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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 42.544°N
  • 140.839°E

  • 733 m
    2404 ft

  • 285030
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

There are no activity reports for Toya.

 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for Toya.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2000 Mar 31 2001 Sep 15 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations North flank (Kompira-yama & W Nishi-yama)
1977 Aug 7 1982 Mar Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Usu-Shinzan
1944 Jun 23 1945 Sep 19 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations East flank (Showa-Shinzan)
1910 Jul 25 1910 Nov Confirmed 2 Historical Observations North flank (Meiji-Shinzan)
1853 Apr 22 1853 Sep Confirmed 4 Historical Observations O-Usu
1822 Mar 12 1822 Sep Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Foot of Ko-Usu dome, Ogari-yama
1769 Jan 23 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Ko-Usu
1690 ± 10 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
1663 Aug 16 1663 Sep 5 ± 4 days Confirmed 5 Historical Observations Usu-b Pumice
1638 Jul 25 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1626 May 19 1626 Jul (?) Confirmed   Historical Observations
[ 1611 Oct ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
5550 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Zenkoji debris avalanche
6550 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Green J, Short N M, 1971. Volcanic Landforms and Surface Features: a Photographic Atlas and Glossary. New York: Springer-Verlag, 519 p.

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Jousset P, Mori H, Okada H, 2003. Elastic models for the magma intrusion associated with the 2000 eruption of Usu volcano, Hokkaido, Japan. J Volc Geotherm Res, 125: 81-106.

Kadomura H, Okada H, Araya T (eds), 1988. 1977-82 Volcanism and environmental hazards of Usu volcano. Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido University Press, 259 p.

Katsui Y, Komuro H, Uda T, 1985. Development of faults and growth of Usu-Shinzan cryptodome in 1977-1982 at Usu volcano, north Japan. Hokkaido Univ Fac Sci Jour, 21: 339-362.

Katsui Y, Oba Y, Onuma K, Suzuki T, Kondo Y, Watanabe T, Niida K, Uda T, Hagiwara S, Nagao T, Nishikawa K,, Yamamoto M, Ikeda Y, Katagawa H, Tsuchiya N, Shrahase M, Nemoto S, Yokoyama S, Soya T, Fujita T, Inaba K, Koide K, 1978. Preliminary report of the 1977 eruption of Usu volcano. Hokkaido Univ Fac Sci Jour, 18: 385-408.

Katsui Y, Yokoyama I, Watanabe H, Murozumi M, 1981. Usu volcano. In: Katsui Y (ed) {Symp Arc Volc Field Excur Guide to Usu and Tarumai Volcanoes and Noboribetsu Spa, Part 1}, Tokyo: Volc Soc Japan, p 1-37.

Kuno H, 1962. Japan, Taiwan and Marianas. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 11: 1-332.

Mimatsu M, 1995. Showa-Shinzan Diary: Expanded Reprint. Sobetsu, Hokkaido: Sobetsu Town Office, 179 p.

Nakagawa M, Furukawa R, Yoshimoto M, 2003. Calderas and active volcanoes in southwestern Hokkaido. IUGG 2003 Field Trip Guidebook, Volc Soc Japan, p 1-35.

Nakagawa M, Matsumoto A, Tajika J, Hirose W, Ohtsu T, 2005. Re-investigation of eruption history of Usu volcano, Hokkaido, Japan: finding of pre-Meiwa eruption (late 17th century) between Kanbun (1663) and Meiwa (1769) eruptions. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 50: 39-52 (in Japanese with English abs).

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST,

Okumura K, Sangawa A, 1984. Age and distribution of Toya pyroclastic flow. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 29: 338 (in Japanese).

Soya T, Katsui Y, Niida K, Sakai K, 1981. Geological map of Usu volcano. Geol Surv Japan, 1:25,000 scale.

Suzuki T, Nakayama T, 2007. A 2.0 Ma widespread tephra associated with a large-scale pyroclastic flow from the Sengan geothermal area, northeast Japan arc. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 52: 23-38 (in Japanese with English abs).

Tomiya A, Takahashi E, 1995. Reconstruction of an evolving magma chamber beneath Usu volcano since the 1663 eruption. J Petr, 36: 617-636.

Ui T, Ikeda Y, Koyama M, Suzuki-Kamata K, Okada H, Niida K, 2002. Pyroclastic surges occurred during the 2000 eruption of Usu volcano. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 47: 333-337 (in Japanese with English abs).

Ui T, Nakagawa M, Inaba C, Yoshimoto M, Hayashi S, and Geological Party, Joint Research Group for the Usu 200 eruption, 2002. Sequence of the 2000 eruption, Usu volcano. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 47: 105-117 (in Japanese with English abs).

Yoshida M, Nishimura Y, 2004. Temporal variation of eruption rate during the 1978 activity of Usu volcano, northern Japan, revealed by the eruptive deposits and volcanic tremor. J Volc Geotherm Res, 135: 285-298.

Usuzan, one of Hokkaido's most well-known volcanoes, is a small stratovolcano located astride the southern topographic rim of the 110,000-year-old Toya caldera. The center of the 10-km-wide, lake-filled caldera contains Nakajima, a group of forested andesitic lava domes. The summit of the basaltic-to-andesitic edifice of Usu is cut by a somma formed about 7-8,000 years ago when collapse of the volcano produced a debris avalanche that reached the sea. Dacitic domes erupted along two NW-SE-trending lines fill and flank the summit caldera. Three of these domes, O-Usu, Ko-Usu and Showashinzan, along with seven crypto-domes, were erupted during historical time. The 1663 eruption of Usu was one of the largest in Hokkaido during historical time. The war-time growth of Showashinzan from 1943-45 was painstakingly documented by the local postmaster, who created the first detailed record of growth of a lava dome.