Esan

Photo of this volcano
Google Earth icon
  Google Earth Placemark
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 41.805°N
  • 141.166°E

  • 618 m
    2027 ft

  • 285011
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Bulletin Report: September 2012 (BGVN 37:09)


Minor steam plumes in March 2012

E-san is located in S Hokkaido, the northernmost of Japan’s 47 prefectures (figure 1). Recent monthly reports of volcanic activity from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), translated into English, resumed in October 2010. The only recent JMA report on E-san was in March 2012. This is the first BGVN report discussing E-san.

Figure 1. A map showing a few of the major volcanoes of Japan, with their respective Alert Levels in March 2012. E-san is in the northernmost prefecture of Japan, Hokkaido. Courtesy of JMA.

According to JMA, in March 2012 steam plumes rose to heights of

A small-amplitude and short-duration volcanic tremor occurred on 30 March. After that, the number of small volcanic earthquakes increased until early on 31 March. No steam plumes could be observed on 31 March due to cloud cover; however, JMA reported no change in air vibrations or crustal deformation data. Field surveys on 2 April found no change in either the steam plumes from the crater or crustal deformation (GPS).

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html).

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Esan.

Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

09/2012 (BGVN 37:09) Minor steam plumes in March 2012




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


09/2012 (BGVN 37:09) Minor steam plumes in March 2012

E-san is located in S Hokkaido, the northernmost of Japan’s 47 prefectures (figure 1). Recent monthly reports of volcanic activity from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), translated into English, resumed in October 2010. The only recent JMA report on E-san was in March 2012. This is the first BGVN report discussing E-san.

Figure 1. A map showing a few of the major volcanoes of Japan, with their respective Alert Levels in March 2012. E-san is in the northernmost prefecture of Japan, Hokkaido. Courtesy of JMA.

According to JMA, in March 2012 steam plumes rose to heights of

A small-amplitude and short-duration volcanic tremor occurred on 30 March. After that, the number of small volcanic earthquakes increased until early on 31 March. No steam plumes could be observed on 31 March due to cloud cover; however, JMA reported no change in air vibrations or crustal deformation data. Field surveys on 2 April found no change in either the steam plumes from the crater or crustal deformation (GPS).

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html).

Esan, a small volcanic complex of seven overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic lava domes, is Hokkaido's southernmost active volcano. Esan occupies the eastern tip of the double-pronged Oshima Peninsula across the Tsugaru Strait from Honshu. The Esan volcanic complex consists of five late Pleistocene and two early Holocene lava domes, Esan and Misaki. A minor phreatic eruption in 1846 produced a mudflow that caused many fatalities. The latest activity was a small eruption in 1874. Active fumaroles occur at a thermal area on the upper NW flank.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1874 Jun 8 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Es-6 tephra
1846 Nov 18 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Es-5 tephra
1350 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology NW E-san, Es-4 tephra
0440 BCE ± 46 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Es-3 tephra
1050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology NW E-san, Es-2 tephra
3900 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) NW E-san, Es-1 tephra
5770 BCE ± 924 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (corrected) East flank (Misaka lava dome)
6670 BCE ± 27 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Esan lava dome, EsMP tephra

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

E-san

Domes

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Esan Dome
Kaikozan Dome
Misaki Dome
North-Somma Dome
South-Somma Dome
Sukaizawa Dome
Todoyama Dome
A 618-m-high lava dome tops E-san, a small stratovolcano at the eastern tip of the Oshima Peninsula. E-san is Hokkaido's southernmost active volcano. A minor phreatic eruption in 1846 produced a mudflow that caused many fatalities. The latest volcanic activity at E-san was a small eruption in 1874. Active fumaroles occur at a thermal area on the upper NW flank.

Photo by Ken-ichi Arai, 1996 (Hokkaido University).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Kudo T, Hoshizumi H, 2006-. Catalog of eruptive events within the last 10,000 years in Japan, database of Japanese active volcanoes. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/db099/eruption/index.html.

Miura D, Arai K, Toshida K, Ochiai T, Tanaka M, Iida T, 2013. Eruption history, conduit migration, and steady discharge of magma for the past 50,000 yr at Esan volcanic complex, northern Japan. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 125: 1503-1519.

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.

Volcano Types

Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Dacite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
1,734
5,831
33,197
916,560

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Esan Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.