Kanlaon

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 10.412°N
  • 123.132°E

  • 2435 m
    7987 ft

  • 272020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

12 May-18 May 2010

Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 May an ash plume from Kanlaon rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Ash was not identified in satellite imagery. [PHIVOLCS later confirmed that the plume originated from a fire and not an eruption. Monitored parameters for Kanlaon indicated normal levels and the Alert Level remained at 0 (on a scale of 0-5).]

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



 Available Weekly Reports


2010: May
2009: August
2008: February | April
2006: June | July | November
2005: January | March | April | May
2004: March
2003: June | July
2002: January | November
2001: March


12 May-18 May 2010

Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 May an ash plume from Kanlaon rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Ash was not identified in satellite imagery. [PHIVOLCS later confirmed that the plume originated from a fire and not an eruption. Monitored parameters for Kanlaon indicated normal levels and the Alert Level remained at 0 (on a scale of 0-5).]

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 August-1 September 2009

PHIVOLCS reported that during 23 August-1 September the seismic network for Kanlaon detected a significant rise in the number of earthquakes. A few of the earthquakes were felt as far away as Bago City, 30 km NW. The epicenters clustered on the NW flank.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


23 April-29 April 2008

According to news articles, PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level for Kanlaon to 0 on 25 April. Seismic activity was at background levels during 5 March-25 April, with 0-3 earthquakes per day. Mt. Kanlaon Natural Park opened for mountaineering activities; however visitors were warned that the risk of entering the 4-km permanent danger zone remained high.

Source: Sun Star News


6 February-12 February 2008

PHIVOLCS reported that during 7-10 February the seismic network for Kanlaon detected a significant rise in earthquakes. On 10 February the Alert Level was raised from 0 to 1 (out of 5). Cloud cover prohibited visual observations of the summit. The public was strongly advised not to enter the 4-km Permanent Danger Zone.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


1 November-7 November 2006

On 2 November, PHIVOLCS reported the lowering of the Alert Level for Canlaon from 1 to 0. During 26 July-2 November, no ash explosions occurred and steam emissions and seismicity were low.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


19 July-25 July 2006

Based on interpretations of seismic data, an explosion at Canlaon that lasted more than 10 minutes occurred on 23 July. An ash column was not observed due to cloud cover. Trace deposits of ash fell up to 9 km ENE of the crater in the neighborhoods of Pula, Malaiba, and Lumapao. On 24 July, PHIVOLCS reported a total of 16 volcanic earthquakes, 3 short-duration tremors, and 2 earthquakes indicating small explosions. Ash was not observed.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


21 June-27 June 2006

Minor steam-and-ash emissions that were observed from Canlaon during 21-24 June reached a maximum height of 1.5 km above the summit (12,900 ft a.s.l.) and drifted NW and SW. Light ash fall was observed approximately 25 km SW in the municipality of La Castellana. The alert status remained at Level 1, which restricts activity within 4 km of the summit.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


14 June-20 June 2006

Minor steam-and-ash emissions that were observed from Canlaon during 13-15 June reached heights of 2 km above the summit (14,600 ft a.s.l.) and drifted primarily NE and NW. Light ashfall was observed on the volcano's upper N flanks and reached approximately 10 km E in Canlaon City. The alert status remained at Level 1, which restricted activity within 4 km of the summit.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


7 June-13 June 2006

Small explosions on 3, 10-11, and 12 June generated steam-and-ash emissions from Canlaon that reached maximum heights of 1 km above the summit (11,300 ft a.s.l.) and drifted NW and SW. Ash fell on the upper SW slopes during 10-12 June. The alert status was raised on 12 June to Alert Level 1 (scale 0 to 5), which restricts activity within 4 km of the summit.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


25 May-31 May 2005

Steam emissions continued at Canlaon during 25-26 May, rising to a maximum height of 1 km above the volcano's crater (11,300 ft a.s.l.). Seismic activity remained at low levels. The sulfur-dioxide flux was at ~1,400 metric tons on 26 May, above the usual flux of 500 metric tons per day.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


18 May-24 May 2005

On 18 May lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at three areas. Surface lava flows were visible on the coastal plain and on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Volcanic tremor remained above background levels at Kilauea's summit and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 May-17 May 2005

Multiple episodes of mild ash and steam ejections were observed at Canlaon during 10-11 May that sent clouds to heights of up to 500 m above the vent before being blown NW. These episodes were not seen in the seismic record. The hazard status remained at Alert Level 1.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


4 May-10 May 2005

Contingency plans formulated earlier this year by local governments in consultation with PHIVOLCS in the event of a major eruption were misinterpreted in press reports indicating that evacuations were being recommended. The current level of activity does not require any evacuation or facility closures. Ongoing ash emissions are only a concern on the upper slopes of the volcano within 4 km of the summit crater. Regular mild ash-and-steam clouds rising less than 800 m above the crater did not cause ashfall in local communities during 3-10 May.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


27 April-3 May 2005

During 27 April to 2 May, mild ash-and-steam emissions from Canlaon produced plumes to a maximum height of 1 km above the volcano (11,300 ft a.s.l.). The sulfur-dioxide flux began to increase on 28 April, reaching 2,700 tons on 1 May. According to news reports, flights to and from nearby Kalibo airport were suspended on 3 May due to reduced visibility.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Inquirer.net


20 April-26 April 2005

Mild ash eruptions continued at Canlaon during 21-26 April, producing plumes as high as 1 km above the volcano (11,300 ft a.s.l.). Emissions on 21 April drifted SW and deposited small amounts of ash in the villages of Sagang, Mansalanao, Old Fabrica, Biak-na-Bato, Kamandag, Tinago, and Cabagnaan of the town La Castillana. Emissions on 22 April deposited ash in Manghanoy and Cabagnaan. Emissions on 25 April deposited traces of ash in Canlaon City. Canlaon remained at Alert Level 1 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


13 April-19 April 2005

During 13-14 April, mild ash emissions at Canlaon produced plumes to a height of ~700 m above the crater (~10,300 ft a.s.l.). During 15-17 April, moderate-to-strong emissions produced ash plumes to ~2 km above the crater (~14,600 ft a.s.l.) and deposited ash in villages as far as La Castellana (16 km SW of the crater). Canlaon remained at Alert Level 1 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


6 April-12 April 2005

A low-energy ash emission from Canlaon on 7 April at 1429 generated a cloud to a height of ~100 m above the crater (~8,300 ft a.s.l.). The cloud slowly drifted SW. Only the crater and upper SW slopes of the volcano were affected by the emission. According to PHIVOLCS, the seismic monitoring network around the volcano did not record any earthquakes during the event. Canlaon remained at Alert Level 1.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


30 March-5 April 2005

Ash emissions began from Canlaon on 20 March around 1300. Small amounts of ash fell in the town of Guintubdan 5 km W of the volcano. During 24 March to 4 April, sporadic ash emissions rose to a maximum height of 1 km above the volcano (11,300 ft a.s.l.). During this time ash fell in the towns of La Castellana (16 km SW of the crater), Upper Sag-ang, Yubo (5-6 km SW), and Guintubdan (5-6 km WNW). Due to this low-level episode of unrest, PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level at Canlaon from 0 to 1 on 30 March. There was also a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone around the volcano's summit. According to a news article, pilots were advised to avoid flying near Canlaon.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), The Philippine Star, Inquirer.net


19 January-25 January 2005

A brief ash emission began at Canlaon around 0930 on 21 January. The cloud produced from the emission rose to an approximate height of 500 m above the active crater and drifted WNW and SW. No coincident volcanic earthquakes were recorded. There were fine ash deposits in the city of Cabagnaan, ~5.5 km SW of the crater. PHIVOLCS advised the public to avoid entering the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone around the volcano.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


3 March-9 March 2004

On 1 March PHIVOLCS reduced the Alert Level at Canlaon from 1 to 0, due to low seismicity and volcanism. After September 2003, either no activity or weak steam emissions were observed at the summit crater and seismicity was at normal levels. The public was advised that there was still a risk of sudden phreatic explosions occurring in the 4-km Permanent Danger Zone.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


9 July-15 July 2003

An emission from Canlaon on 10 July at 1735 sent an ash-and-steam cloud to a height of ~1 km above the summit. The cloud was visible from Canlaon City and drifted NW, SW, and NE, depositing ash in an area within a 4 km radius around the crater. Emissions also occurred on 11 July during 0620-0624 and 0658-0705 that rose to ~1.3 km above the crater and drifted SE. Canlaon remained at Alert Level 1, with a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


2 July-8 July 2003

As of 4 July, moderate steam-and-ash emissions continued at Canlaon, with ash columns reaching ~900 m above the summit. Low-frequency volcanic earthquakes and low-frequency short duration harmonic tremor were recorded. According to PHIVOLCS, based on Canlaon's historical behavior the mild phreatic activity that is occurring is probably related to hydrothermal disturbances at shallow depths. The absence of longer duration harmonic tremors suggested no active magma movement or intrusion. However, sudden ash emissions and explosions are still expected to occur anytime without warning. Canlaon remained at Alert Level 1 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


18 June-24 June 2003

On 17 and 18 June multiple small emissions occurred at Canlaon. On the 17th and on the morning of the18th ash-and-steam plumes rose to a maximum height of ~400 m above the volcano and drifted NE. On the afternoon of the 18th plumes drifted SE. Low-frequency volcanic earthquakes were recorded prior to the eruptions. Canlaon remained at Alert Level 1 (on a scale of 0-5), with a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), SunStar News, ABS-CBN News


4 June-10 June 2003

According to a news article, an ash emission occurred from Canlaon on 8 June during 0645-0700. Small amounts of ash fell in Canlaon City, Barangay Masulog, and Barangay Linutangan. In addition, PHIVOLCS recorded several low-frequency volcanic earthquakes and short-duration harmonic tremor. Moderate steaming occurred, which was above normal levels. The Alert Level at Canlaon remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5), with a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone.

Source: Sun Star News


27 November-3 December 2002

A small ash puff was released from Canlaon on 28 November at 0721. The puff rose to a height of ~100 m above the active crater and drifted SW. Associated volcanic tremor was recorded at Cabagnaan and Guintubdan stations. Traces of ash fell at Cabagnaan station, SSW of the active crater. Moderate steam emissions were observed immediately after the ash puff and a few discrete tremors were recorded. PHIVOLCS advised the public to remain outside of the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), ABS-CBN News


30 January-5 February 2002

During early February, high-frequency earthquakes were recorded at Canlaon at depths of 1-5.5 km. In the previous week, several low-frequency earthquakes were recorded. According to a news report, PHIVOLCS stated that the occurrence of low-frequency earthquakes supports the idea that some fluid migration, possibly magma ascent, is occurring. The Alert Level remained at 1 ("Low-level unrest"), and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone was in effect.

Source: Sun Star News


21 March-27 March 2001

PHIVOLCS noted in a 21 March report that since January 2001 earthquake clusters or occurrences have been recorded by the seismic monitoring network around the volcano. These earthquakes may signify a reactivation of the volcanic system at depth and could be a precursor to more vigorous activity, such as ash explosions. This interpretation is based on similar earthquake clusters manifested prior to the 10 August 1996 phreatic explosion from the active summit crater of the volcano. In view of the possibility of a sudden ash ejection, PHIVOLCS recommends the immediate suspension of all treks to the summit crater until further notice. As an additional precaution, the pre-defined 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) should be avoided at all times.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2006 Jun 3 2006 Jul 25 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2005 Jan 25 2005 May 25 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2003 Mar 7 2003 Jul 23 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2002 Nov 28 2002 Nov 28 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1996 Aug 10 1996 Aug 10 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1993 Aug 25 1993 Sep 3 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1992 Jun 10 1992 Jun 10 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1992 Jan 8 1992 Jan 8 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1991 Feb 14 1991 Feb 14 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1989 Oct 25 1989 Dec 13 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1988 Jun 21 1988 Jul 2 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1987 Mar 30 (?) 1987 Jul 2 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1986 Jun 3 1986 Aug 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1985 Oct 5 1985 Dec 7 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1985 Mar 13 1985 Mar 14 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1980 Aug 8 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1978 Jun 27 1978 Sep 2 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1970 Jun 5 1970 Aug 24 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1969 Oct 10 1969 Oct 29 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1932 Dec 1933 Jan Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1927 Mar 20 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1905 Nov 6 1906 Jan 16 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1904 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1902 Jan 31 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1894 May 1894 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1893 Jul Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1884 May ] [ 1884 Jun ] Uncertain 2  
[ 1883 Jul ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1866 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

COMVOL, 1981. Catalogue of Philippine volcanoes and solfataric areas. Philippine Comm Volc, 87 p.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Neumann van Padang M, 1953. Philippine Islands and Cochin China. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 2: 1-49.

PHIVOLCS, 2004-. Volcanoes. http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/Volcanolist/.

Solidum R U, Castillo P R, Hawkins J W, 2003. Geochemistry of lavas from Negros Arc, west central Philippines: insights into the contribution from the subducting slab. Geochem Geophys Geosyst, 4: doi:10.1029/2003GC00513.

von Biedersee H, Pichler H, 1995. The Canlaon and its neighbouring volcanoes in the Negros Belt/Philippines. J Southeast Asian Earth Sci, 11: 111-123.

Kanlaon volcano (also spelled Canlaon), the most active of the central Philippines, forms the highest point on the island of Negros. The massive 2435-m-high andesitic stratovolcano is dotted with fissure-controlled pyroclastic cones and craters, many of which are filled by lakes. The largest debris avalanche known in the Philippines traveled 33 km to the SW from Kanlaon. The summit of Kanlaon contains a 2-km-wide, elongated northern caldera with a crater lake and a smaller, but higher, historically active vent, Lugud crater, to the south. Historical eruptions from Kanlaon, recorded since 1866, have typically consisted of phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano.