Gamkonora

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 1.38°N
  • 127.53°E

  • 1635 m
    5363 ft

  • 268040
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

3 July-9 July 2013

CVGHM reported that observers at the Gamkonora observation post in Gamsungi (6 km NW), West Halmahera, reported that during 27 May-30 June diffuse white plumes rose up to 300 m above the crater rim. Seismicity declined overall, but a seismic crisis characterized by continuous tremor was detected on 10 June; tremor was not detected during 13-30 June. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 1 July. Residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 1.5 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM



 Available Weekly Reports


2013: May | July
2012: September
2011: April
2009: March
2008: March
2007: July


3 July-9 July 2013

CVGHM reported that observers at the Gamkonora observation post in Gamsungi (6 km NW), West Halmahera, reported that during 27 May-30 June diffuse white plumes rose up to 300 m above the crater rim. Seismicity declined overall, but a seismic crisis characterized by continuous tremor was detected on 10 June; tremor was not detected during 13-30 June. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 1 July. Residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 1.5 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


22 May-28 May 2013

CVGHM reported that a phreatic eruption at Gamkonora on 23 January was preceded by increased seismicity. Some types of seismic signals increased during March-April while others decreased. On 24 May seismicity indicative of shallow magma movement increased and diffuse white plumes rose 100-300 above the crater. During 25-27 May dense white-to-gray plumes rose 200-500 m above the crater. On 27 May the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 3 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 September-11 September 2012

CVGHM reported that on 7 September the Alert Level for Gamkonora was lowered from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


27 April-3 May 2011

CVGHM reported that during January-April diffuse white plumes from Gamkonora rose 25-100 m above the crater rim. Seismicity increased during 29 April-3 May. On 1 May, white plumes rose 150 m above the crater rim. The next day, white plumes rose 300 m above the crater rim and incandescence from the crater was observed. Residents near the volcano's base noted a sulfur smell. The Alert level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


18 March-24 March 2009

On 23 March, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Gamkonora from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) based on visual observations and decreased seismicity since January. Diffuse white plumes rose 50-150 m above the crater. Residents and visitors were reminded not to approach or climb the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 March-1 April 2008

CVGHM reported that seismic activity from Gamkonora increased on 24 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and visitors were reminded not to approach or climb the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


25 July-31 July 2007

CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Gamkonora from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 24 July based on visual observations and a decrease in seismicity. That followed a sharp drop in seismicity during 8-23 July, a decline both in terms of the number of events and their energy. Later, during 16-23 July, when breaks in inclement weather took place, observers saw white plumes rising to altitudes of 5.6 km (18,400 ft) a.s.l. Available CVGHM reports issued through the 26 July did not disclose more recent events.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


11 July-17 July 2007

CVGHM reported that on 10 July, incandescent material from Gamkonora was propelled about 5 m above the summit and intermittently showered the flank. On 11 July, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.9-9.4 km (19,400-30,800 ft) a.s.l. During 12-15 July, visual observations of ash plumes were hindered by cloud cover. On 16 July, the Alert Level was lowered from 4 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) due to a drastic decrease in seismic activity, a decline in ash plume altitudes, and the absence of incandescence observed at the summit during 11-15 July.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


4 July-10 July 2007

On 8 July, a phreatic eruption from Gamkonora produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted N and ashfall was reported from villages as far as 7 km downwind. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). On 9 July, seismic activity increased and eruption plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.6 km (7,000-8,500 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level was raised to 3. Later that day, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.6 km (18,400 ft) a.s.l. and the Alert Level was raised to 4. During 9-10 July, incandescent material was propelled 5-50 m above the crater. On 10 July, booming noises were followed by ash plumes that rose to 4.1 km (13,500 ft) a.s.l. About 8,400 people evacuated from villages within an 8 km radius of the volcano.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2007 Jul 8 2007 Jul 16 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1987 Apr 13 1987 Apr 26 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1981 Mar 4 1981 Jul 25 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1952 Jul 16 1952 Sep 5 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1951 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1950 Oct Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1949 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1926 Jun Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1917 Oct 18 1917 Oct 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1911 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1885 ± 5 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1673 May 20 Unknown Confirmed 5 Historical Observations
1564 Dec 31 ± 365 days Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Supriatna S, 1980. Geologic map of Morotai quadrangle, north Maluku. Geol Res Devel Centre Indonesia, 1:250,000 scale map and 10 p text.

Verstappen H Th, 1964. Some volcanoes of Halmahera (Moluccas) and their geomorphological setting. Ned Aardr Gen, 81: 297-316.

The shifting of eruption centers on Gamkonora, at 1635 m the highest peak of Halmahera, has produced an elongated series of summit craters along a N-S trending rift. Youthful-looking lava flows originate near the cones of Gunung Alon and Popolojo, south of Gamkonora. Since its first recorded eruption in the 16th century, Gamkonora has typically produced small-to-moderate explosive eruptions. Its largest historical eruption, in 1673, was accompanied by tsunamis that inundated villages.