Daikoku

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 21.324°N
  • 144.194°E

  • -323 m
    -1059 ft

  • 284137
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Daikoku.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Daikoku.

Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

05/2006 (BGVN 31:05) Discovery of agitated pool of molten sulfur at 420 m ocean depth


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

All times are local (= UTC + 10 hours)

05/2006 (BGVN 31:05) Discovery of agitated pool of molten sulfur at 420 m ocean depth

Submarine exploration at Daikoku seamount has discovered a small pit or cauldron containing a pool of molten sulfur. During the period of 18 April-13 May 2006, scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA), aboard the research vessel Melville completed the 2006 Submarine Ring of Fire Expedition. This expedition was the third in a series exploring of the submarine volcanoes lying along the Mariana arc (figure 1). The arc extends from S of the island of Guam northward more than 1,450 km. Daily logs of the 2006 expedition, including photographs and video clips, can be viewed on the NOAA Ocean Explorer website (see Information Contacts below).

Figure 1. Bathymetric tectonic map of the Marianas arc showing islands and seamounts (with respective labels on backgrounds of dark and white). Reports in this issue discuss (from N to S), Diakoku, Anatahan, and NW Rotoa-1. Courtesy of Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 Expedition, NOAA Vents Program.

William Chadwick reported on the 2006 expedition (Oregon State University press release, 25 May 2006) that ". . . on another volcano called Daikoku, in the northern part of the Mariana volcanic arc, the researchers discovered a pool of molten sulfur at a depth of 420 m. It was measured at 187°C. It was a sulfur pond with a flexible 'crust' that was moving in a wavelike motion. The movement was triggered by continuous gases being emitted from beneath the pool and passing through the sulfur." (figure 2).

Figure 2. On 4 May 2006 scientists piloting the submersible Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Jason at Daikoku observed and photographed a convecting, black pool of liquid sulfur (inset, and upper image) with a partly solidified sulfur crust (bottom image). Gases, particulate with the appearance of smoke, and liquid sulfur were bubbling up from the back edge of the sulfur pool. The top image shows a zoomed-in view of the liquid sulfur extruding from a fracture in the solid crust. Image courtesy of Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 Expedition, NOAA Vents Program.

In another pit on the summit of Daikoku, over 100 m deep and ~ 80 m in diameter, the scientists observed a large plume of slowly rising white fluid.

References. Embley, R.W., Baker, E.T., Chadwick, W.W., Jr., Lipton, J.E., Resing, J.A., Massoth, G.J., and Nakamura, K., 2004, Explorations of Mariana Arc volcanoes reveal new hydrothermal systems: EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 85, no. 2, p. 37, 40.

Embley, R.W., Chadwick, W.W., Jr, Baker, E.T., Butterfield, D.A., Resing, J.A., de Ronde, C. E.J., Tunnicliffe, V., Lupton, J.E., Juniper, S.K., Rubin, K.H., Stern, R.J., Lebon, G.T., Nakamura, K., Merle, S.G., Hein, J.R., Wiens, D.A., and Tamura, Y., 2006, Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano: Nature, v. 441, no. 7092, p. 494-497.

Oregon State University, 25 May 2006, Press Release: Nature paper details eruption activity at submarine volcano: College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Science (COAS), 104 COAS Admininstration Building, Corvallis, OR 97331.

Information Contacts: William W. Chadwick, Jr., Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies (CIMRS), NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), 2115 SE OSU Drive, Newport, OR 97365 USA (Email: bill.chadwick@noaa.gov); NOAA Ocean Explorer (URL: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/06fire/welcome.html).

The conical summit of Daikoku seamount lies along an elongated E-W-trending ridge SE of Eifuku submarine volcano and rises to within 323 m of the sea surface. Daikoku submarine volcano is one of about a dozen displaying hydrothermal activity in the southern part of the Izu-Marianas chain. A steep-walled, 50-m-wide cylindrical crater on the north flank, about 75 m below the summit, is at least 135 m deep and was observed to emit cloudy hydrothermal fluid. During a NOAA expedition in 2006, scientists observed a convecting, black pool of liquid sulfur with a partly solidified, undulating sulfur crust at a depth of 420 m below the summit of Daikoku. Gases, particulate with the appearance of smoke, and liquid sulfur were bubbling up from the back edge of the sulfur pool.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Daikoku. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Daikoku page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

The Global Volcanism Program has no synonyms or subfeatures listed for Daikoku.

Smoke rises from the margins of a vent at about 420 m depth on Daikoku seamount in this close-up view only about a few meters across. During a NOAA expedition in 2006, scientists observed a convecting, black pool of liquid sulfur with a partly solidified, undulating sulfur crust at a depth of 420 m below the summit of Daikoku. The conical summit of Daikoku seamount lies along an elongated E-W-trending ridge SE of Eifuku submarine volcano and rises to within 323 m of the sea surface.

Image courtesy of Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 Exploration, NOAA Vents Program.

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Bloomer S H, Stern R J, Fisk E, Geschwind C H, 1989. Shoshonitic volcanism in the northern Mariana Arc 1. Mineralogic and major and trace element characteristics. J Geophys Res, 94: 4469-4496.

Bloomer S H, Stern R J, Smoot N C, 1989. Physical volcanology of the submarine Mariana and Volcano arcs. Bull Volc, 51: 210-224.

Chadwick W W, Embley R W, de Ronde C E, Stern R J, Hein J, Merle S, Ristau S, 2004. The geologic setting of hydrothermal vents at Mariana Arc submarine volcanoes: high-resolution bathymetry and ROV observations (abs). Eos, Trans Amer Geophys Union, Fall Meeting 2004, V43F-06.

Embley R W, Baker E T, Chadwick W W Jr, Lupton J E, Resing J A, Massoth G J, Nakamura K, 2004. Explorations of Mariana Arc volcanoes reveal new hydrothermal systems. Eos, Trans Amer Geophys Union, 85: 37 and 40.

NOAA Vents Program, 2004. Submarine ring of fire 2004, Mariana arc submarine volcanoes, R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise TN167, March 27 - April 17. NOAA Vents Program final cruise report (http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/04fire/logs/summary/media/marianas2004cruisereport.pdf).

Smithsonian Institution-GVN, 1990-. [Monthly event reports]. Bull Global Volc Network, v 15-33.

Volcano Types

Submarine

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Crustal thickness unknown

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
0
0

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Daikoku Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.