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Available Weekly Reports
There are no Weekly Reports available for Hakusan.
Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1659 Apr 21||1659 Aug 8||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations||Midoriga-ike|
|1658 Oct (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|[ 1640 Aug 2 (?) ]||[ Unknown ]||Discredited|
|1579 Sep 27 ± 1 days||Unknown||Confirmed||3||Historical Observations||Jigoku-no-oana|
|1554 May||1556||Confirmed||3||Historical Observations||SW of Midoriga-ike|
|1547 Mar 4||1547 Oct (?)||Confirmed||3||Historical Observations|
|1239 (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||3||Historical Observations|
|[ 1177 May 18 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain||3|
|[ 0900 (?) ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
|[ 0884 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
|[ 0859 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
|[ 0853 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain||Hm-14 tephra?|
|0706 Sep (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||Historical Observations|
|0500 ± 100 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (corrected)||Hm-13 tephra|
|0200 (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||Tephrochronology||Hm-11,12 tephras|
|0200 BCE (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||4||Radiocarbon (corrected)||Kengamine, Hm-10 tephra|
|2550 BCE ± 150 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (corrected)||Hm-9 tephra|
|3550 BCE ± 500 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Tephrochronology||Hm-8 tephra|
|3900 BCE ± 200 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (corrected)||Hm-7 tephra|
|5000 BCE (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)||Hm-5 tephra|
|6550 BCE ± 50 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (corrected)||Hm-4 tephra|
|7050 BCE ± 500 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Tephrochronology||Hm-3 tephra|
|7550 BCE ± 50 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (corrected)||Hm-1 tephra|
The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.
Endo K, 1985. Peat deposits and volcanic ashes on Haku-san volcano. Hakusan Nature Conservation Center, Rpt of Sci Res on the Alpine Zone of Mt Hakusan, p 11-30 (in Japanese).
Higashino T, 1989. The Documented Record of the Historic Activity of Mt. Hakusan. Ishikawa Prefecture: Hakusan Nature Conservation Center, 8 p.
Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).
Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.
Kuno H, 1962. Japan, Taiwan and Marianas. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 11: 1-332.
Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.
Yamasaki M, Nakanishi N, Kaseno Y, 1964. Nuee ardente deposit of Hakusan volcano. Sci Rpt Kanazawa Univ, 9: 189-201.
Yamasaki M, Shimizu S, Moriya I, Togashi S, Endo K, Higashino T, 1988. Evolution of Hakusan volcano, Central Japan, during the last 10000 years and the volcanic disasters in future. Proc Kagoshima Internatl Conf Volc, p 445-447.
Hakusan, along with Fujisan and Ontakesan, is one of Japan's three most sacred mountains. It is a complex andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano overlooking the Japan Sea. The 2702-m-high volcano was constructed over a high basement of sedimentary rocks in a region of very heavy snowfall that has contributed to erosional dissection. Holocene eruptions have consisted of phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosions from several summit craters. Partial collapse of the summit produced a debris avalanche down the E flank during the mid-Holocene. Historical eruptions were recorded over almost a thousand-year period until the 17th century.