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The 9 x 5 km island of Nakanoshima is surrounded by coral reefs. A flat plateau separates the older dissected Sakiwaridake volcano on the south from the active andesitic cone of Ontake, which forms the northern half of the island. Ontake contains a summit crater that is filled with water during the rainy season. Sulfur deposits were mined at a SE-flank solfatara until 1944. Only very minor activity has been reported in historical time. A small mud eruption took place in 1914 at the summit crater, and "smoking" increased in 1949.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|[ 1949 Oct ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain||1||On-take|
|1914 Jan||Unknown||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations||On-take|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Nakano-sima | Nakano-shima|
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|Ontake||Stratovolcano||979 m||29° 51' 33" N||129° 51' 25" E|
|Sakiwaridake||Stratovolcano||29° 50' 0" N||129° 54' 0" E|
|The 9-km-long island of Nakano-shima is seen in an aerial perspective from the SE in this computer-generated graphic image. On-take, the 980-m-high peak at the far end of the island, is the historically active volcano of Nakano-shima. The southern part of the island consists of an older dissected volcano primarily composed of pyroclastic rocks. Kuchino-shima (upper right) lies NE of Nakano-shima.
Photo courtesy of Bird's-Eye Japan (http://www.medianetjapan.com/2/town/internet_computer/birds/).
|Nakano-shima island is seen here from a beach on Kuchino-shima to the NNE. The active andesitic cone on On-take, with a summit crater that fills with water during the rainy season, forms the conical peak at the right. The 9 x 5 km island of Nakano-shima is surrounded by coral reefs. A flat plateau separates an older dissected volcano on the south from On-take. Only very minor activity has been reported in historical time.
Copyrighted photo by Shun Nakano, 2005 (Japanese Quaternary Volcanoes database, RIODB, http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/strata/VOL_JP/EN/index.htm and Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.gsj.jp/).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Japan Meteorological Agency, 1975. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan. Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 119 p (in Japanese).
Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).
Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.
Kuno H, 1962. Japan, Taiwan and Marianas. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 11: 1-332.
Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.