Harunasan

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 36.477°N
  • 138.851°E

  • 1449 m
    4753 ft

  • 283122
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Harunasan.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Harunasan.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Harunasan.

Harunasan volcano is truncated by a small summit caldera containing the symmetrical post-caldera pyroclastic cone of Haruna-Fuji. Harunasan volcano dates back prior to 300,000 years ago and had caldera-producing eruptions at about 200,000 and 40,000 years ago. Viscous lava flows and lava domes were subsequently extruded within and around the caldera, the western side of which is currently partially filled by Lake Haruna. The Futatsudake lava dome east of the caldera was the source of two large explosive eruptions during the 6th century CE.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0550 Jun 1 ± 10 years ± 30 days Unknown Confirmed 5 Anthropology Futatsu-dake
0520 Jun 1 ± 10 years ± 30 days Unknown Confirmed 4 Anthropology Futatsu-dake
0450 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology Futatsu-dake

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Haruna

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Haruna-Fuji Cone 1391 m 38° 28' 26" N 138° 52' 53" E

Domes

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Futatsudake Dome 1343 m 38° 29' 0" N 138° 55' 0" E
Haruna volcano is truncated by a small summit caldera containing the symmetrical post-caldera cone of Haruna-Fuji (right). Viscous lava flows and lava domes were extruded within and around the caldera. Its western side is currently filled by Lake Haruna, which is visible to the left of Haruna-Fuji. The Futatsu-dake lava dome, outside the caldera to the east, was the source of two large explosive eruptions during the 6th century AD. This view from the NE also shows steaming Asama volcano on the distant horizon above Lake Haruna.

Photo by Ichio Moriya (Kanazawa University).
Haruna volcano has an irregular profile as seen from an archaeological site to the ENE. The high peak at the left center is Futatsu-dake lava dome, the source of two large explosive eruptions during the 5th and 6th centuries. Tephra layers from both Haruna and Asama volcanoes buried structures at the archaeological site.

Photo by Tom Simkin, 1993 (Smithsonian Institution).
The summit of Haruna volcano, seen here from near Maebashi City, SE of the volcano, has a very irregular profile. The volcano is truncated by a caldera and modified by the emplacement of many post-caldera lava domes inside the caldera and on its rim and flanks. Futatsu-dake, the high peak at the right, was the source of two major explosive eruptions from Haruna during the 5th and 6th centuries. These were the last eruptions from Haruna.

Photo by Tom Simkin, 1993 (Smithsonian Institution).
The symmetrical cone of Haruna-Fuji is one of many Japanese volcanoes named after the country's most renowned landmark. Haruna-Fuji, a post-caldera cone of Haruna volcano, rises here above Lake Haruna on the western side of the caldera. The Futatsu-dake lava dome to the east was the source of two large explosive eruptions during the 6th century AD.

Photo by Yukio Hayakawa, 1998 (Gunma University).
The irregular profile of Haruna volcano is seen here from the campus of Gunma University in the city of Maebashi, SE of the volcano. A small caldera truncates the summit of Haruna; several post-caldera cones and lava domes produce the volcano's rugged skyline. Two major explosive eruptions during the 6th century AD originated from the Futatsu-dake lava dome on the eastern side of the volcano.

Photo by Yukio Hayakawa, 1998 (Gunma University).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Hayakawa Y, Soda T, Arai F, 1993. Asama and Haruna volcanoes: recent eruptions and hazards. Climatic impact of explosive volc conf, Tokyo, Dec 3-4, 1993, 28 p guidebook.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Machida H, Arai F, 1992. Atlas of tephra in and around Japan. Tokyo: Univ Tokyo Press, 276 p.

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.

Ono K, Soya T, Mimura K, 1981. Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan Map Ser, no 11, 2nd edition, 1:2,000,000.

Suzuki T, 1996. Discharge rates of fallout tephra and frequency of plinian eruptions during the last 400,000 years in the southern Northeast Japan arc. Quat Internatl, 34-36: 79-87.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Caldera
Lava dome(s)
Pyroclastic cone

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Dacite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
1,135
36,116
1,185,012
14,076,385

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Harunasan Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.