Aira

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  • 31.593°N
  • 130.657°E

  • 1117 m
    3664 ft

  • 282080
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9 April-15 April 2014

JMA reported that during 7-11 April two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 800 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected during the night of 10 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 10 and 12 April plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SE on 10 April.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



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9 April-15 April 2014

JMA reported that during 7-11 April two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 800 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected during the night of 10 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 10 and 12 April plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SE on 10 April.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 April-8 April 2014

JMA reported that during 31 March-4 April two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally detected at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that. During 2 and 5-7 April plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, and E.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 March-1 April 2014

JMA reported that 20 explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano during 24-28 March ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected at night on 25 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion on 26 March. During 27-29 March plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, N, and NW.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 March-25 March 2014

JMA reported that during 17-20 March five explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected at night during 17-18 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 20-25 March plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, SW, N, and NE.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 March-18 March 2014

JMA reported that during 10-14 March two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected at night. Volcanologists conducting a field survey on 10 March noted that sulfur dioxide emissions were 190 tons per day, lower than the 1,900 tons per day they measured on 4 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

The Tokyo VAAC reported explosions during 12 and 15-17 March. On 12 March pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.8 km (4,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. During 15-18 March plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and S. Pilots observed ash plumes drifting SE at an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. on 16 March, and drifting SE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 18 March.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 March-11 March 2014

JMA reported that during 3-7 March six explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported explosions during 5-11 March. Plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S. Pilots observed ash drifting SE at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. on 6 March, SE at an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. on 9 March, and NE at an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. on 11 March.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 February-4 March 2014

JMA reported that during 24-28 February two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected during 24-26 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported explosions during 27-28 February and 2-4 March. Plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-4 km (4,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, NE, SE, and S during 28 February and 2-4 March. A pilot observed ash drifting at an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 2 March.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 February-25 February 2014

JMA reported that during 17-21 February three explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 19-20 and 22-25 February generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, SE, and S. A pilot observed ash on 20 February.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 February-18 February 2014

The Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 12-18 February from Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano generated ash plumes on most days that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3.7 km (5,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, NE, and N. On 12 February a pilot observed an ash plume drifting E at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. JMA reported that during 14-17 February two explosions from Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 800 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 February-11 February 2014

JMA reported that during 3-7 February five explosions from Sakurajima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported explosions during 6, 8-9, and 11 February. On 8 February a pilot observed an ash plume drifting at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 9 February and 2.1 (7,000 ft) a.s.l. on 11 February.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 January-4 February 2014

JMA reported that during 27-31 January five explosions from Sakurajima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 29 January and during 31 January-2 February and on 4 February ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-4.9 km (5,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 January-28 January 2014

JMA reported that during 20-24 January three explosions from Sakurajima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. An explosion on 22 January generated a small pyroclastic flow that traveled 500 m SE, and tephrafall to the S. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 22 January a plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. That same day pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.9 km (12,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and ESE. On 24 January a pilot observed an ash plume drifting NE at an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 January-21 January 2014

The Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion from Sakurajima on 17 January generated plumes that rose to altitude of 2.4-2.7 km (8,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 January-14 January 2014

JMA reported that during 6-10 January two explosions from Sakurajima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion on 9 January generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. A pilot observed an ash plume drifting SE on 14 January.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 January-7 January 2014

JMA reported that during 30 December 2013-6 January 2014 no explosions occurred from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater; weak incandescence from the crater was visible at night during 30-31 December. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion on 7 January generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 December-24 December 2013

JMA reported that on 19 December an explosion from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 18-19 and 21-23 December explosions generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and S.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 December-17 December 2013

The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-17 December explosions at Sakura-jima generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.4 km (4,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and S. JMA reported that six explosions from Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,800 m during 13-16 December. A six-minute-long explosion was detected on 14 December. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 December-10 December 2013

The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 4-8 December explosions at Sakura-jima generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. JMA reported that six explosions from Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 6-9 December. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally detected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 November-3 December 2013

JMA reported that three explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 800 m during 29 November-2 December. On 29 November an explosion ejected tephra, up to 1 cm in diameter, 4 km away. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 29-30 November, and 1 and 4 December, explosions generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 November-26 November 2013

JMA reported that five explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 800 m during 18-22 November. Incandescence was occasionally detected by a high resolution camera at night. A very small eruption from Minami-dake Crater occurred on 22 November, producing an ash plume that rose 100 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 20-21 and 23-26 November, explosions generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-4.9 km (4,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, E, and SE.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 November-12 November 2013

The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 6-8 and 10-11 November, explosions from Sakura-jima generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and SE. On 8 November a pilot observed an ash plume drifting at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 October-5 November 2013

The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 30 October-5 November, explosions from Sakura-jima generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) and 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes rose vertically or drifted N, NW, NE, S, SW, and SE.

JMA reported that seven explosions from Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,800 m during 1-5 November. On 4 and 5 November, incandescence was detected by a high resolution camera at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 October-29 October 2013

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 24-29 October explosions from Sakura-jima generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-4.6 km (6,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes rose vertically or drifted N, NW, S, and SE. On 29 October a pilot observed an ash plume drifting SE at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l.

JMA reported that 11 explosions from Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,800 m during 25-28 October. Explosions on 28 and 29 October generated ash plumes that rose to altitude of 3.2-3.5 km (10,500-11,500 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 October-22 October 2013

JMA reported that seven explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 15-18 October. An explosion on 15 October was followed by 3-cm-sized tephra falling in areas 3.5 km SW. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 16-22 October explosions generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.7 km (4,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, S, and SE. On 21 October an ash plume rose vertically to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 September-24 September 2013

JMA reported that 18 explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 17-20 September. Incandescence from the crater was visible some nights. Based on information from JMA and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 18-20 and 22-23 September explosions generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-4.6 km (6,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l., and drifted SW, W, and NW.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 September-17 September 2013

JMA reported that 16 explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 9-13 September. Incandescence from the crater was visible some nights. An explosion at 1326 on 12 September generated an ash plume that rose 3.3 km.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-18 September explosions generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-4.3 km (6,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l., and drifted in multiple directions on most days. On 12 and 14 September pilots observed ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l., and drifted SE and W, respectively.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 September-10 September 2013

JMA reported that 15 explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 2-6 September. Incandescence from the crater was visible some nights. An explosion at 1100 on 4 September generated an ash plume that rose 2.8 km and drifted S, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Arimuracho (4 km SSE). Tephra 4 cm in diameter was confirmed in an area 3 km S, and tephra 1 cm in diameter was reported 10 km SSE.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 4-10 September explosions generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-4.3 km (8,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l., and most days drifted N, NE, E, S, and SW. On 6 and 8 September pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3-4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.; plumes drifted NE on 8 September.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 August-3 September 2013

JMA reported that 34 explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 26-30 August. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night on 26 August. An explosion on 29 August at 0927 generated an ash plume that rose 3 km and caused ashfall in areas from Miyazaki (80 km NW) to Kagoshima (12 km W). Tephra 1 cm in diameter was confirmed in an area 4 km E.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 28 August-3 September explosions generated plumes most days that rose to altitudes of 1.5-4 km (5,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, NE, and NW. On 31 August a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and traveled NE.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 August-27 August 2013

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 21-27 August explosions from Sakura-jima generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.4 km (4,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. During 24 and 26-27 August pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and traveled SE and E. JMA reported that six explosions from Showa Crater during 23-26 August ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was visible during 25-26 August.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 August-20 August 2013

JMA reported that 24 explosions at Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected during 12-19 August and ejected tephra as far as 1.8 km. Incandescence from the crater was observed on 14 August. A very small eruption from Minami-dake Crater occurred on 16 August, producing an ash plume that rose 200 m.

An explosion from Showa Crater on 18 August generated a large ash plume that rose 5 km above the crater and drifted NW. A small pyroclastic flow traveled SE. According to news sources, the 50-minute-long eruption produced ashfall in the central and northern parts of Kagoshima (10 km W), causing train delays and poor visibility for car drivers. The event was the 500th explosion this year.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Agence France-Presse (AFP)


7 August-13 August 2013

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 7-11 and 13 August explosions from Sakura-jima generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-4.6 km (6,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, S, and NW. On 8, 10 and 13 August pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.7-3 km (9,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l., and traveled SE, S, and vertically, respectively. JMA reported that seven explosions at Showa Crater were detected during 9-12 August and ejected tephra as far as 800 m. A 50-minute-long eruption on 9 August generated an ash plume that rose 3.5 km above the crater.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 July-6 August 2013

JMA reported that 10 explosions at Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected during 29 July-2 August and ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km. Incandescence from the crater was observed on 1 August. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 31 July-6 August explosions generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and S. On 31 July and 4 August pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 July-30 July 2013

JMA reported that 10 explosions at Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected during 22-26 July, and ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km. Explosions at 1635 and 2333 on 22 July generated ash plumes that rose 3.2 and 3 km above the crater rim, respectively. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 24-30 July explosions generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. During 24-27 and 29 July pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.7-5.5 km (9,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 July-23 July 2013

JMA reported that five explosions at Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected during 16-19 July, and ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km. A large plume rose 3.5 km above the crater on 16 July. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night during 18-19 July. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 18-21 July explosions generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-4.3 km (8,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, E, SE, and S. Ash was sometimes detected in satellite images. On 19 July a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 July-16 July 2013

JMA reported that 17 explosions at Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected during 8-15 July; incandescence from the crater was occasionally observed at night. Explosions during 10-11 July generated ash plumes that rose 3-3.4 km above the crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 10-16 July explosions generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-4.6 km (5,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, ENE, and E. Ash was detected in satellite images. During 10 and 14-15 July pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-4 km (5,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 July-9 July 2013

JMA reported that two explosions at Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected during 5-8 July; cloud cover prevented visual observations of the crater. Crater incandescence was occasionally detected at night. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 8-9 July explosions generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 June-2 July 2013

JMA reported that during 25-28 June Sakura-jima's Showa Crater had four explosions, ejecting tephra that fell at most 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was occasionally detected at night. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 26 June explosions were detected. Explosions on 1 July generated plumes that rose over 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 June-25 June 2013

JMA reported that during 21-24 June Sakura-jima's Showa Crater had five explosions, ejecting tephra that fell at most 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was occasionally detected at night. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 20 June explosions were detected, and on 21 June a pilot observed ash. On 23 and 25 June explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. On 23 June a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 June-18 June 2013

JMA reported that during 10-14 June Sakura-jima's Showa Crater had four explosions, ejecting tephra that fell at most 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was occasionally detected at night. One of the explosions on 13 June generated an ash plume that rose 3.3 km above the crater rim. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 16 June plumes rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 May-4 June 2013

JMA reported that during 27-31 May Sakura-jima's Showa Crater had four explosions, ejecting tephra that fell at most 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was occasionally detected at night. A small pyroclastic flow traveled 700 m down the E flank. A pyroclastic flow also occurred in the crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 30 May explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. An explosion was detected on 1 June, and on 2 June an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 May-28 May 2013

JMA reported that during 20-24 May Sakura-jima's Showa Crater had eight explosions, ejecting tephra that fell at most 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was occasionally detected at night. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 23-26 May explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SW, and W. On 24 May a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 May-21 May 2013

JMA reported that during 13-17 May Sakura-jima's Showa Crater had 13 explosions ejecting tephra that fell at most 1.8 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was occasionally detected at night. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 15, 17-18, and 20-21 May explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.7 km (4,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and W. On 21 May a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 May-14 May 2013

JMA reported that during 7-10 May eight explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra that fell at most 1.8 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was occasionally detected at night. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on most days during 8-14 May explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-4.3 km (7,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. During 9 and 13-14 May pilots observed ash plumes rising to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting N, NW, and W.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


1 May-7 May 2013

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 1-6 April explosions from Sakura-jima generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. A pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. on 3 April. Another ash plume observed by a pilot rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 5 May.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 April-30 April 2013

JMA reported that during 22-25 April four explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra at most 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was occasionally detected at night. Based on a pilot report, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes drifted NE and SE at altitudes of 2.7-3 km (9,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. during 24-25 April. Explosions on 26 and during 28-29 April produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and NE.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


17 April-23 April 2013

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 17 April an eruption from Sakura-jima produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. JMA reported that three large eruptions from Showa Crater occurred during 19-22 April and ejected tephra at most 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was detected at night.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


10 April-16 April 2013

JMA reported that occasional very small eruptions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater occurred during 8-12 April. Crater incandescence was detected at night. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 April an eruption produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


3 April-9 April 2013

JMA reported that during 1-5 April three explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra at most 1.8 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was occasionally detected at night. Based on a pilot report, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an ash plume drifted N on 4 April.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


27 March-2 April 2013

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 28 March-1 April generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. JMA reported that during 29 March-1 April four explosions from Showa Crater ejected tephra at most 1.3 km from the crater.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


20 March-26 March 2013

JMA reported that during 18-22 March nine explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected and ejected tephra fell at most 1.3 km from the crater.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 20-22 and 25 March generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. A pilot observed an ash plume that drifted E at an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. on 20 March.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


13 March-19 March 2013

JMA reported that 16 explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected during 11-15 March, ejecting tephra that fell at most 1.8 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was detected at night.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 13 and 15-19 March generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, NE, and N. On 15 and 17 March pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


6 March-12 March 2013

JMA reported that nine explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected during 4-8 March, and ejected tephra fell at most 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was clearly detected at night.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 6-12 March generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE. Pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-4.6 km (4,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. during 7-11 March and drifted S and E.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 February-5 March 2013

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 27 February-3 March and 5 March generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and E. A pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. on 28 February. JMA reported that 10 explosions from Showa Crater were detected during 1-4 March, and ejected tephra fell at most 1.3 km from the crater.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


20 February-26 February 2013

JMA reported that 13 explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected during 18-22 February, and ejected tephra fell at most 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was clearly detected at night.

Based on information from JMA, explosions from Showa Crater during 20-26 February generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE. According to the Tokyo VAAC, a pilot observed an ash plume that drifted ENE at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. on 25 February.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


13 February-19 February 2013

JMA reported that during 12-15 February 16 explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected and ejected tephra fell at most 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was clearly detected at night.

Based on information from JMA, explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater during 13-18 February generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Tokyo VAAC reported that pilots observed ash plumes at altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. during 13 and 15-16 February.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


6 February-12 February 2013

Based on information from JMA, explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater during 6-12 February generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.7 km (4,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, E, and NE. The Tokyo VAAC reported that pilots observed ash plumes at altitudes of 2.4-3.4 km (8,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. on 8 and 11 February.

JMA reported that during 8-12 February 34 explosions from Showa Crater were detected and ejected tephra fell at most 1.8 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was clearly detected at night.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


30 January-5 February 2013

JMA reported that during 28 January-1 February explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.8 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was occasionally detected.

The Tokyo VAAC reported that pilots observed ash plumes at altitudes of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. during 30-31 January. Based on information from JMA, explosions during 31 January-5 February generated plumes on most days that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, and SE.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


23 January-29 January 2013

JMA reported that during 21-25 January explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was detected on 21 January.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 23-29 January generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. Pilots observed ash plumes drifting SE at altitudes of 3 and 2.4 km (10,000 and 8,000 ft) a.s.l. on 27 and 28 January, respectively.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


16 January-22 January 2013

JMA reported that during 15-18 January explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. A very small eruption occurred at Minami-dake Crater on 15 January.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 16-21 January often generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S. A pilot reported that an ash plume drifted SE at an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. on 19 January.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


9 January-15 January 2013

JMA reported that during 7-11 January explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. Very small eruptions occurred at Minami-dake Crater during 10-11 January.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 9-15 January generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, SE, and S. Pilots reported that ash plumes drifted E at an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 12 January and drifted SE at altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 15 January.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


2 January-8 January 2013

JMA reported that during 28 December-4 January explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. Very small eruptions occurred at Minami-dake Crater on 30 December and 4 January.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 2 and 5-8 January generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


26 December-1 January 2013

JMA reported that during 25-28 December explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.8 km from the crater. A small pyroclastic flow traveled 500 m E. Very small eruptions periodically occurred at Minami-dake Crater.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


12 December-18 December 2012

JMA reported that during 10-14 December explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.8 km from the crater. Very small eruptions occurred at Minami-dake Crater periodically. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 12-18 December often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and SE. Pilots reported that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. on 13 and 16 December.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


5 December-11 December 2012

JMA reported that during 3-7 December explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. A very small eruption occurred at Minami-dake Crater on 6 December. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 5-10 December often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-4.3 km (4,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, and E. A pilot reported that an ash plume drifted E at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. on 7 December.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


28 November-4 December 2012

JMA reported that during 26-30 November explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.8 km from the crater. Very small eruptions at Minami-dake Crater occasionally occurred. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 29 November-4 December produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, E, SE, and S. A pilot reported that an ash plume drifted SE at an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


21 November-27 November 2012

JMA reported that during 19-22 November explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. Very small eruptions at Minami-dake Crater occurred during 19-20 November. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 21-23, 25, and 27 November often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and SE.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


14 November-20 November 2012

JMA reported that during 12-16 November explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.8 km from the crater. Incandescence from Showa was observed during 12-13 November, and a very small eruption at Minami-dake Crater occurred on 16 November.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 14-20 November often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and SE.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


7 November-13 November 2012

JMA reported that during 5-9 November explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. Very small eruptions at Minami-dake Crater occurred during 8-9 November. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 7-12 November produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and E. During 8-9 November pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-4 km (8,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


31 October-6 November 2012

JMA reported that during 29 October-2 November explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.8 km from the crater. A small explosion from Minami-dake Crater occurred during 29-30 October. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 2-5 and 7 November produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, E, and SE. On 5 November a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


24 October-30 October 2012

JMA reported that explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater during 15-29 October explosions ejected tephra as far as 1.8 km from the crater. A small explosion from Minami-dake Crater occurred on 29 October. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 24-27 and 29-30 October produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3.4 km (4,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, SE, and S. During 24-25 and 29 October pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and SE.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


17 October-23 October 2012

JMA reported that explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater during 15-19 October explosions ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m from the crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 17-21 October produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and S. During 21-23 October pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and SE.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


10 October-16 October 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater during 12 and 14-15 October produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and SE. On 12 October a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. JMA reported that during 12-15 October explosions ejected tephra as far as 800 m from the crater.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


3 October-9 October 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater during 3-9 October produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, S, SE, and E. JMA reported that during 5-9 October explosions ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. An explosion produced a small pyroclastic flow that traveled 300 m down the E side of Showa Crater.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


26 September-2 October 2012

JMA reported that during 24-28 September explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.8 km from the crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 26 September-2 October often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, S, SE, and E. During 26-27 September pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.4 km (4,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


19 September-25 September 2012

JMA reported that during 15-21 September explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 19-20 and 22-24 September often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes sometimes drifted NE, E, SE, S, and SW. On 19 September a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


12 September-18 September 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 13-15 and 17-18 September often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes sometimes drifted NW, N, and NE. On 14 September a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


5 September-11 September 2012

JMA reported that during 3-7 September six explosive eruptions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 6-11 September often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-4.6 km (6,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes sometimes drifted N, NE, and SE. On 10 September a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


29 August-4 September 2012

JMA reported that during 27-31 August five explosive eruptions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected and ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. Gas measurements taken on 20 and 22 August showed elevated sulfur dioxide emissions compared to the previous week. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 29-30 August and 1-4 September often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes sometimes drifted N and NE. Pilots observed ash plumes during 1-2 September that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


22 August-28 August 2012

JMA reported that during 20-24 August eight explosive eruptions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected and ejected tephra as far as 1.8 km from the crater. Gas measurements taken on 20 and 22 August showed elevated sulfur dioxide emissions compared to the previous week. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 22-26 August produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, and W. Explosions were detected on 28 August.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


15 August-21 August 2012

JMA reported that during 17-20 August explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m from the crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 17-21 August produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.4 km (8,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW. Pilots observed ash plumes during 18-20 August that rose to altitudes of 2.1-4.3 km (7,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, and W.

According to a news report, the total amount of ash emitted from Sakura-jima from January to July was more than two times larger than all of 2011, when a record number of eruptions had occurred.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


8 August-14 August 2012

JMA reported that during 6-10 August nine explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m from the crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 8-14 August often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NE. A pilot observed an ash plume on 8 August.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


1 August-7 August 2012

JMA reported that during 30 July-3 August three explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 800 m from the crater. A small explosion from Minami-dake Crater occurred on 31 July. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 1 and 3-7 July often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and NW.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


25 July-31 July 2012

JMA reported that during 24-27 July twenty explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m from the crater. An explosion on 26 July produced a large ash plume. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 25-26 and 28-31 July produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3.7 km (5,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, NW, and N. Pilots observed ash plumes during 25-26 and 29 July that rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.4 km (8,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


18 July-24 July 2012

JMA reported that during 20-23 July eight explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m from the crater. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night during 22-23 July. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 18-24 July produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Pilots observed ash plumes on 22 and 24 July that rose to altitudes of 2.4-6.1 km (8,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. JMA reported that an explosion on 24 July from Minami-dake Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,700 m from the crater.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


11 July-17 July 2012

JMA reported that explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater on 13, 15, and 17 July ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m from the crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion on 10 July produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Explosions during 16-17 July produced plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, N, NW, and W.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


4 July-10 July 2012

JMA reported that during 2-6 July explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m from the crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported multiple explosions during 4-10 July; plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and N. A pilot observed an ash plume on 4 July that rose to an altitude of 2.4 (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


27 June-3 July 2012

JMA reported that during 25-29 June large explosive eruptions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater occurred ten times and ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m from the crater.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported multiple explosions during 27 June-1 July. The explosions sometimes produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, NE, and NW. A pilot observed an ash plume on 28 June that rose to an altitude of 1.8 (6,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


20 June-26 June 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 20 and 22 June explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.7 km (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A pilot observed an ash plume on 20 June that rose to an altitude of 3.7 (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. JMA reported that during 22-25 June large explosive eruptions from Showa Crater occurred five times and ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m from the crater. According to VAAC reports on 26 June, explosions were detected and an ash plume rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


13 June-19 June 2012

JMA reported that during 11-15 June large explosive eruptions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater occurred five times and ejected tephra as far as 800 m from the crater. A small eruption from Minami-dake Crater occurred on 13 June.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 13-15 and 17-19 June explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted multiple directions. A pilot observed an ash plume on 19 June that rose to an altitude of 3.4 (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


6 June-12 June 2012

JMA reported that during 4-8 June explosive eruptions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater occurred 11 times and ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. A small pyroclastic flow traveled 200 m down the E flank.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 6-7 and 9-11 June explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.7 km (4,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted multiple directions. Pilots observed ash plumes during 6-7 June that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, E, and NE. Explosions were detected on 8 and 12 June.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


30 May-5 June 2012

JMA reported that during 1-4 June seven explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected ballistics 800-1,300 m from the crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 30 May-5 June explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and NW. Pilots observed ash plumes during 3-4 June that rose to altitudes of 2.7-3.4 (9,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 May-29 May 2012

JMA reported eight explosive eruptions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater during 21-25 May and a small eruption from Minami-dake Crater on 23 May. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 23-24 and 26-28 May explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-4.6 km (6,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, E, and NE.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


16 May-22 May 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 16-20 and 22 May explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted multiple directions. Pilots observed ash plumes during 16-17 May that rose to altitudes of 2.7-4 km (9,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. Explosions were detected during 21-22 May.

JMA reported that during 18-21 May explosive eruptions from Showa Crater occurred multiple times and ejected tephra as far as 1.8 km from the crater. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. Very small eruptions from Minami-dake Crater occurred on 18 and 19 May, and a small pyroclastic flow traveled 300 m down the Showa crater flanks on 21 May.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


9 May-15 May 2012

JMA reported that during 11-15 May explosive eruptions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater occurred nine times and ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 9 and 11-15 May explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, E, and N. A pilot observed an ash plume on 12 May that rose to an altitude of 2.1 (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


2 May-8 May 2012

JMA reported that during 1-7 May explosive eruptions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater occurred 17 times and ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. Very small eruptions from Minami-dake Crater occurred on 3 and 5 May. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 3-4 and 6-8 May explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3.7 km (5,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and E. Ash was observed in satellite imagery on 3 May. A pilot observed an ash plume on 7 May that rose to an altitude of 2.4 (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


25 April-1 May 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 24 April-1 May explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A pilot observed an ash plume on 26 April that rose to an altitude of 2.7 (9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 April-17 April 2012

On 6, 8, and 10 April a visitor to Sakura-jima observed and photographed several Vulcanian explosions from Showa crater and noted that the crater was approximately 20% wider from N to S that in the beginning of 2010.

Source: Richard Roscoe, Photo Volcanica


21 March-27 March 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 21-22 March explosions from Sakura-jima produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 March-20 March 2012

JMA reported that on 12 March an explosion from Sakura-jima's Showa crater ejected tephra that landed as far as 2 km from the crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 14-21 March explosions often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, and SE. Pilots observed ash plumes during 18-20 March that rose to altitudes of 1.2-4 km (4,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 March-13 March 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 7-9 and 11-13 March explosions from Sakura-jima often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. Pilots observed ash plumes during 9 and 11-13 March that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 February-6 March 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 29 February-7 March explosions from Sakura-jima often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, E, and SE. A pilot observed an ash plume on 5 March. Another pilot report on 6 March noted a plume drifting SE at an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 February-28 February 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 22 and 24 February explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 February-21 February 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 15-16 and 18-21 February explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 February-14 February 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 8-14 February explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1-3 km (3,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. On 11 February an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted E, and later dissipated. A pilot observation indicated an ash plume rising to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NE on 11 February.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 February-7 February 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 1-7 February explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.7 km (4,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. On 5 and 6 February pilots observed ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. respectively.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 January-31 January 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 25-27 and 29-30 January explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. On 29 January a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 January-24 January 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 18-24 January explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and SE. On 20 January a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 January-17 January 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-17 January explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. On 14 January a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 January-10 January 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 4-10 January explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S. On 7 January an ash plume rose to an altitude 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, then later dissipated.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 December-3 January 2012

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 28 and 30 December-3 January explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 December-27 December 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 21-27 December explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, S, and NE. Satellite imagery on 23 December showed ash emissions that later dissipated. On 27 December observations from satellite images and a pilot report showed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 9 km E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 December-20 December 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 14-20 December explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and S. On 15 December satellite imagery showed ash emissions that later dissipated. A pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) and drifted 32 km S on 18 December.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 December-13 December 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 7-13 December explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.0-2.7 km (3,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, S, and NE. Satellite imagery and a pilot report showed ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l and drifted 46 km SW on 9 December and 37 km S on 13 December.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 November-6 December 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 30 November and 2-6 December explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.0 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, W, NW. Satellite imagery and a pilot report on 30 November showed an ash plume at an altitude 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l and drifted 37 km SE. On 5 December a pilot report and satellite imagery showed an ash plume at an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l and drifted 74 km S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 November-29 November 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 23 and 25-29 November explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, S, E, and NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 November-22 November 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 16-17 and 19-22 November explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, E, and N. Satellite imagery on 16 and 21 November showed ash emissions that later dissipated. On 19 November a pilot reported an ash plume at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 November-15 November 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 9-12 and 14-15 November explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, S, and SE. On 14 November a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Satellite imagery during 14-15 November showed ash emissions that later dissipated.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 November-8 November 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 2-3 and 5-7 November explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, N, and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 October-1 November 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 26 October-1 November explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, SW, S, and SE. Satellite imagery on 26 October detected ash plumes that later dissipated. A pilot observed an ash plume on 31 October that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 October-25 October 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 20-25 October explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, E, and SE. Pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3 and 1.5 km (10,000 and 5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 and 25 October, respectively. The plumes drifted SE on both days.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 October-18 October 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 12-13 and 15-18 October explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. On 18 October a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 October-11 October 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 5-11 October explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, SE, and S. During 6-8 October pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 September-4 October 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 28 September-3 October explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. On 30 September and during 1-2 October pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and mostly drifted NE, E, and ESE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 September-27 September 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 21-27 September explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, S, and W. On 22 September a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 September-20 September 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 14-20 September explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, W, and NW. On 14 September a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 September-13 September 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 9-13 September explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and N. On 9 September a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 August-6 September 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 31 August-6 September explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, and SE. According to a news article, the 660th explosive eruption in 2010 occurred on 3 September. The article also noted that as of 2 September, 607 grams of ash per square meter had fallen in Kagoshima (10 km W), compared to 753 grams for all of 2010, when the volcano had a record-high 896 explosive eruptions.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), The Japan Times


24 August-30 August 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 23-30 August explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, NW, N, and NE. On 30 August a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 August-23 August 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 17-22 August explosions from Sakura-jima often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. On 18 August, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 August-16 August 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 10-16 August explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3.7 km (5,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. On 12 August, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 August-9 August 2011

The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 3 August an ash plume from Sakura-jima observed by a pilot rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on information from JMA, plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, and NE during 3 and 5-9 August.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 July-2 August 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 27 July-2 August plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. During 28-30 July and 1 August, pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes occasionally drifted SW, S, SE, and W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 July-26 July 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 20-22 and 25 July plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes occasionally drifted S, SE, and ENE. On 20, 22, and 26 July, pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 July-19 July 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 13-19 July plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes occasionally drifted W, NW, and N. On 18 July, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. Explosions were reported the next day.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 July-12 July 2011

According to pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 7 and 10 July ash plumes rose from Sakura-jima to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Reports from JMA stated that plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. on 8, 10, and 12 July.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 June-5 July 2011

According to pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes rose from Sakura-jima to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l on 28 and 30 July. Reports from JMA stated that plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. during 30 June-1 July. An explosion was noted on 4 July.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 June-28 June 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 22, 25, and 28 June plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NE. During 27-28 June, pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 June-14 June 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 8-9 and 14 June explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. During 8-9 and 13-14 June, pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.7 km (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 June-7 June 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 2-6 June explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted S on 2 June. On 2 and 4 June, pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.7 km (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 May-31 May 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 25-30 May explosions from Sakura-jima frequently produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted N, NW, E, SE, and S. On 27 May, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 May-24 May 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 18-22 May explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted in multiple directions. On 21 May, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 May-17 May 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-18 May explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes occasionally drifted SE and S. During 11, 13-14, and 17 May, pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 May-10 May 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 6-10 May explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes sometimes drifted NW, NE, E, SE, and S. On 4 and 9 May, pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 April-3 May 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 27-30 April and 2-3 May explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, SE, and S. On 29 April and 2 May, pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 April-26 April 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 21-25 April explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and occasionally drifted N, NE, E, and SE. On 21 and 25 April, pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.7-3.4 km (9,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 April-19 April 2011

Based on information from JMA and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 13-19 April explosions from Sakura-jima mostly generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 April-12 April 2011

On 6, 9, and 12 April, pilots observed ash plumes from Sakura-jima that rose to altitudes of 2.7-3 km (9,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes on 9 April drifted SE and plumes on 12 April drifted S. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 7-12 April explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and occasionally drifted NE, E, SE, and S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 March-5 April 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 1 and 3-5 April explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-4 km (5,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and occasionally drifted E. A video of activity from 4 April showed incandescence emanating from the crater and a few explosions that ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. On 5 April, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Volcano Sakura-jima


23 March-29 March 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 23-26 and 29 March explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and occasionally drifted E, SE, and S. On 26 March, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 March-22 March 2011

Based on information from JMA and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 16-19 and 21-22 March explosions from Sakura-jima produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. Explosions were reported on 20 March.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 March-15 March 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 9-15 March explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.1 km (4,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, NE, E, and SE. On 12 March, a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. Another ash plume also observed by a pilot rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 15 March.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 March-8 March 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 2-5 and 8 March explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.8 km (4,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and S. During 2-4 and 5 March, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. Some plumes drifted N and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 February-1 March 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 23 February-2 March explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. On 23 and 26 February, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3 and 4 km (10,000 and 13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NW, respectively.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 February-22 February 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 16-17 and 19-22 February explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Some plumes drifted W, SW, and ESE. During 21-22 February, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.4-2.7 km (8,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 February-15 February 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 9 and 11-15 February explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and E. On 10, 13, and 15 February, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 February-8 February 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 1-8 February explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.4 km (4,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE. During 3-4 and 7 February, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. According to a news article, an eruption on 8 February produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 2 km. A large amount of ashfall prompted local authorities to temporarily ban residents from driving near the area.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Arirang News


26 January-1 February 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 26 January-1 February explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. On 31 January, a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 January-25 January 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 19 and 21-23 January explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. On 22 January, a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 January-18 January 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 13 and 16-18 January explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. On 17 January, a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.1 km (4,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 January-11 January 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 7-8 January explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. On 8 January, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 December-4 January 2011

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 2 January a plume from Sakura-jima rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. An explosion was noted the next day. An explosion on 5 January produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 December-28 December 2010

Based on pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 22-23, 25, and 27 December ash plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 December-21 December 2010

Based on pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 18 December ash plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 2.4-4.9 km (8,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The next day satellite imagery showed that the ash had dissipated.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 December-14 December 2010

Based on information from JMA and analysis of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 8 December an eruption from Sakura-jima produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. During 11-12 December explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. On 12 December a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 December-7 December 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 1-7 December explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, W, NW, and N. During 2 and 4-5 December, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-4.6 km (5,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 November-30 November 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 24 November-1 December explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.8 km (4,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and S. During 24 and 28-29 November, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 November-23 November 2010

Based on information from JMA and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 17, 19-21, and 23 November ash plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, NE, and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 November-16 November 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 10-16 November explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and S. During 15-16 November, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 November-9 November 2010

Based on information from JMA and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 3-5 and 7-9 November explosions from Sakura-jima produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-4.3 km (5,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 October-2 November 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption from Sakura-jima on 31 October produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. On 2 November a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 October-26 October 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Sakura-jima on 20 October.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 October-19 October 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 13-16 October produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S. During 15-16 October pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 October-12 October 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 7-10 October produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, NE, SE, and S. On 8 October a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 September-5 October 2010

Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 1 October an ash plume from Sakura-jima rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 September-28 September 2010

Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 22 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 September-21 September 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption from Sakura-jima on 15 September. That same day a pilot observed an ash plume at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. On 16 September a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 September-14 September 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima on 8 and 10 September produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Some of the plumes drifted E and NE. On 9 September a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 September-7 September 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 1-5 September produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Some of the plumes drifted N, NW, and W. During 2-4 September pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.4 km (7,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. An explosion also occurred on 7 September.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 August-31 August 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 26-31 August produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.1 km (4,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. Some of the plumes drifted N and NW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 August-24 August 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima on 18, 21, and 23 August produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. On 19 and 24 August pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 August-10 August 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 4-9 August produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, and N. Pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 7, 9, and 10 August.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 July-3 August 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion on 29 July. Explosions during 31 July-1 August and 3 August produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SW. On 2 July a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 July-27 July 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 21-27 July explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.2-4.6 km (4,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. Most plumes rose vertically while others drifted N and NW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 July-20 July 2010

Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Sakura-jima on 14 and 20 July. During 15-18 July pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, N, and NW. Plumes on 20 July rose as high as 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and N.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 July-13 July 2010

Based on pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 7 and 9 July ash plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and NE. The VAAC also noted that the JMA reported explosions during 11-13 July.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 June-6 July 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 30 June-1 July and 4-6 July explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.5-4.6 km (5,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 June-29 June 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 23-29 June explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and NW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 June-22 June 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 16-22 June explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. According to a news article, the JMA noted that two eruptions on 20 June brought the total number of eruptions in 2010 to 550, setting a new annual record. The total number of eruptions in 2009, the previous high at Sakura-jima, was 548.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), The Japan Times


9 June-15 June 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Sakura-jima during 12-14 June. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported. On 15 June an ash plume at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. was reported by a pilot.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 June-8 June 2010

Based on information from JMA and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 3 June an eruption from Sakura-jima produced a plume that rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.4 km (7,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 May-25 May 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 21 May an explosion from Sakura-jima produced a plume that rose to an altitude higher than 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 May-18 May 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 14 May an explosion from Sakura-jima produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 May-11 May 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 4-6 and 8-9 May explosions from Sakura-jima often produced plumes. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted N, NE, E, and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 April-4 May 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 28 April-5 May explosions from Sakura-jima often produced plumes. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.4 km (4,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted NE, E, and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 April-27 April 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 14-26 April explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes identified in satellite imagery. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.5-3.7 km (5,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted in multiple directions.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 April-13 April 2010

The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 7-13 April explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes identified in satellite imagery. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted NW, E, and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 March-6 April 2010

The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 31 March-6 April explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes identified on satellite imagery. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, SE, E, and NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 March-30 March 2010

The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 24-30 March explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes identified on satellite imagery. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, and E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 March-23 March 2010

The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 17-23 March plumes from Sakura-jima identified on satellite imagery, and ash plumes seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 March-16 March 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 10-16 March multiple explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and SE. Pilots reported that on 11 and 16 March ash plumes rose as high as 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 March-9 March 2010

During 3-9 March, the Tokyo VAAC reported multiple explosions from Sakura-jima based on information from JMA. During 3, 5-6, and 8-9 March, plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. Pilots reported on 8 and 9 March that ash plumes rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 February-2 March 2010

The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 24 February-2 March explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes identified in satellite imagery and seen by pilots. The plumes, occasionally containing ash, rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 February-23 February 2010

The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 17-23 February plumes from Sakura-jima identified on satellite imagery, and ash plumes seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.5-4 km (5,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 February-16 February 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-16 February multiple explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, E, SE, and S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 February-9 February 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 3-9 February multiple explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and N. On 5, 6, and 7 February, pilots reported that ash plumes sometimes drifted SE and S at altitudes of 1.5-3.4 km (5,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. An eruption on 8 February produced an estimated 1-km-high lava fountain, and an ash plume with abundant lightning. Incandescent material fell onto the flanks.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Kago-Net


27 January-2 February 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 27 January-2 February multiple explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE. During 27-29 January and 1-2 February, pilots reported that ash plumes sometimes drifted SE and S at altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 January-26 January 2010

During 26 December 2009-9 January 2010, a visitor to Sakura-jima observed and photographed Strombolian and Vulcanian explosions from Showa crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 20-26 January multiple explosions often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S. On 23 January, a pilot reported that an ash plume drifted SE at an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Richard Roscoe, Photo Volcanica


13 January-19 January 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 13-19 January multiple explosions from Sakura-jima often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. On 16 and 18 January, pilots reported that ash plumes drifted SE at altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 January-12 January 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 6-12 January multiple explosions from Sakura-jima often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. On 10 January a pilot reported that an ash plume drifted SE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 December-5 January 2010

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 30 December-5 January multiple explosions from Sakura-jima often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S. During 31 December-4 January pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.4-5.5 km (8,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 December-29 December 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 23-29 December explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and S. During 23-25 and 27 December, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.7-4.6 km (9,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 December-22 December 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 16-17 and 20-22 December explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and S. On 19 and 22 December, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 December-15 December 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 9-15 December produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S. On 14 December, a pilot reported that an ash plume drifted S at an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 December-8 December 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 2-8 December produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. On 4 and 8 December, pilots 30-65 km S of Kagoshima airport reported ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 November-1 December 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima on 26 November and 1 December produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and E. Ash was seen in satellite imagery on 26 November.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 November-24 November 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima on 18 and 23 November produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 November-17 November 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 11-13 and 15-17 November produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 November-10 November 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 4-10 November produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Pilots reported ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. on 5 November and to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. on 9 November. Plumes drifted E and N, respectively. According to a news article, Sakura-jima exploded for the 400 th time in 2009 on 5 November.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), The Japan Times


28 October-3 November 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 28 October-3 November produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. Some plumes drifted W, SW, S, SE, and NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 October-27 October 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 21-22, 24-25, and 27-28 October produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Some plumes drifted W, SW, S, and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 October-20 October 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 13-20 October produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, and E. On 15 October, a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 October-13 October 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 7-12 October produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, S, and SE. An explosion was also detected on 13 October.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 September-6 October 2009

Based on information from JMA and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 30 September-6 October produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-4.3 km (6,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes occasionally drifted E, N, and W.

The JMA reported that explosions from Showa crater on 2 October ejected incandescent tephra 800 m away from the rim. On 3 October, Minami-dake crater exploded violently, producing an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater. Ballistics were ejected 1.7 km away. The most recent previous explosion from the Minami-dake crater occurred on 22 February.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 September-29 September 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 23, 25, and 27-29 September produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and NW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 September-22 September 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 16, 18-19, and 21 September produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, W, NW, and NE. A pilot reported ash on 19 September.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 September-15 September 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 9-15 September produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 September-8 September 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 2-8 September produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 August-1 September 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 26-29 August and 1 September produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.4 km (4,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes occasionally drifted N, NE, and E. An explosion was reported on 31 August but no information about a possible resulting plume was reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 August-25 August 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 19-25 August produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes occasionally drifted N, E, and SE. A pilot reported that on 24 August an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 20 km S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 August-18 August 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported eruptions and explosions from Sakura-jima during 12-17 August. Plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. during 14-17 August and occasionally drifted E or N.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 August-11 August 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions and explosions from Sakura-jima during 5-10 August produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. Pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-4 km (6,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. during 7 and 9-10 August. Plumes drifted in multiple directions.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 July-4 August 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Sakura-jima during 31 July-4 August. Plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.4 km (7,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. on all days except 1 August.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 July-28 July 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 22 July explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. On 23 July and 27 July pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1 and 3 km (7,000 and 10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SW, respectively. Explosions were reported during 24-25 and 28 July.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 July-21 July 2009

Based on information from JMA, analyses of satellite imagery, and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 15-21 July explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa crater occasionally produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes were observed drifting SW, N, and NE. On 19 July, JMA raised the Alert Level from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-5). They noted increased frequency of explosive eruptions since late June, and shock waves that were detected on 18 and 19 July.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 July-14 July 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 8 and 10-15 July explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted NE and E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 July-7 July 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 2-4 and 6-7 July explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted N, NE, E, and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 June-30 June 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 24-30 June explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.4 km (7,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted NE, E, and S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 June-16 June 2009

Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 12 June an ash plume from Sakura-jima rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. The JMA reported that during 14-16 June eruptions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-2.7 km (8,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SE and E on 14 and 15 June.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 June-9 June 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 7 June an eruption from Sakura-jima produced a plume that rose vertically to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. An eruption on 9 June resulted in a plume that rose to an attitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 May-2 June 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 30 May an explosion from Sakura-jima produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. On 31 May, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The next day, eruptions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.4 km (7,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. Some plumes drifted S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 May-26 May 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 26 May an eruption from Sakura-jima produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 May-19 May 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 19 May an eruption from Sakura-jima produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 May-12 May 2009

Based on information from JMA and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 9 May eruptions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. On 12 May, an ash plume drifted E at an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 April-5 May 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 3-4 May eruptions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.7 km (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 April-28 April 2009

On 24 April, JMA lowered the Alert Level for Sakura-jima from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). No large eruptions occurred after 11 April, seismicity was low, and deformation was not detected.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


8 April-14 April 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 8 April an eruption from Sakura-jima produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. JMA reported that on 9 April a Vulcanian explosion from Showa crater on the E flank ejected bombs as far away as 1.3 km. A plume rose to an altitude of 4.8 km (15,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW; JMA stated that the plume altitude was the highest altitude a plume reached since June 2006. A pyroclastic flow traveled 1 km E. According to a news article, heavy ashfall was reported in Kagoshima City (about 10 km W), the first ashfall reported there since October 2002. On 10 April, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and S.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Asahi


1 April-7 April 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 5-7 April explosions and eruptions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitude of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SE on 5 April and S on 7 April.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 March-31 March 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion from Sakura-jima on 26 March produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. JMA reported occasional weak eruptions during 27-30 March.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 March-24 March 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Sakura-jima on 20 and 23 March. Additional information on possible resultant plumes was not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 March-17 March 2009

On 14 March, JMA reported two Vulcanian explosions from Sakura-jima to heights of 400-500 m above an unspecified crater; ejected bombs landed as far away as 800 m. Both the summit crater and Showa crater on the E flank had recently been active. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption on 17 March produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 March-10 March 2009

During 7-10 March, JMA reported that 12 Vulcanian explosions occurred from Showa Crater, on the E flank of Sakura-jima. Some explosions were seen from JMA's Kagoshima Observatory; observers reported that ejected bombs landed as far away as 800 m from the crater and plumes rose to an altitude of 2.9 km (9,500 ft) a.s.l. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption on 7 March, and explosions during 8-10 March, produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted N and S during 8-10 March. [Correction: Ejected bombs landed as far away as 1,800 m from the crater.]

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 February-3 March 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Sakura-jima during 28 February-1 March. On 1 March, plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. JMA raised the Alert Level from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-5). During 1-2 March, three Vulcanian explosions occurred from Showa Crater, ejecting bombs that landed as far away as 1.3 km on 2 March. Deformation was also detected. The Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions or explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.7-3 km (9,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 2 and 4 March, and an explosion occurred on 3 March.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 February-24 February 2009

JMA lowered the Alert Level for Sakura-jima from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) on 19 February because deformation was absent, seismicity was low, and no eruptions occurred after 5 February. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 22 February an explosion produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 February-17 February 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-12 February ash plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.5 km (4,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 February-10 February 2009

JMA reported that Sakura-jima erupted explosively eight times during 1-2 February; bombs were deposited as far away as 800 m from the Showa crater (on the E slope of Minami-dake, or "south mountain," at an elevation of about 800 m). JMA raised the Alert Level from 2 to 3 on 2 February. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 4-5 February explosions and eruptions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. On 9 February a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 January-3 February 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 28 January and 1-3 February explosions and eruptions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, S, and SW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 January-20 January 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 January an explosion from Sakura-jima produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 January-13 January 2009

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 9 January an eruption from Sakura-jima produced a plume that rose to an altitude of more than 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 October-7 October 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 3 October an eruption plume from Sakura-jima rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 September-9 September 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 7 September an eruption plume from Sakura-jima rose straight up to an altitude greater than 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 August-26 August 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Sakura-jima on 23 August. The altitude and direction of a possible resultant plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 August-12 August 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 10 August an eruption plume from Sakura-jima rose to an altitude greater than 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 July-29 July 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 25-28 July ash plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 2.4-4.3 km (8,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 July-15 July 2008

Based on information from JMA and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported ash plumes from Sakura-jima on 10 and 13 July that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 July-8 July 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Sakura-jima on 5 July. A resultant plume rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 June-1 July 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Sakura-jima on 28 June. The altitude and direction of a possible resultant plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 June-17 June 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 12-13 June explosions from Sakura-jima produced ash plumes to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted NW, NE, and SW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 June-10 June 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 9 June eruption plumes from Sakura-jima rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Explosions were reported on 10 and 11 June.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 May-3 June 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 30 May-1 June eruption plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, NE, E, and S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 May-27 May 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 22 May an eruption plume from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. An explosion was reported on 24 May.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 May-20 May 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 15-21 May eruption plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted N, NE, SE, S, and SW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 May-13 May 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 8 May an eruption plume from Sakura-jima rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 April-6 May 2008

Based on information from JMA and observations of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 6-7 May eruption plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.4 km (8,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 April-29 April 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Sakura-jima rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted SE on 27 April and W on 30 April.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 April-22 April 2008

Based on pilot reports and observations of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an ash plume from Sakura-jima rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100 km E on 19 April. The next day, the JMA reported that a plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 April-15 April 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 11-15 April produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.4 km (7,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, NE, and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 February-12 February 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima on 6 February produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.1 km (4,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 January-5 February 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima on 3 February produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery. On 5 February, a pilot reported an ash plume at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 January-8 January 2008

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Sakura-jima on 2 and 7 January. Details of possible resultant ash plumes were unknown.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 December-25 December 2007

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Sakura-jima rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S during 23-24 December.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 October-30 October 2007

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Sakura-jima rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 29 October.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 August-7 August 2007

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Sakura-jima on 4 August. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 June-26 June 2007

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Sakura-jima rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N during 20-21 June. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 June-19 June 2007

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Sakura-jima on 16 June. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 June-12 June 2007

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from Sakura-jima rose straight up to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. on 8, 10, and 11 June. The 10 June plume drifted S. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 May-5 June 2007

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from Sakura-jima rose straight up to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. during 31 May-1 June. During 4-5 June, plumes again rose to the same altitudes as during 31 May-1 June and drifted W, NW, and E. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 May-29 May 2007

Based on information from JMA and a pilot report, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. during 23-24 and 26-28 May. Plumes drifted E and SE and rose straight up.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 May-22 May 2007

Based on information from JMA and a pilot report, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. during 16 and 20-22 May. Plumes drifted NW on 16 May and rose straight up during 20-22 May.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 March-20 March 2007

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an ash plume from Sakura-jima reached an altitude greater than 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. on 20 March.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 February-20 February 2007

Based on satellite imagery and pilot reports, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an ash plume from Sakura-jima reached an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 15 February.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 February-13 February 2007

Based on information from Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Sakura-jima on 10 February. The altitude and direction of a resultant plume were not reported. On 13 February, an explosion produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 December-2 January 2007

Based on information from Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption from Sakura-jima on 2 January. The resultant plume reached an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 December-19 December 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Sakura-jima on 13 December.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 December-12 December 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption from Sakura-jima on 12 December. The resultant plume reached an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 November-28 November 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima on 22 November produced eruption plumes that reached an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. On 26 November, plumes reached an unreported altitude.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 November-7 November 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 4 and 5 November eruption plumes from Sakura-jima reached altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted NE, SE, and E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 October-31 October 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 25 and 27 October, ash plumes from Sakura-jima reached altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SW and NE, respectively.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 October-24 October 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima on 21 October produced plumes that rose straight up to 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 October-10 October 2006

Based on information from JMA and satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported eruptions at Sakura-jima on 7, 8, and 10 October. Plumes rose to 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, S, and SW, respectively.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 September-26 September 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported eruptions at Sakura-jima on 20 and 21 September. A plume from the second eruption rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 September-19 September 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption at Sakura-jima on 19 September generated a plume that rose straight up to ~3 km (~10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 September-12 September 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion at Sakura-jima produced an eruption cloud on 6 September.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 August-5 September 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions at Sakura-jima on 3 and 4 September generated plumes that rose to ~2.7 km (~9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly NW and N, respectively.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 August-29 August 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions at Sakura-jima on 22, 23, and 26 August generated plumes that rose to ~2.4 km (~8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly SW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 August-15 August 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption at Sakura-jima on 9 August generated a plume that rose straight up to ~2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 August-8 August 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion at Sakura-jima on 2 August generated a plume that rose to ~2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 June-20 June 2006

Based on information from JMA and pilot reports, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from Sakura-jima reached altitudes of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. during 14, 16, and 19 June.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 June-13 June 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes continuing from Sakura-jima reached altitudes of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. during 7-12 June. JMA issued a Volcanic Advisory on 12 June.

On June 10, the Sakura-jima Volcano Research Center reported an increase in low-frequency earthquakes since mid-March and in small tremors with a less than 2 minute duration since mid-May 2006. A thermal anomaly at the volcano grew in size after February 2006.

Sources: Sakura-jima Volcano Research Center, Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI), Kyoto University, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


31 May-6 June 2006

On 4 and 5 June, intermittent eruptions at Sakura-jima, from an upper E-flank vent, near or within the 1946 vent, produced ash clouds that reached unknown heights. No ash was visible on satellite imagery. This was the first reported Sakura-jima eruption from a vent outside the summit crater in 58 years. The 1946 vent was the source of major lava flows that reached the E and S coasts of the former island.

Sources: Yukio Hayakawa, Gunma University, Reuters


26 April-2 May 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion at Sakura-jima on 28 April produced an ash plume that rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. An explosion on 1 May produced a plume that rose to an unknown height.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 April-25 April 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion at Sakura-jima on 19 April generated a plume that rose to ~2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 February-7 February 2006

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion at Sakura-jima on 5 February produced a plume that reached a height of ~1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 December-13 December 2005

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion at Sakura-jima on 9 December produced a plume to a height of ~2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. that drifted S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 August-6 September 2005

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption occurred at Sakura-jima on 2 September at 0927. The resultant ash plume reached a height of ~2.1 km (7,000) ft a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 July-26 July 2005

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions occurred at Sakura-jima on 21 and 22 July. The heights of the resultant plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 July-19 July 2005

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion at Sakura-jima produced a plume to ~1.8 km (~5,900 ft) a.s.l. that drifted N.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 July-12 July 2005

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions occurred at Sakura-jima on 8 and 10 July. The heights of the resultant plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 June-7 June 2005

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion at Sakura-jima on 2 June at 0736 produced an ash cloud to an unknown height.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 June-6 July 2004

On 2 July an explosion at Sakura-jima produced a S-drifting ash cloud to a height of ~1.5 km a.s.l. Another explosion later that day produced an ash cloud to an unknown height.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 June-22 June 2004

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion at Sakura-jima on 20 June at 1523 produced an ash cloud to an unknown height.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 May-25 May 2004

Based on information from JMA, during 19-24 May several explosions at Sakura-jima produced ash clouds. The highest reported ash cloud reached ~2.4 km a.s.l. on 24 May.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 May-18 May 2004

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions at Sakura-jima occurred on 15 May at 1107 and on 17 May at 1946, sending ash plumes to heights of ~1.8 km and 2.1 km a.s.l., respectively. A pilot reported ash on 18 May, at a height of ~1.2 km a.s.l., ~23 km S of the Amori region.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press, Itar-Tass News


28 April-4 May 2004

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption at Sakura-jima on 28 April at 1820 produced a plume to a height of ~2.4 km a.s.l. that drifted SE. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 April-27 April 2004

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption of Sakura-jima on 25 April produced an ash plume that rose to a height of ~2.4 km a.s.l. and extended N.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 April-20 April 2004

Based on information from the Japanese Meterological Agency, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption of Sakura-jima on 17 April produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose to ~3 km a.s.l. and extended W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 March-30 March 2004

Based on information from the Japanese Meteorological Agency, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions at Sakura-jima on 26 March at 1715 and 27 March at 0607 produced plumes that extended S and rose to ~2.5 km a.s.l. and ~2 km a.s.l., respectively.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 February-24 February 2004

On 19 and 20 February, explosions at Sakura-jima produced ash clouds that rose to unknown heights. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 January-13 January 2004

According to the Tokyo VAAC, an eruption occurred at Sakura-jima on 12 January around 1430 that produced an ash cloud that rose above 2 km a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 December-9 December 2003

Based on information from the JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 3 December at 2025 ash was emitted from Sakura-jima, rose to ~2.5 km a.s.l., and extended to the S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 July-23 July 2002

Surface observations from Kagoshima airport revealed that on 22 July an ash cloud from Sakura-jima rose to 2.1-2.4 km a.s.l. Ash was visible extending to the SW on satellite imagery. Ash was also observed on 23 July at an unknown altitude.

Source: US Air Force Weather Agency


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1955 Oct 13 2014 Feb 27 (continuing) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Minami-dake and east flank (Showa crater)
[ 1954 Nov ] [ 1954 Dec ] Uncertain 1   Minami-dake
1950 Jun 29 1950 Sep 9 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Minami-dake
1948 Jul 27 1948 Jul 27 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations East flank of Minami-dake (750 m)
1946 Jan 1946 Nov Confirmed 2 Historical Observations East flank of Minami-dake (750 m)
1942 Jul 16 1942 Jul 16 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations East flank of Minami-dake (750 m)
1941 Apr 28 1941 Aug 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations East flank of Minami-dake (750 m)
1940 Apr 24 1940 Jul 9 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Minami-dake and east flank (750 m)
1939 Oct 26 1939 Nov 12 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations East flank of Minami-dake (750 m)
1938 Feb 25 1938 Mar 31 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Minami-dake
1935 Sep 20 1935 Sep 24 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Minami-dake
1914 Jan 12 1915 May Confirmed 4 Historical Observations West, east and SE flanks
[ 1899 Sep 24 ] [ 1899 Sep 25 ] Uncertain 1   Minami-dake
1860 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Minami-dake
1799 Mar 27 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Minami-dake
1797 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Minami-dake
1794 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Minami-dake
[ 1792 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2   Minami-dake
1791 Sep 11 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Minami-dake
1790 Jul 29 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Minami-dake
1785 Nov 20 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1783 Sep 3 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1782 Jan 18 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE flank (offshore)
1779 Nov 8 1781 May Confirmed 4 Historical Observations NE flank, off NE coast, south flank
[ 1766 Jun 5 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1756 Sep 9 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Minami-dake
1749 Sep Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Minami-dake summit, west flank?
1742 Apr 6 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Minami-dake
1706 Jan Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Minami-dake
1678 Mar 1 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Minami-dake
[ 1670 Jun 1 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1642 Apr 6 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Minami-dake
1478 Sep 23 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Minami-dake
1471 Nov 3 1476 Oct 8 (in or after) Confirmed 5 Historical Observations NE and SW flanks, summit crater
1468 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Minami-dake
0778 Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations
0766 Jul 20 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
0764 Jan Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations East flank (Nabe-yama), Sz-4 tephra
0716 0718 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
[ 0712 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 3  
0708 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
0650 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Minami-dake
1050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Magnetism Kannonzaki lava
2050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Magnetism Miyamoto lava
2900 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kita-dake, Tephra layer Sz-5
3050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kita-dake, Tephra layer Sz-7
4800 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kita-dake
5400 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kita-dake
5950 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kita-dake
6050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kita-dake, Tephra layer Sz-11
6200 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed 6 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Wakamiko Caldera
6350 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kita-dake
7750 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kita-dake

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Aramaki S, 1984. Formation of the Aira caldera, southern Kyushu, 22,000 years ago. J Geophys Res, 89: 8485-8501.

Aramaki S, Fukuyama H, Kamo K, Kamada M, 1981. Sakurajima volcano. In: Kubotera A (ed) {Symp Arc Volc Field Excur Guide to Sakurajima, Kirishima and Aso Volcanoes, Part 1}, Tokyo: Volc Soc Japan, p 1-17.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Imura R, 1998. Reconstruction of the sequence of the An-ei eruptions of Sakurajima volcano (A.D. 1779-1782) using the historical records. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 43: 373-383 (in Japanese with English abs).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Kano K, Yamamoto T, Ono K, 1996. Subaqueous eruption and emplacement of the Shinjima Pumice, Shinjima (Moeshima) Island, Kagoshima Bay, SW Japan. J Volc Geotherm Res, 71: 187-206.

Kobayashi T, Ishihara K, Hirabayashi J, 1988. A guidebook for Sakurajima volcano. In: Aramaki S, Kamo K, Kamada M (eds), Kagoshima:Kagoshima Prefectural Government, 88 p.

Kuno H, 1962. Japan, Taiwan and Marianas. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 11: 1-332.

Miki D, 1999. Estimate of the ages of lava flows at Sakurajima volcano, Kyushu, Japan; inferred from paleomagnetic directions and paleointensities. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 44: 111-122 (in Japanese with English abs).

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.

Yamashina K, 1998. Pre-eruptive process and the beginning of the 1914 Taisho eruption of Sakurajima volcano based on documentary records. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 43: 385-401 (in Japanese with English abs).

The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.