshiri)
1956 Mar 18 1956 Oct 31 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (Ponmachineshiri)
1955 Nov 19 1955 Nov 19 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (Ponmachineshiri)
1954 Jan 7 (?) 1954 Apr 13 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan (Nakamachineshiri)
[ 1951 Jul 31 ] [ 1952 Mar ] Uncertain 1   Me-Akan (NE foot)
[ 1927 Apr ] [ 1927 May ] Uncertain 1   Me-Akan
1808 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations Me-Akan
1780 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Me-Akan, Ponmachineshiri Po-11 tephra
1600 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Me-Akan, Ponmachineshiri tephra Po-13,12
1550 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Me-Akan, Ponmachineshiri tephra Po-14
1250 ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Me-Akan (Ponmachineshiri), Po-29-15
0950 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Me-Akan (Ponmachineshiri)
0600 ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Akan-Fuji, AS-11 to AS-17 tephras
0250 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Akan-Fuji, AS-10 and AL-4 tephras
0100 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Akan-Fuji, AS-8, 9 tephras
0050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Akan-Fuji, AS-7 tephra
0300 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Akan-Fuji, AS-2-6, AL-1-3 tephras
0550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Akan-Fuji, AS-1 tephra
0800 BCE ± 250 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Me-Akan (Ponmachineshiri)
2050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kita-yama, Me-Akan (Ponmachineshiri)
3050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Nishi-yama, O-Akan
3550 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Me-Akan (Nakamachineshiri)
4550 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Me-Akan (Ponmachineshiri)
7050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Me-Akan (Nakamachineshiri)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Hasegawa T, Nakagawa M, 2007. Stratigraphy of Early to Middle Pleistocene pyroclastic deposits around Akan caldera, eastern Hokkaido, Japan. J Geol Soc Japan, 113: 53-72 (in Japanese with English abs).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1975. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan. Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 119 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Kudo T, Hoshizumi H, 2006-. Catalog of eruptive events within the last 10,000 years in Japan, database of Japanese active volcanoes. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/db099/eruption/index.html.

Kuno H, 1962. Japan, Taiwan and Marianas. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 11: 1-332.

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.

Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.

Tamada J, Nakagawa M, 2009. Eruption history of Oakan volcano, eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 54: 147-162 (in Japanese with English abs).

Volcanological Society of Japan, 1999. Report on volcanic activities and volcanological studies in Japan for the period from 1995 to 1998. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 44(Suppl): 1-76.

Wada K, 1995. Fractal structure of heterogeneous ejecta from the Me-akan volcano, eastern Hokkaido, Japan: implications for mixing mechanism in a volcanic conduit. J Volc Geotherm Res, 66: 69-79.

Akan is a 13 x 24 km caldera located immediately SW of Kussharo caldera. The elongated, irregular outline of the caldera rim reflects its incremental formation during major explosive eruptions from the early to mid-Pleistocene. Growth of four post-caldera stratovolcanoes, three at the SW end of the caldera and the other at the NE side, has restricted the size of the caldera lake. Conical Oakandake volcano was frequently active during the Holocene. The 1-km-wide Nakamachineshiri crater of Meakandake volcano was formed during a major pumice-and-scoria eruption about 13,500 years ago. Of the Holocene volcanoes of the Akan volcanic complex, only the Meakandake group, east of Lake Akan, has been historically active, producing mild phreatic eruptions since the beginning of the 19th century. Meakandake is composed of nine overlapping cones. The main cone of Meakandake proper has a triple crater at its summit. Historical eruptions at Meakandake have consisted of minor phreatic explosions, but four major magmatic eruptions including pyroclastic flows have occurred during the Holocene.