Mayon

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  • Philippines
  • Luzon
  • Stratovolcano
  • 2013 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 13.257°N
  • 123.685°E

  • 2462 m
    8075 ft

  • 273030
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

5 June-11 June 2013

PHIVOLCS reported that during 5-10 June white to off-white steam plumes that drifted WSW, NW, WNW, NNE, and NE, and occasional bluish fumes, were observed at Mayon. Incandescence emanated from the crater during most evenings into early mornings; cloud cover prevented crater observations during 7-8 and 10-11 June. During 5-6 and 9-10 June the seismic network recorded one volcanic earthquake each period, and during 6-7 June one rockfall signal was detected. The Alert Level remained at 1; PHIVOLCS reminded the public not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



 Available Weekly Reports


2013: May | June
2012: December
2011: January | June
2010: January | February
2009: July | August | September | October | November | December
2008: August
2006: February | July | August | September | October | November | December
2005: August
2004: May | July | September | October | December
2003: March | May | September | October
2002: February | October
2001: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | November


5 June-11 June 2013

PHIVOLCS reported that during 5-10 June white to off-white steam plumes that drifted WSW, NW, WNW, NNE, and NE, and occasional bluish fumes, were observed at Mayon. Incandescence emanated from the crater during most evenings into early mornings; cloud cover prevented crater observations during 7-8 and 10-11 June. During 5-6 and 9-10 June the seismic network recorded one volcanic earthquake each period, and during 6-7 June one rockfall signal was detected. The Alert Level remained at 1; PHIVOLCS reminded the public not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


29 May-4 June 2013

PHIVOLCS reported that during 30-31 May diffuse, short-lived, bluish, hydrogen sulfide emissions rose from Mayon, and incandescence from the crater was observed. Sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated between 5 and 388 tonnes per day, remaining below the normal level of 500 tonnes per day. Seismicity was low, while a recently concluded ground deformation survey indicated slight inflation compared to February survey data. Based on the visual observations, and despite that most monitoring parameters remained within baseline levels, PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level to 1 and reminded the public not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


8 May-14 May 2013

At 0800 on 8 May, PHIVOLCS reported that two rockfalls at Mayon had been detected within the previous 24 hours. Seismicity remained within background levels and indicated no increase in overall volcanic activity. The Alert Level remained at 0 and the public was reminded not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


1 May-7 May 2013

PHIVOLCS reported that a small phreatic eruption from Mayon occurred at 0800 on 7 May and lasted for 2 minutes and 26 seconds. A gray-to-brown ash cloud rose 500 m above the crater and drifted WSW. Ash fell in areas WNW, affecting the barangays of Muladbucad (10 km WSW), Guinobatan (11 km SW), Nabonton (10 km W), Nasisi (11 km W), Basag (10 km W), Tambo, Ligao City (19 km WSW), Albay (19 km SW), and areas upslope of these barangays. One rockfall was detected. Seismicity and gas emissions remained within background levels and indicated no intensification of activity. The Alert Level remained at 0 and the public was reminded not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

According to a news article, the eruption ejected large "room-sized rocks" towards about 30 climbers, killing five and injuring eight.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


12 December-18 December 2012

PHIVOLCS reported that since the Alert Level for Mayon was lowered to 1 on 2 March, seismicity decreased, and ground and tilt monitoring data suggested regional faulting and not magmatic intrusion. Steaming from the crater was diffuse and crater incandescence had ceased in March. Sulfur dioxide emissions had decreased to below baseline levels. On 27 November the Alert Level was lowered to 0 and the public was reminded not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


8 June-14 June 2011

PHIVOLCS reported that a deformation survey of Mayon conducted during 31 May-4 June showed slight inflation since a 6-10 March survey. White steam emitted from the summit crater during 8-13 June crept down the NW and WNW flanks. Incandescence from the crater was also observed. The Alert Level remained at 1 and the public was reminded not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


26 January-1 February 2011

During 25-27 January, PHIVOLCS reported that one volcanic earthquake at Mayon was detected each day by the seismic network. Although cloud cover mostly prevented observation during 25-31 January, emissions of white steam were occasionally observed during cloud breaks. Incandescence from the crater was seen at night during 30-31 January. The Alert Level remained at 1 and the public was reminded not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


19 January-25 January 2011

PHIVOLCS reported that a deformation survey of Mayon conducted in November and December 2010 showed inflation since a survey in 2008. During 18-25 January, up to two daily volcanic earthquakes were detected by the seismic network. Although cloud cover often prevented observations of the summit area, white steam emissions from the crater and nighttime crater incandescence were occasionally observed. The Alert Level remained at 1 and the public was reminded not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


24 February-2 March 2010

On 2 March, PHIVOLCS reported that, after the Alert Level for Mayon was lowered to 2 on 13 January, seismicity remained at normal levels, deflation was measured, and sulfur dioxide emissions were consistent with post-eruption levels. Rising steam and incandescence from the crater was not indicative of any new activity. The Alert level was lowered to 1 and the public was reminded not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


6 January-12 January 2010

PHIVOLCS reported that steam emissions were seen rising from Mayon's crater from 5 to 12 January during periods of clearer weather; meteorological clouds often prevented observations of the summit. Weak incandescence from the crater was occasionally seen at night. The majority of the seismic signals originated from rockfalls and detached lava fragments rolling down the flanks. Sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated between 670 and 1,900 tonnes per day. On 12 January, PHIVOLCS noted that ground deformation measurements showed a deflationary trend compared to a 2 December 2009 survey. These measurements, along with decreased seismicity and sulfur dioxide output, prompted PHIVOLCS to lower the Alert Level to 2 on 13 January.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


30 December-5 January 2010

PHIVOLCS reported declining activity at Mayon from 28 December to 2 January. Steam plumes were emitted from the crater, but ash plumes were last seen on 29 December. In addition, the majority of the seismic signals originated from rockfalls and detached lava fragments rolling down the flanks from advancing lava flows. Sulfur dioxide emissions also decreased from close to 9,000 tonnes per day to about 2,600 tonnes per day. PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level from 4 to 3, and reminded the public that no human activity should occur within the 6-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) around the volcano and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank. During 2-5 January, seismic activity indicated rockfall events related to the detachment of lava fragments at the upper slopes. Cloud cover at the summit prevented observations of steam plumes. Incandescence from the crater at night was noted.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


23 December-29 December 2009

PHIVOLCS reported that during 23-29 December about 240 explosions from Mayon were seen during times of good visibility. Off-white, brownish, or grayish ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and drifted W and SW. Lava flowed down the Bonga-Buyuan (SE), Miisi (S), and Lidong (ESE) gullies, and on 29 December was 5.8 km from the summit crater in the Buyuan channel. Intermittent rumbling and booming noises were noted and seismicity continued to be elevated. Detached incandescent fragments descended the flanks. Sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated between about 2,300 and 9,000 tonnes per day. On 24 December lava fountains rose 500 m above the summit crater. Three pyroclastic flows on 25 December traveled 2 km.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


16 December-22 December 2009

PHIVOLCS reported that during 14-19 December sulfur dioxide emissions from Mayon fluctuated between 750 and 2,034 tonnes per day. During 15-16 December, detached fragments from lava accumulating in the summit crater traveled as far as 4 km down the SE-flank Bonga-Buyuan gully, and lava flows traveled 700-800 m. Occasionally detached lava fragments produced small pyroclastic surges down the SW flank that generated light ashfall 13 km S and W in Camalig and Guinobatan, respectively. Steam plumes rose 200 m above the crater rim and drifted SW and WSW. During 17-20 December the seismic network detected 66 explosion-type signals; only 23 events were seen during periods of good visibility. These explosions produced dark gray to dark brown ash plumes that rose 500-2,000 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Harmonic tremor was detected by the seismic network. Brownish-colored steam and intensified incandescence at night were noted.

On 20 December lava flows had advanced 4.5 km from the crater. PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level to 4 (on a scale of 0-5) and recommended that the Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) encompass an area 8 km S from the summit and 7 km N from the summit. During 20-22 December the rate and intensity of seismic signals dramatically increased. The sulfur dioxide emission rate also increased; 6,089-6,529 tonnes per day was measured. Booming and rumbling sounds, and intensified crater incandescence, were noted. Lava fountains rose 200 m above the crater and lava flowed as far as 5 km down the Bonga-Buyuan, Miisi, and Lidong gullies.

According to news articles, more than 47,000 people from 30 villages were in evacuation centers across Albay province. About 3,000-6,000 residents had not evacuated.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Inquirer.net, Associated Press


9 December-15 December 2009

According to news articles, PHIVOLCS reported that on 11 December an explosion from Mayon was detected by the seismic network. On 14 December, incandescence emanated from the lava dome in the summit crater and incandescent material traveled as far as 3 km down the S and SE flanks. At least five minor explosions were detected by the seismic network. Some local ashfall was reported. The Alert Level was raised to 3, prompting the order to evacuate about 50,000 people living within an 8-km radius from the base of the volcano.

Sources: Philippine Daily Inquirer, Inquirer.net, The Manila Times


11 November-17 November 2009

According to news articles, an explosion from Mayon on 11 November prompted authorities to evacuate about 700 families from nearby areas. Incandescence from the crater at night on 14 November was visible from 15 km away.

Source: The Philippine Star


4 November-10 November 2009

PHIVOLCS reported that on 11 November an explosion from Mayon's summit crater ejected incandescent rock fragments that were seen from nearby areas. Cloud cover prevented observations of an ash plume, however field investigations after the event revealed ashfall to the SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). The 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank and the 6-km Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) in all other areas remained in effect.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


21 October-27 October 2009

PHIVOLCS reported that on 28 October a minor ash explosion from Mayon produced a brownish ash plume that rose 600 m above the crater and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). The 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank and the 6-km Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) in all other areas remained in effect.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


9 September-15 September 2009

PHIVOLCS reported that 11 earthquakes from Mayon were detected during 14-15 September. Steam plumes drifted NW and ENE and the sulfur dioxide gas output decreased. Faint incandescence was observed at night. On 15 September, three ash explosions produced a brownish plume that rose no more than 700 m above the crater and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). The 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank and the 6-km Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) in all other areas remained in effect.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


5 August-11 August 2009

According to a news article from 6 August, a volcanologist from PHIVOLCS reported that the number of earthquakes from Mayon had decreased, but the volume of sulfur dioxide emissions had increased sharply during the previous 24 hours. On 4 August, sulfur dioxide was emitted at a rate of 707 tonnes per day, down from 915 tonnes per day on 30 July. The rate increased to 1,977 tonnes per day on 5 August. Authorities declared four villages off-limits to people.

Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer


8 July-14 July 2009

PHIVOLCS reported that a "cone-shaped pile of hot, steaming old rocks," possibly from a previous eruption of Mayon, were seen during an overflight on 8 July and may be the source of recent summit incandescence. On 9 July, a leveling survey revealed that 1 cm of uplift previously measured during 15-22 June had been sustained. Incandescence at the summit crater had also intensified and was visible from the Lignon Hill Observatory (about 11 km SSE) without the aid of telescopes. Steam emissions were also noted. On 10 July, PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level for Mayon from 1 (low level unrest) to 2 (moderate unrest) on a scale of 0-5.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


1 July-7 July 2009

According to news articles, PHIVOLCS implemented increased monitoring of Mayon after a recent rise in seismicity. Incandescence in the crater and a slight increase in sulfur dioxide gas output over background levels were also noted. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5). The 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank and the 6-km Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) in all other areas remained in effect.

Source: GMA News


6 August-12 August 2008

On 10 August, a mild explosion from Mayon produced an ash plume to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE. PHIVOLCS reported that during the previous few weeks seismic activity had increased slightly and incandescence at the crater had intensified. The Alert Level remained at 1. The 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank and the 6-km Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) in all other areas remained in effect.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


6 December-12 December 2006

According to news articles, the National Disaster Coordinating Council in Manila estimated that 100,000 people still remained in shelters from typhoon Durian that struck on 30 November and triggered lahars down Mayon's flanks. An estimated 1,200 people are dead or missing. Media sources on 9 December reported that approximately 15,000 people from 12 villages were evacuated from areas around Mayon (in Albay province) in anticipation of more lahars following another typhoon. On 11 December, reports indicated that the second typhoon, Utor, had passed Albay without triggering lahars.

Sources: Agence France-Presse (AFP), Associated Press, Associated Press


29 November-5 December 2006

A typhoon that struck the Philippines on 30 November mobilized material from the flanks of Mayon that resulted in significant lahars. Several villages around the flanks were buried by up to 1.5 m (5 ft) of debris. Depending on the news source, the death toll ranges from about 325 to 400 and about 300 to 400 people are still missing.

Sources: Associated Press, Associated Press


25 October-31 October 2006

PHIVOLCS announced the lowering of the Alert status for Mayon from Alert Level 2 to Alert Level 1 on 25 October. The 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank remained in effect.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


11 October-17 October 2006

PHIVOLCS reported that on 11 and 12 October steaming from Mayon was moderate and one volcanic earthquake was recorded.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


4 October-10 October 2006

PHIVOLCS reported on 1 October that fumarolic activity from Mayon produced steam plumes that drifted ENE. Intense incandescence was observed at the summit. Observations were not possible 2-3 October due to cloud cover. According to news articles, the Alert Level was lowered to 2 on 3 October.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), The Manila Times


27 September-3 October 2006

In a 27 September report, PHIVOLCS noted continuing volcanic earthquakes, tremor episodes, and intermittent discharge of incandescent lava fragments along with intense glow from the crater. Steaming from the crater was moderate with white plumes drifting SW.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


20 September-26 September 2006

Surface activity at Mayon consisted of incandescent lava fragments rolling down the slopes and glow coming from the summit crater. Moderate white steam emissions continued from the summit. The number of daily volcanic earthquakes was low during 20-24 September, with 1-3 events per day. On the 25th there were 14 earthquakes recorded. There were also 114 tremor episodes that day, also a high for the week ending on 26 September. Sulfur dioxide flux remained above normal, between 1,200 and 2,200 metric tons/day.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


13 September-19 September 2006

Seismic activity and lava extrusion from Mayon continued to remain low during 13-19 September. Steam plumes from the summit crater reached heights of 300 m above the crater (9,000 ft a.s.l.) and drifted mainly SW, NE, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 with a 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and 7 km Extended Danger Zone on the SE slopes in effect.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


6 September-12 September 2006

Seismic activity and lava extrusion from Mayon decreased during 6-12 September. Steam plumes from the summit crater drifted mainly W, N, and E. Ground-deformation measurements showed an overall deflation. On 11 September, the Alert Level was lowered from 4 to 3 (scale is 0-5, 0 referring to No Alert status).

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), News Balita, Reuters


30 August-5 September 2006

Occasional explosions at Mayon continued during 30 August-5 September. According to seismic data, four explosions were registered on 31 August. Ashfall was reported in surrounding cities including Tabaco (about 13 km NW) and Guinobatan (about 13 km SW). One small explosion was registered on 3 September. Lava extrusion and collapsing lava-flow fronts on the SE slopes continued to produce blocks and small fragments during the reporting period.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Inquirer.net, The Daily Tribune


23 August-29 August 2006

According to PHIVOLCS and news reports, lava extrusion and associated rockfalls on the SE slopes of Mayon continued during 23-29 August. On 24 and 28 August, moderate gray-and-white plumes were observed drifting to the NE, SE, and WNW.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), ABS-CBN News, Manila Bulletin, News Balita


16 August-22 August 2006

PHIVOLCS reported that explosions from Mayon continued during 16-19 August. On 17 August, ash-and-steam plumes drifted at least 5.3 km NE and reached the town Calbayog, where light ashfall was reported. Lava extrusion and collapsing lava-flow fronts that produced blocks and small fragments on the SE slopes continued during the reporting period. On 18 August, the Mibinit/Bonga valley lava flows reached ~6.8 km SE from the summit. The following day, PHIVOLCS estimated that the volume of erupted volcanic deposits was 36 to 41 million cubic meters.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


9 August-15 August 2006

During 9-15 August, explosive activity continued at Mayon after a brief respite on 8 August. Based on interpretations of seismic data, minor explosions during 9-11 and 13-15 August were accompanied by lava extrusion and collapsing lava flow fronts that produced blocks and small fragments. Visual observations were usually obscured by clouds, but on 11 August an ash plume was seen drifting ESE. On 12 August, out of four explosions that occurred, one produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled over the SE and E slopes and generated a plume that rose 500 m high and drifted NE. On 15 August, a brief break in the clouds allowed for a view and confirmation of fresh pyroclastic deposits from activity the previous days. About 40,000 people remained in evacuation centers. The Extended Danger Zone of 8 km in the SE sector was still in effect.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


2 August-8 August 2006

PHIVOLCS reported that during 2-8 August, lava from Mayon continued to flow mainly SSE along the Mabinit channel and subsequently over a broad sector of the upper and middle SE slopes. During 17 July-3 August, the volume of lava discharged amounted to 17 million cubic meters. Voluminous steaming accompanied lava extrusion. On 4 August, lava flows extended 30 m beyond the 6-km-radius region designated as the Permanent Danger Zone. Areas SE and E experienced light ash fall on 4 August generated by the collapse of deposits. On 6 August, lava flows spilled into the Bonga Valley, E of the Mabinit Chanel.

The Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption cloud at 2331 that reached an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. On 7 August, the Alert Level was raised to 4 (scale is 0-5, 0 referring to No Alert status) and the Extended Danger Zone (8 km from the summit) was defined. Three explosions (out of nine in a 24-hour period) at 2236, 2246, and 2249 produced incandescent ejections of lava fragments, ash, gas, and steam. According to news reports, ~40,000 people were evacuated from inside the Extended Danger Zone to 20 evacuation centers on 7 and 8 August.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


26 July-1 August 2006

Lava flows from Mayon in the SE sector of the Bonga gully advanced ~1.35 km during 26 July-1 August to reach a maximum distance of 5.8 km SSE from the summit on 1 August. Smaller lava flows and incandescent blocks descended adjacent gullies. On July 29, light ash accumulation was reported about 12 km S and SE, in Daraga municipality and Legazpi City and vicinity, respectively. Emissions of sulfur-dioxide reached ~12,500 tons per day on 31 July, a record high for the current period of unrest.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


19 July-25 July 2006

PHIVOLCS reported that during 19-24 July lava flows from Mayon traveled SSE a maximum distance of 4 km from the summit toward the Bonga gully and branched off to the W and E. Incandescent blocks shed from the toe and margins of the flows were visible at night and traveled SE. Ash plumes generated from the rolling blocks produced light ash fall 8.5 km E of the summit in Sta. Misericordia. On 20 July, pyroclastic flows were observed on the SE slopes prompting ~100 families to evacuate. On 22 July, lava flows advanced SE towards the Mabinit channel. The lava flows were within the 6 km radius Permanent Danger Zone.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Agence France-Presse (AFP), Gulf News


12 July-18 July 2006

Phreatic eruptions at Mayon on 13 July produced ash that fell up to approximately 5.3 km NE in Calbayog, Malilipot. The Alert Level was raised from 1 to 3 (scale is 0-5, 0 referring to No Alert status) after observers reported lava flows on the SE slopes, the predominant direction for lava flows and rockfalls. On 16 July, a danger zone 6 km from the summit was extended to 7 km in the SE area. Incandescent material was shed from an 800 m long lava flow moving SSE towards Bonga gully on 16 and 17 July. On 18 July, PHIVOLCS reported that the lava flow reached 1 km in length and incandescent boulders rolled 3 km towards the Bonga gully.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Manila Standard Today, Associated Press, Associated Press


22 February-28 February 2006

PHIVOLCS reported that about nine earthquakes related to explosive activity took place at Mayon around 23 February. Cloudy conditions prevented observations of the volcano, but seismic events probably accompanied minor ash explosions. This was supported by reports from residents near the volcano who heard rumbling. The seismic network also recorded two low-frequency volcanic earthquakes associated with shallow magma movement. The sulfur-dioxide flux averaged 1,740 metric tons per day (t/d), similar to values obtained during the last measurement on 28 November 2005. The flux was well above the usual 500 t/d measured at the volcano. Mayon remained at Alert Level 2, with a 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone in effect.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


15 February-21 February 2006

A minor explosion at Mayon on 21 February at 0941 produced an ash plume that rose to ~500 m above the volcano's crater (or 9,700 ft a.s.l.) and drifted SW. Ash was deposited on the upper slopes of the volcano. The ash emission was accompanied by a small explosion-type earthquake, recorded only by seismographs around the volcano.

Prior to the explosion, an increase in seismicity was recorded at the volcano. Between 1545 on 20 February and 0520 on 21 February, there were 147 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes recorded, considerably above the five or fewer events per day that are normally recorded. Some minor rockfalls were indicated and probably resulted from detachment of lava blocks from the summit. Steaming was observed. No incandescence was visible at the crater due to clouds obscuring the volcano. Mayon remained at Alert Level 2, with a 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone in effect. PHIVOLCS expects similar ash explosions in the coming days as magma intrudes the summit area and releases volcanic gases.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


24 August-30 August 2005

PHIVOLCS reported on 23 August that an aerial survey of Mayon conducted on 17 August revealed that lava had accumulated within the volcano's summit crater. The lava dome was extruding very slowly and the volume of lava was contained within the crater. PHIVOLCS warned that the volcano remains at Alert Level 2, and that people cannot enter the Permanent Danger Zone of 6 km radius around the volcano.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


1 December-7 December 2004

According to a news report, strong rains brought by typhoon Yoyong in the Philippines caused lahars to flow down the stream channels of Mayon, particularly in the Padang settlement, and Legazpi City (~14 km SE of the volcano's summit). The Provincial Disaster Management Officer stated that the lahars would not cause damage to homes or rice fields, and that villagers residing near the volcano were not asked to evacuate.

Source: ABS-CBN News


13 October-19 October 2004

According to a news report, seismicity increased at Mayon during 18-19 October. Based on information from PHIVOLCS, the article reported that seven low-frequency earthquakes and harmonic tremor were recorded in a 24-hour period.

Source: ABS-CBN News


8 September-14 September 2004

On 12 September, faint glow was visible at Mayon's summit that coincided with a slight increase in overall background tremor. According to PHIVOLCS, these observations indicated a possible renewed episode of volcanic unrest, probably due to small incremental intrusions of magma at shallow depths that caused the intensified glow at the summit. They reported that small explosions, similar to the events on 3 June and 22 July 2004, may be expected as pockets of gas beneath the crater are suddenly released. There were no significant changes in ground deformation or sulfur-dioxide flux. According to a news report, volcanic material was emitted from Mayon late on 12 September, setting fire to grass on the volcano's slopes. People were reminded to remain outside of the 6-km Permanent Danger Zone. Mayon was at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


21 July-27 July 2004

According to a news article, during the week of 18 July emissions from Mayon deposited ash on two villages near the volcano. Reportedly, a PHIVOLCS scientist stated that the explosions may have occurred due to water contacting hot rocks.

Source: Associated Press


12 May-18 May 2004

According to a news article, PHIVOLCS reported that three volcanic earthquakes were recorded at Mayon during the week of 9 May, suggesting a renewed period of unrest. In addition, incandescence was visible in the crater and moderate steaming was seen. On 12 May, the sulfur-dioxide flux increased from the normal level of ~500 tons per day to ~1,170 tons. People were reminded not to enter the 6-km-diameter Permanent Danger Zone around Mayon.

Source: ABS-CBN News


15 October-21 October 2003

According to news reports, the continuing unrest at Mayon led authorities to extend the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone to 7 km in the SE quadrant of the volcano on 13 October. Seismicity and SO2 emissions increased during the previous week. During a 24-hour-monitoring period, ending the night of 17 October, 16 volcanic earthquakes were recorded beneath Mayon's lower flanks. Authorities maintained Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Manila Bulletin


8 October-14 October 2003

PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level at Mayon from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) on 11 October after incandescence was seen in the E portion of the volcano's crater, sulfur-dioxide emission rates increased from ~1,600 tons on 1 October to ~2,380 tons on 9 October, and the number of volcanic earthquakes had been increasing slightly for several weeks. PHIVOLCS believes that slow magma intrusion may be occurring. The 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone remained in effect.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


17 September-23 September 2003

During 14 August to 18 September, seismicity at Mayon remained within background levels (less than five earthquakes/day). No volcanic earthquakes were recorded after 14 September. Moderate volcanic-gas emissions were observed during most of the report period. The sulfur-dioxide flux remained above baseline repose levels. Mayon remained at Alert Level 1 (on a scale of 0-5), with a 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


14 May-20 May 2003

On 14 May at 1813 a small and brief explosion at Mayon's summit crater produced a small NW-drifting ash puff that rose less than 100 m above the crater. Two seismic stations recorded this as a small-amplitude event. PHIVOLCS stated that there had been a succession of minor emissions in the past few months and that ongoing unrest may lead to more vigorous activity. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5), but PHIVOLCS indicated it would consider increasing the Alert Level if the current pace of unrest is sustained.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


7 May-13 May 2003

On 6 May at 0721 a small explosion occurred at Mayon. The brownish ash-and-steam column produced from the explosion rose about 450 m above Mayon's summit crater and drifted SW. No significant seismicity was recorded prior to the explosion. Electronic tiltmeters on the N and S flanks continued to show inflation of the volcanic edifice. Likewise, a leveling survey conducted on 24 April showed a general inflation of the N flank. Mayon remained at Alert Level 1 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS emphasized that the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone remained in effect.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


12 March-18 March 2003

PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level at Mayon from 0 to 1 (on a scale of 0-5) after an explosion occurred on 17 March at 1819. The brief burst of ash and steam rose to ~1 km above the summit and drifted WNW. Prior to the explosion no significant seismicity was recorded. During 0900-1100 SO2 emission rates were higher than normal at 890 tons per day (500 tons are normally measured during repose), and electronic tiltmeters on the volcano's N and S flanks indicated a slight inflation of the edifice beginning on 13 March. PHIVOLCS emphasized that the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone was in effect.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Associated Press


30 October-5 November 2002

According to news articles, the Alert Level at Mayon was raised from 0 to 1 (on a scale of 0-5) after increased seismicity and gas emission were recorded. The amount of SO2 emitted increased from ~950 tons/per day during the previous week, to ~2,670 tons on 29 October. Residents near the volcano were notified that they must not enter the 6-km radius Permanent Danger Zone, especially on the SE side of the volcano.

Sources: Associated Press, ABS-CBN News


6 February-12 February 2002

A continuous decline in volcanic activity has occurred at Mayon since the volcano's Alert Level was reduced from 2 to 1 on 19 October 2001. On 5 February PHIVOLCS further decreased the Alert Level to 0 because all measured parameters had decreased. Incandescence, probably from still-hot residual magma beneath the crater, remained visible at the summit.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


21 November-27 November 2001

News reports on 21 November stated that lahars were generated at Mayon after several days of heavy rainfall mixed with unconsolidated material on the volcano's slopes. According to the civil defense, flooding caused more than 4,800 families to be evacuated from their homes.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


29 August-4 September 2001

During the week seismicity was relatively low, SO2 emission rates were well above the baseline value of 500 metric tons per day, the edifice was slightly inflated, and steaming and incandescence were occasionally visible at the crater. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


22 August-28 August 2001

Volcanic activity remained low at Mayon during 22-28 August. There was relatively little seismic activity, slight inflation, occasional observations of incandescence at the summit, and a moderate amount of steam emitted from the volcano. SO2 emission rates remained well above the baseline value of 500 metric tons per day. PHIVOLCS reminded residents along the banks of major channels that lahars and torrential stream flows during heavy rains could remobilize material from pyroclastic-flow deposits. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


15 August-21 August 2001

Volcanic activity remained relatively low at Mayon during the week. Few rockfalls were observed, seismicity was relatively low, incandescence was not visible in the crater, and no inflation was detected at the volcano's summit. SO2 emission rates reflected continuous degassing of residual magma. Because volcanic and seismic activity had been declining for the previous 2 weeks, on 21 August PHIVOLCS decreased the Alert Level at the volcano from 4 (hazardous eruption imminent) to 3 (increased tendency towards eruption). As a consequence, the Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) in the SE returned to the original 6-kilometer radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


8 August-14 August 2001

A decline in seismic and volcanic activity occurred at Mayon beginning on 8 August. The level of seismicity remained above background, but declined to non-eruptive conditions. The volcano's edifice was less inflated than during previous weeks. Continuing low-level activity in the crater area produced a high SO2 emission rate and visible incandescence. On 9 August PHIVOLCS decreased the Alert Level from 5 (the highest) to 4. The 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km-radius Extended Danger Zone remained in effect.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Inquirer.net


1 August-7 August 2001

Volcanic activity during 1-4 August at Mayon consisted of high SO2 emission, high- and low-frequency harmonic tremor and low-frequency volcanic earthquakes, slight inflation of the edifice, and the ejection of lava fragments up to 100 m above the crater rim. PHIVOLCS stated that activity had decreased since the 26 July eruptions and the volcano was in a mild state of eruption. According to news reports, approximately 26,500 people were still evacuated from their homes near the volcano. Mayon remained at Alert level 5, the highest level.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Manila Bulletin, Associated Press


25 July-31 July 2001

After the pyroclastic-flow producing eruptions on 26 July Mayon entered an effusive eruptive phase. During 27-31 July lava flowed up to 3.75 km toward the SE in the Bonga Gully, accompanied by numerous high-frequency short-duration tremor events caused by rock fragments detaching from the newly deposited lava flow. Incandescence was visible at the crater, and thick steam plumes and occasional short-lived ash emissions were seen. SO2 emission rates were high, with a maximum of 9,900 metric tons measured on 31 July, which was well above the baseline value of 500 metric tons/day. Due to the possibility of further explosions, Alert Level 5 (the highest level) remained in effect. According to news reports, on 31 July officials allowed residents who live outside of the 7-km danger zone to return to their homes.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Associated Press, Reuters


18 July-24 July 2001

Volcanic activity at Mayon was similar to the previous week. During 17-23 July seismicity consisted of four high-frequency and 37 low-frequency earthquakes, and 203 high-frequency short-duration harmonic tremors. An average of 4,100 metric tons per day of SO2 was emitted from the volcano, which was still above the baseline value of 500 metric tons per day. There was an overall deflationary trend and the intensity of incandescence observed at the crater ranged from barely visible to bright. Rockfalls occasionally rolled from the crater SE towards the Bonga Gully. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


11 July-17 July 2001

Volcanic activity continued to decrease at Mayon during 8-16 July, with low seismicity, occasional SE-directed rockfalls, and a general decrease in SO2 emission rates. Although the volcano's edifice remained slightly inflated, a gradual deflationary trend was detected. The activity decrease led PHIVOLCS to reduce the Alert level from 4 (hazardous eruption imminent) to 3 (increased tendency towards eruption). Authorities removed the 7-km-radius Extended Danger Zone in the SE, but left the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone in effect on a long-term basis.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


4 July-10 July 2001

A decrease in volcanic activity began on 3 July that led PHIVOLCS to reduce the Alert Level on 4 July from 5 (hazardous eruption in progress) to 4 (hazardous eruption imminent). In comparison to the previous week SO2 emissions decreased, seismic activity was lower, the rate of inflation of the volcano's edifice decreased, and there was no ash in the steam clouds that emanated from the crater. Alert Level 4 was maintained due to the possibility of minor ash puffs and secondary explosions caused by the contact of water with the voluminous hot lava. The extended danger zone was reduced from 8 km to 7 km in radius. On 4 July ~20,000 people who were evacuated from the most distal parts of the evacuation zone were permitted to return to their homes.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Associated Press


27 June-3 July 2001

After the large eruption on 24 June volcanic activity returned to relatively low levels for several days. During this period, rockfalls dominated the seismic records as lava slowly flowed to the SE down the Bonga Gully. PHIVOLCS reported that due to diminished lava extrusion lava was not expected to reach populated areas. Volcanic activity increased on 29 June when explosions occurred at 1605 and 1702. These explosions generated pyroclastic flows that traveled down the Bonga Gully and generated billowing ash clouds that ascended to ~4 km above the volcano. The pyroclastic flows reached ~3 km to the SE of the summit towards the general direction of Matanag Gully. During the eruption a portion of the Upper Basud Gully in the volcano's eastern sector collapsed. On 1 July, SO2 emission rates were as high as 8,700 metric tons per day, a value about 5-fold higher than on 29 June. By 2 June the rate of SO2 emission greatly decreased to 840 tons per day. PHIVOLCS stated that due to the ongoing significant inflation of the volcanic cone and anomalous rapid decline of SO2 emission rates a high likelihood of continued explosive eruptions in the coming days remains. Accordingly, the hazard status remained in the top category, Alert Level 5 (hazardous eruption in progress).

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Associated Press, Reuters


20 June-26 June 2001

A large, pyroclastic-flow producing eruption began at Mayon on 24 June at 1245. The first signs of heightened volcanic activity occurred on 19 June when tremor began that was associated with increased lava extrusion. SO2 emission increased to 6,000 metric tons on 19 June in comparison to an average of 1,700 metric tons per day the previous week. In addition, intense incandescence was observed at the dome and slight inflation was detected. By 23 June lava was rapidly flowing SE along the Bonga Gully towards the town of Mabinit, reaching 3.4 km from the volcano's summit. The same day at 1909 lava fountains rose at least 50 m above the summit crater rim. Due to the increase in activity PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level to 4 (hazardous eruption possible within days).

On 24 June a series of strong explosions produced ash clouds that rose up to 1 km above the volcano and drifted to the N. At 1245 a pyroclastic flow descended about 4 km SE down the Bonga and Buyuan gullies, generating an ash cloud that ascended to 2.3 km. Beginning at 1644 explosions sent ash clouds to ~5 km above the summit crater. The largest eruption produced an ash cloud that rose to 10 km above the volcano. Ash generated from the pyroclastic flows and from the summit eruptions drifted to the NE towards the town of Malilipot. PHIVOLCS increased the Alert Level to 5 (hazardous eruption in progress) and the danger zone was extended from 7 to 8 km in radius. PHIVOLCS also announced that all areas within the declared danger zone should be immediately evacuated. The areas at greatest risk were near the Mabinit, Bonga, Matanag, and Buyuan gullies. After the large eruptions on 24 June a lull in activity occurred until at least 0630 on 26 June. This interval was marked by a decrease in seismic activity and only three small explosions. PHIVOLCS maintained Alert Level 5 due to the possibility of more explosive volcanic activity.

News agencies reported that ~25,000 residents near the volcano were evacuated on 24 June. Many returned to their homes the following day despite the evacuation order. There were no reports of injuries directly from the eruptions. On 25 June area airports were closed. News articles noted the possibility that rain from a tropical storm in the area could mix with ash and generate dangerous lahars. The provincial government declared a state of calamity in affected areas.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Associated Press, Reuters


13 June-19 June 2001

A high level of high-frequency low-duration harmonic tremor was detected on Mayon that was associated with near-continuous detachment of hot rock fragments from the summit lava dome. In addition, moderate amounts of steam emanated from the crater, crater glow was fair-to-bright, and SO2 emission (average of ~2,700 metric tons per day) was well above the baseline value of 500 metric tons per day. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), The Philippine Star


6 June-12 June 2001

Rockfalls, small avalanches, moderate steam emission, and fair-to-bright crater glow dominated the visible volcanic activity at Mayon during the week. Partial lava-dome collapses occurred on 11 June at 1347 and on 12 June at 1819. The 11 June collapse produced a small pyroclastic flow that descended the Bonga Gully, reaching an elevation of 1,480 m and producing a thin ash cloud that drifted to the E. The 12 June collapse sparked a period of vigorous, continuous emission of lava fragments for ~1 hour. During the week up to 198 rockfall events were detected per day. A maximum of 2,700 metric tons of SO2 was measured per day, which was lower than the previous week but above the baseline value of 500 tons/day. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone. PHIVOLC warned that residents around the volcano, especially those staying in areas facing the Bonga Gully and the SE sector, should be vigilant and prepared to evacuate at any time.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), The Philippine Star


30 May-5 June 2001

During the week a large amount of high-frequency short-duration harmonic tremor occurred at Mayon. The tremor was associated with the intermittent descent of small lava avalanches and incandescent volcanic material down the Bonga Gully on the SE flank of the volcano. Moderate amounts of steam were observed rising from the summit crater where incandescence was occasionally observed. SO2 emission (up to 2,900 metric tons/day) was above the baseline value of 500 tons/day. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone. PHIVOLCS warned that residents around the volcano, especially those staying in areas facing the Bonga Gully and the SE sector, should be vigilant and prepared to evacuate at any time.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


23 May-29 May 2001

During the week seismic activity was relatively low at Mayon and was associated with occasional rockfalls that descended to the SE down the Bonga Gully. In addition, moderate steaming occurred, incandescence was occasionally observed at the crater, and SO2 emission (up to 5,700 metric tons/day) was above the baseline value of 500 tons/day. On 28 May at 1036 the seismic network recorded a low-frequency volcanic earthquake that was inferred from seismic data to be associated with an ash puff. The ash puff not visible due to meteorological cloud cover. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone. PHIVOLCS warned that residents around the volcano, especially those staying in areas facing the Bonga Gully and the SE sector, should be vigilant and prepared to evacuate at any time.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


16 May-22 May 2001

Elevated levels of volcanic activity continued at Mayon. Rockfalls were produced from fragments that were shed off of the summit lava dome. Seismic activity was relatively low. SO2 emission rates were at a very high level of ~7,400 metric tons per day, which is significantly above the baseline value of 500 tons/day. Moderate steaming occurred and Intensity I (faint) and II (fair, visible with the naked eye) incandescence was occasionally observed at the crater. Weak-to-moderate ash-and-steam venting occurred from the lava dome. Electronic distance meter (EDM) data indicated a general, but minor, inflation of the volcanic edifice. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone. PHIVOLCS warned that residents around the volcano, especially those staying in areas facing the Bonga Gully and the SE sector, should be vigilant and prepared to evacuate at any time.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Associated Press


9 May-15 May 2001

Volcanic activity increased at Mayon, with a lava dome collapse occurring on 13 May. On 12 May seismographs detected a series of explosions at Mayon's summit crater. The following day the SE-facing portion of the lava dome partially collapsed, leaving a V-shaped opening in the dome. The collapse produced small lava avalanches that reached a maximum runout distance of 300 m down the Bonga Gully. After the collapse, incandescence was observed at the dome and lava fragments fell into the gully. Seismic activity indicated frequent earthquakes, tremor, and explosions. On 14 May rockfalls dominated the seismicity. On 15 May there was a lull in activity, with no rockfalls or lava avalanches occurring. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone. PHIVOLCS warned that lava flows and/or pyroclastic flows could be produced in the future and residents just outside of the permanent danger zone should be prepared to evacuate at any time.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Associated Press, Agence France-Presse (AFP)


2 May-8 May 2001

At 1848 on 7 May an explosion occurred at Mayon that was recorded by the seismic network on the volcano, but was not observed due to cloudy conditions. After the eruption, faint incandescence was visible at the crater with the naked eye during 1915-1945; the incandescence was graded as level 2 intensity. During the week ending on 29 April there had been a total of 33 low-frequency earthquakes and 12 high-frequency short-duration harmonic tremors. The SO2 flux during the same period averaged 3,100 metric tons/day, which is still significantly above the baseline value of 500 tons/day. Deformation monitoring showed that the volcano was inflated, but the present trend revealed insignificant change. Moderate steaming was typical. The crater was visible, but no glow was observed. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


25 April-1 May 2001

PHIVOLCS reported that during the week ending on 22 April there had been a total of 42 low-frequency earthquakes and 11 high-frequency short-duration harmonic tremors. The SO2 flux during the same period averaged 3,400 metric tons/day, which is still significantly above the baseline value of 500 tons/day. Deformation monitoring showed that the volcano was inflated, but the present trend revealed insignificant change. Moderate steaming was typical. The crater was visible, but no glow was observed. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


18 April-24 April 2001

PHIVOLCS reported that during the week ending on 15 April there had been a total of 60 low-frequency earthquakes and 13 high-frequency short-duration harmonic tremors. The SO2 flux during the same period averaged 3,400 metric tons/day, which is still significantly above the baseline value of 500 tons/day. Deformation monitoring showed that the volcano was inflated, but the present trend revealed insignificant change. Moderate steaming was typical. Faint incandescence was observed at the crater using a telescope for approximately an hour on both 16 and 17 April; the incandescence was graded as level 1 intensity. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


11 April-17 April 2001

PHIVOLCS reported that during the week ending on 8 April there had been a total of 116 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes, six high-frequency volcanic earthquakes, and three high-frequency short-duration harmonic tremors. The SO2 flux during the same period averaged 3,400 metric tons/day, which is still significantly above the baseline value of 500 tons/day. Deformation monitoring showed that the volcano was inflated, but the present trend revealed insignificant change. Moderate steaming was typical. During most of the week no glow was observed at the crater, except during 1915 to 2223 on 10 April when faint incandescence was observed at the crater using a telescope; the incandescence was graded as level 1 intensity. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


4 April-10 April 2001

The last reported observations of Mayon by the PHIVOLCS occurred on 6 April. At 0754 a small eruption produced an ash puff that reached 200 m above the crater rim before drifting to the WSW. The same day 17 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes were recorded and ~2,600 metric tons of SO2 were measured, a value significantly above the baseline value of 500 tons/day. Deformation monitoring showed that the volcano was inflated, but the present trend revealed insignificant change. The crater was visible, but no glow was observed. Moderate steaming was typical. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


28 March-3 April 2001

PHIVOLCS reported that during the week ending on 1 April there had been a total of 23 low-frequency earthquakes. The SO2 flux during the same period averaged 2,174 metric tons/day, which is still significantly above the baseline value of 500 tons/day. Deformation monitoring showed that the volcano was inflated, but the present trend revealed insignificant change. The crater was visible, but no glow was observed. Moderate steaming was typical. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


21 March-27 March 2001

PHIVOLCS reported that during the week ending on 25 March there had been a total of 86 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes with relative amplitudes of 45 mm. The SO2 flux during the same period averaged 2,975 metric tons/day, which is still significantly above the baseline value of 500 tons/day. Deformation monitoring showed that the volcano was inflated, but the present trend revealed insignificant change. The crater was visible, but no glow was observed. Moderate steaming was typical. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


14 March-20 March 2001

PHIVOLCS reported that during 15 to 19 March, 10-37 low-frequency earthquakes were recorded daily. An average of 2,900 metric tons per day (t/d) of SO2 was recorded during the previous week, which was significantly above the baseline value of 500 t/d. Many days a slight inflationary trend was detected at the volcano's edifice and moderate steaming was seen. No incandescence was observed at the crater. PHIVOLCS warned that instrumental and visual observations suggested that an eruption may occur in the coming weeks and that the volcano remained at Alert Level 3. Observations revealed that the lava dome growing at the summit had overlapped the pre-existing SE rim of the summit crater. Further growth of the lava dome towards the SE could result in rockfalls and avalanches that would be channeled down the SE-flank Bonga Gully. In addition, large pyroclastic flows could occur down the volcano's SE slope.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


7 March-13 March 2001

PHIVOLCS reported that during 7 to 13 March, 6-33 low-frequency earthquakes were recorded daily. One SO2 emission measurement was made during the week on 4 March, with a reading of 1,750 metric tons. Like the previous weeks, a slight inflationary trend was detected at the volcano's edifice and weak-to-moderate steaming was occasionally seen. At 1509 on 11 March a brief ash discharge reached a height of 150 m and drifted to the SW. At 1940 the same day faint incandescence was observed at the crater using a telescope; graded as level 1 intensity. Mayon remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


28 February-6 March 2001

PHIVOLCS reported that during 28 February to 6 March, 15 to 50 low-frequency earthquakes were recorded daily. An average of 1,855 metric tons per day (t/d) of SO2 was recorded during the previous week, which was significantly above the baseline value of 500 t/d. A slight inflationary trend was detected at the volcano's edifice, no incandescence was observed at the crater, and weak-to-moderate steaming was occasionally seen. Mayon remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


21 February-27 February 2001

PHIVOLCS reported that during the week the number of earthquakes recorded at Mayon was similar to the previous week, and lower SO2 emission rates were recorded. Between 6 and 30 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes were recorded daily during 21-26 February. SO2 emission rates decreased from a maximum value of ~3,000 metric tons per day (t/d) on 20 February, to 1,700 t/d on 21 February. The minimum value was ~1,000 t/d on 24 February. During the week there was an inflationary trend at Mayon's edifice and no incandescence was observed at the volcano's crater. Weak-to-moderate steaming was occasionally observed. Mayon remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


14 February-20 February 2001

PHIVOLCS reported that activity decreased at Mayon in comparison to the previous week with a slightly lower number of earthquakes and lower SO2 emission rates. Between 19 and 31 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes were recorded daily during 13-20 February. SO2 emission rates decreased from ~7,100 metric tons per day (t/d) on 12 February, to 2,700 t/d on 13 February. The highest SO2 emission rate recorded during the week was 4,800 t/d on 15 February. During the week there was an inflationary trend at Mayon. The volcano was obscured by clouds so that crater glow and steaming activity could not be observed. Mayon remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported that they plan to lower the Alert Level to 2 if volcanic activity continues to decrease.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


7 February-13 February 2001

The PHIVOLCS reported that volcanic activity remained high at Mayon. Abundant low-frequency volcanic earthquakes associated with dome growth took place on 7, 8, 9, 11, and 12 February and consisted of 29, 30, 29, 45, and 30 events, respectively. Also on 12 February seismometers detected 2 rockfalls. The crater emitted voluminous steam and sulfur, with a maximum of ~7,100 metric tons of SO2 detected on 12 February. Tiltmeters on the volcano's N flank continued to detect slight edifice inflation. On 11 February, PHIVOLCS reported that most of the springs in the E and S quadrants of the volcano showed a decrease in discharge, despite increasing rainfall. Inclement weather prevented observations of the volcano. Mayon remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


31 January-6 February 2001

PHIVOLCS reported that numerous shallow earthquakes, high SO2 emission rates, and sustained inflation during the week reflected the active state of the growing summit lava dome. They reported that during the week up to 46 volcanic earthquakes were recorded per day, the SO2 emission rate increased from 2,600 metric tons per day (t/d) on 1 February to 5,330 t/d on 5 February, and electronic tiltmeters on the N flank of the cone continued to detect inflation at the volcano's edifice. Incandescence was visible periodically at the summit. On 1 February, officials recommended that residents of the five towns within the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone evacuate the area. In addition, PHIVOLCS warned residents just outside of the Permanent Danger Zone to be alert for potential hazardous volcanic flows, which may be channeled by rivers and gullies that radiate from the summit. Mayon remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 0-5).

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Agence France-Presse (AFP), Reuters


24 January-30 January 2001

PHIVOLCS reported that the increase in volcanic activity, which has occurred since a lava dome was spotted in Mayon's summit crater on 10 January, led them to raise the Alert Level from 2 to 3 (an increased tendency towards eruption, with magmatic outbursts possible within the coming weeks) on 25 January. During the previous week the monitoring networks had detected numerous volcanic earthquakes, continued inflation at the edifice, and very high gas emission from the summit crater (5,040 metric tons per day). In addition, several ash ejections coincided with earthquakes that originated from beneath the lava dome, which appeared to grow during the week. The ash-laden volcanic plumes typically rose up to 500 m above the crater and generally drifted with the prevailing wind to the WNW and NW.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Associated Press


17 January-23 January 2001

PHIVOLCS reported that activity increased at Mayon during the week and that all indicators suggested that the lava dome in the summit crater was becoming active although no new lava had reached the surface yet. During 17 and 18 January, 36 low-frequency-type volcanic earthquakes occurred over 24 hours, which scientists believed was caused by continued magma movement beneath the summit lava dome. During 19-23 January the number of recorded earthquakes increased to 60 events per day; tiltmeters continued to record inflation; and SO2 emission rates increased to 8,070 tons/day (a more than 4-fold increase from that seen in previous weeks). The Lignon Hill observatory reported that ash-entrained steam briefly erupted from the summit lava dome at 0932 on 22 January accompanied by a volcanic earthquake. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


10 January-16 January 2001

An aerial survey by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) on 10 January confirmed the presence of a lava dome inside the summit crater. The lava dome appeared to have a spiny, blocky surface, was emitting voluminous steam, and exhibited slight incandescence. The SO2 emission rate was 2,300 metric tons per day (t/d), high above the 500 t/d level usually observed during quiescent periods. Seismicity related to dome growth remained significant. Deformation measured by electronic tiltmeters on the N flank indicated intrusion of magma into the upper levels of the volcano. Similar activity continued through the 15th. Alert Level 2 (sustained unrest with indications of magmatic activity) remained in effect.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


3 January-9 January 2001

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) stated in the 09 January Mayon Bulletin that major monitored parameters strongly suggest that activity is rapidly progressing beyond the usual background conditions at the volcano. Reports by the Ligñon Hill Observatory in Legazpi City disclosed that lava dome growth was occurring at the volcano's summit, with coinciding, slight ground tilt. In addition, voluminous volcanic gases were released from the summit crater, and there was a significant increase in earthquake occurrences for about a week that they believe is related to magma ascent. As of 9 January, near-continuous cloud cover prevented observations of the dome to determine if lava was present in the crater. Because reactivation of the volcano may eventually lead to the production of lava flows or pyroclastic flows, PHIVOLCS put the volcano at Alert Level 2 (increased and sustained volcanic unrest) and maintained the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Associated Press, Reuters


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 May 7 2013 May 7 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2009 Sep 15 2010 Jan 1 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2008 Aug 10 2008 Aug 10 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2006 Jul 13 2006 Oct 1 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2006 Feb 21 2006 Feb 23 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2005 Aug 17 (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations
2004 Jun 3 2004 Sep 12 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 2003 Oct 8 ] [ 2003 Oct 11 (?) ] Uncertain 0  
2003 Mar 17 2003 May 14 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2002 Oct 11 2002 Oct 11 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2001 Jan 8 2001 Aug 8 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
2000 Jul 16 2000 Aug 31 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1999 Jun 22 2000 Mar 19 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1993 Feb 2 1993 Apr 4 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1984 Sep 9 1984 Oct 6 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1978 Mar 7 1978 Sep (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1968 Apr 21 1968 May 20 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1947 Jan 8 1947 Feb Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1943 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1941 Sep 13 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1939 Aug 21 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1938 Jun 5 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1928 Jan (?) 1928 Aug 26 ± 5 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1902 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1900 Mar 1 1900 Mar 6 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1897 May 23 (in or before) 1897 Jul 23 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1896 Aug 31 1896 Sep 27 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1895 Jul 20 1895 Nov 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and east flank
1893 Oct 3 (?) 1893 Oct 31 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1891 Oct 3 1892 Feb 29 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1890 Sep 10 1890 Sep 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1888 Dec 15 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1886 Jul 8 1887 Mar 10 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1885 Nov 21 1885 Dec 2 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1881 Jul 6 1882 Aug Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and south and SW flanks
1876 Nov 26 1876 Nov 26 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1876 Apr Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1873 Jun 20 1873 Jul 22 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1872 Sep 5 1872 Sep 9 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1871 Dec 8 1872 Jan Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1868 Dec 17 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1863 May 30 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1862 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1861 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1860 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1859 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1858 Jan 1858 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1857 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1855 Mar 22 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1853 Jul 13 1853 Aug 26 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1851 May 26 1851 Jun Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1846 May 11 1846 May 11 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1845 Jan 20 ± 1 days 1845 Jan 30 ± 1 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1839 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1834 1835 May Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1827 Jun 27 1828 Feb 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1814 Feb 1 1814 Feb 15 (in or after) Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
[ 1811 Oct 5 ] [ 1811 Oct 6 ] Uncertain 2  
1800 Oct 30 1800 Oct 31 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1767 Oct 24 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1766 Jul 20 1766 Jul 25 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1616 Feb 19 1616 Feb 23 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
0470 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
3100 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Castillo P R, Newhall C G, 2004. Geochemical constraints on possible subduction components in lavas of Mayon and Taal volcanoes, southern Luzon, Philippines. J Petr, 45: 1089-1108.

Catane S G, Taniguchi H, Goto A, Givero A P, Mandanas A A, 2005. Explosive volcanism in the Philippines. CNEAS Monograph Ser, Tohoku Univ, 18: 1-146.

COMVOL, 1981. Catalogue of Philippine volcanoes and solfataric areas. Philippine Comm Volc, 87 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1953. Philippine Islands and Cochin China. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 2: 1-49.

Newhall C G, 1979. Temporal variation in the lavas of Mayon volcano, Philippines. J Volc Geotherm Res, 5: 61-84.

Paguican E M R, Lagmay A M F, Rodolfo K S, Rodolfo R S, Tengonciang A M P, Lapus M R, Baliatan E G, Obille Jr E C, 20009. Extreme rainfall-induced lahars and dike breaching, 30 November 2006, Mayon volcano, Philippines. Bull Volc, 71: 845: 857.

PHIVOLCS, 2004-. Volcanoes. http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/Volcanolist/.

Ramos-Villarta S C, Corpuz E G, Newhall C G, 1985. Eruptive history of Mayon volcano, Philippines. Philippine J Volc, 2: 1-35.

Beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2462 m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes averaging 35-40 degrees that are capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from strombolian to basaltic plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon's most violent eruption, in 1814, killed more than 1200 people and devastated several towns.