Karangetang [Api Siau]

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 2.78°N
  • 125.4°E

  • 1784 m
    5852 ft

  • 267020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

5 February-11 February 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 February an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 80 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



 Available Weekly Reports


2014: February
2013: April | July | August
2012: May | December
2011: March | June | August
2010: February | August | September | December
2009: May | June | October | November
2008: March | October | November
2007: February | March | April | June | August | October
2006: June | July | August | November
2005: February | May | July | August | October
2003: January | February | March | April | May | July | October
2002: January | February | March | May | June | July | October | November
2001: January | February | April | May | July | August | September | October | November
2000: November | December


5 February-11 February 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 February an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 80 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 August-3 September 2013

Based on observations from the post in Salili, CVGHM reported that, although Karangetang was sometimes covered in fog during 1 August-2 September, white plumes were seen rising as high as 500 m above the main crater and as high as 300 m above Crater II. Incandescence from the crater was often observed at night. Avalanches began traveling down the Batuawang drainage on 2 September and then intensified the next day. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 3 September.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


24 July-30 July 2013

Based on reports from the observation post in Salili, CVGHM stated on 26 July that the occurrence of rock avalanches descending Karangetang’s flanks decreased during 2013; the last one occurred on 7 July, and traveled 2 km down the Batuawang and Kahetang (E) drainages. Although fog often prevented visual observations, white plumes were sometimes seen rising up to 500 m from two craters. Incandescence from the lava dome was reflected in the plume at night. Seismicity fluctuated, but signals indicating avalanches declined. Based on the cessation of avalanches, visual observations, and decreasing seismicity, the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 26 July.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


3 April-9 April 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 April an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km WNW. According to a news article, pahoehoe lava flows traveled 150 m and rock avalanches traveled 2 km down the flanks on that same day.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 December-18 December 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 December an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 May-15 May 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 May an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km SE. On 16 May an ash plume again rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. then drifted about 110 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 August-9 August 2011

CVGHM reported that during July and August cloud cover often prevented observations of Karangetang, although white smoke was sometimes observed rising as high as 500 m above the crater. At night incandescence up to 10 m was often observed.

On 8 July a phreatic eruption occurred from the N part of the Main Crater, ejecting material 150 m high. On 24 July and 1 August incandescent material traveled 1,500 m from the Main Crater. Sounds indicating an eruption were heard on 7 August, although fog prevented observations of the crater. Based on recent visual observations and increased seismicity, the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 August. According to a news article, about 600 people living on the flanks evacuated.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Herald Sun


1 June-7 June 2011

CVGHM reported that during 25 March-5 June seismic activity at Karangetang decreased along with the potential threat of avalanches and pyroclastic flows. During 1 May-5 June no pyroclastic flows were observed. Lava flowed 200 m down the flanks and produced incandescent material from the flow fronts that traveled an additional 1.5-1.8 km. Bluish-white emissions rose as high as 500 m from the main crater and incandescence from the crater was observed at night. Lava flow and avalanche activity decreased on 19 May. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 6 June.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


30 March-5 April 2011

CVGHM reported that during 30-31 March incandescence emanated from Karangetang's main crater as well as bluish and white gas plumes. Lava flows originating from the main crater traveled 2 km down the flanks. Incandescent avalanches from the main crater and from the lava-flow fronts traveled up to 1.8 km down the flanks. On 31 March a thunderous sound was accompanied by a gray plume that rose 200 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


23 March-29 March 2011

CVGHM reported that during 21-23 March incandescent material from Karangetang was ejected 50-75 m above the crater. Lava flows traveled as far as 2 km and collapses from the lava-flow fronts generated avalanches that moved down the flanks up to 300 m further. On 24 March lava was incandescent in areas 1.5 km away from the crater. Incandescent material from the lava-flow fronts rolled an additional 200-500 m down the flanks. Incandescent material was again ejected 75 m above the crater. Later that day, due to decreased seismicity and a decline in the lava-flow effusion rate, the Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


16 March-22 March 2011

CVGHM reported that on 11 March the Alert Level for Karangetang was raised from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) due to increased seismicity. During 12-16 March when the weather was clear, bluish gas plumes rose 50-150 m above the main crater. On 17 March lava flows traveled as far as 2 km from the main crater, accompanied by roaring and booming noises.

On 18 March lava flows traveled 1.5 km and collapses from the lava flow fronts generated avalanches that moved another 500 m. Avalanches from the crater traveled 3.8 km down the flanks. Multiple pyroclastic flows about 1.5 km long destroyed a bridge, damaged a house, and trapped 31 people between the flow paths who were later evacuated. Later that day pyroclastic flows traveled 4 km, reaching the shore. The Alert Level was raised to 4. On 20 March lava flows traveled 1.8 km and avalanches from the lava flow fronts again went 500 m. Incandescent material rolled 1.5 km down the flanks and pyroclastic flows traveled 2.3 km from the crater. According to news articles, 600-1,200 people were evacuated from villages on the W flank.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Straits Times, CNN


9 March-15 March 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 March an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km SW. According to news reports, lava flows at the summit were visible on 11 March. Blocks originating from the lava dome traveled as far as 2 km down the flanks. Hot gas clouds also descended the flanks. The VAAC also noted that on 13 March an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37 km.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Okezone, Novinite


8 December-14 December 2010

CVGHM reported that during November until 12 December observers at the station at Salili, S of the volcano, noted a drastic decrease in the occurrence of pyroclastic flows on Karangetang's flanks. Seismicity also decreased, and white plumes rose up to 300 m above the craters. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


22 September-28 September 2010

CVGHM reported that during 1-7 September lava seen from the observation post (5 km SSW) traveled 75 m down Karangetang's flanks. Avalanches traveled as far as 1.5 km down the Batang (S), Batu Awang (E), and Nanitu drainages. Incandescent material was ejected 350 m above the crater. During 8-21 September lava traveled 500 m down the flanks. Avalanches originating from the end of the lava flow traveled as far as 2 km down the Batang, Kahetang (E), and Nanitu drainages. During 18-20 September material was ejected 300-500 m above the crater. Ashfall was reported in areas to the NW. On 21 and 22 September incandescent material traveled down multiple drainages. Strombolian activity was observed on 22 September; material ejected 50 m high fell back down around the crater. That same day the Alert level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


4 August-10 August 2010

According to news articles, an eruption from Karangetang on 6 August produced pyroclastic flows on the W flank that destroyed at least seven houses. A hot ash plume rose above the crater, and incandescent material was ejected from the crater and descended multiple flanks. At least four people were missing, five were injured, and about 65 were evacuated. An article also stated that CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). According to reports from CVGHM and analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), CNN, Associated Press


10 February-16 February 2010

On 12 February, CVGHM reported that seismicity from Karangetang declined during 1 January-8 February. When the weather was clear, white plumes were seen rising 100-200 m above the crater rim. Incandescent material was ejected 10-50 m above the Utama Crater. Based on these observations and the decline in seismicity, CVGHM lowered the Alert level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


4 November-10 November 2009

According to news articles, a pyroclastic flow and a lahar descended the flanks of Karangetang on 4 November. Residents saw active lava flows the next day. On 11 November, incandescent material was ejected 5 m into the air.

Sources: Manado Post, Berita News


28 October-3 November 2009

Based on a pilot observation and analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 November an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-185 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 June-9 June 2009

CVGHM reported that during 1-6 June lava flows from Karangetang traveled 50 m E and 600 m SE. Incandescent rocks, from the main craters and ends of the lava flows, traveled as far as 2 km towards multiple river valleys, including the Keting River to the S. On 1 June, white-to-gray-to-brownish plumes rose 700 m above the main crater. Incandescent lava was ejected 500-700 m. On 4 June, tremor amplitude and the number of earthquakes decreased. During 4-6 June, white plumes rose 50-300 m from the main crater. On 7 and 8 June, fog often prevented observations and incandescent rocks were rarely seen. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 9 June.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


27 May-2 June 2009

CVGHM reported that seismicity from Karangetang increased during 30-31 May and tremor was detected. On 30 May, diffuse white plumes rose 10-50 m high and incandescence was seen at the crater. On 31 May, white emissions from Utama Crater in the N part of the summit region rose 100 m. Incandescent material traveled as far as 2.3 km, mostly down the S flank. Ash plumes that rose 25-700 m were accompanied by thunderous sounds. The Alert Level was raised to 4, the highest level on a scale of 1-4. People were advised not to go within a 3-km-radius of the active area. According to a news article, over 350 people evacuated the area.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Xinhua


20 May-26 May 2009

Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 May an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km S.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 November-2 December 2008

CVGHM reported that on 28 November seismicity from Karangetang increased and indicated rockfalls. White plumes rose from summit craters I and II to approximate altitudes of 1.8-2.2 km (5,900-7,200 ft) a.s.l. On 29 November white and brownish plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. Incandescent rockslides from the main crater traveled 250 m S towards the Bahembang River, 250 m W towards the Beha Timur River, and 500-1,000 m S towards the Keting River. Thunderous noises were reported. On 30 November, fog prevented visual observations; the seismic network recorded 160 rockfalls. On 1 December, incandescent rockslides traveled 250 m S towards the Bahembang River, 750 m W towards the Beha Timur River, and 500-1,500 m S towards the Keting River. On 2 December, the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) due to the continuation of elevated seismicity, run-out distances of incandescent rockslides, and height of incandescent material ejected from the summit.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 December an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 October-7 October 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 October a possible eruption from Karangetang generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 12.2 km (40,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 March-11 March 2008

Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported a possible low-level ash plume on 12 March.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 October-23 October 2007

Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that a plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 21 October. A plume was not detected on satellite imagery due to cloud cover.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 October-16 October 2007

Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 1.9 km (6,200 ft) a.s.l. on 13 October.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 August-4 September 2007

The Alert Status of Karangetang was lowered on 30 August from 4 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


15 August-21 August 2007

The Alert Status of Karangetang was raised on 18 August from 3 to 4 (on a scale of 1-4) due to increased eruptive activity, based on visual observation and increased seismicity. According to news articles, lava flowed about 1 km down the S slope and "booming" noises were heard. Thick ashfall covered villages, farms, and trees on the slopes.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, The Jakarta Post, Reuters, Agence France-Presse (AFP)


8 August-14 August 2007

The Alert Status of Karangetang was raised on 11 August from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) due to increased eruptive activity. Tremors increased during 5-8 August. According to news articles, lava and pyroclastic flows that were observed on 10 August, prompted authorities to evacuate more than 500 people from villages on the slopes. During the reporting period, a lava fountain rose 25-75 m above the summit.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, News.com.au - News Limited


20 June-26 June 2007

Based on visual observations, CVGHM reported that during 18-25 June ash plumes from Karangetang's main crater produced plumes that rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. Activity at Crater II consisted of diffuse ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. and incandescent ash that rose about 10 m. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


4 April-10 April 2007

CVGHM reported that sometime between mid-March and 6 April, the lava dome in the northern of three craters at Karangetang collapsed and was replaced by a new dome.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


28 March-3 April 2007

According to a news article, eruption plumes from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 1.9 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 27 March. Pyroclastic flows may have occurred the next day.

Source: The Jakarta Post


14 February-20 February 2007

On 14 February, the Alert Level at Karangetang was lowered to 2 (scale of 1-4). Seismicity had decreased in intensity and frequency since 18 November 2006. Lava flows and incandescent avalanches were not observed after 25 January 2007.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


22 November-28 November 2006

According to the Darwin VAAC, an eruption at Karangetang on 24 November produced a small ash plume observed on satellite imagery that reached an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 August-15 August 2006

During 7-13 August, lava flows from Karangetang advanced E toward the Batu Awang river. Incandescent rockfalls originating from lava flow fronts were also observed. The Alert Level remained at 3.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


2 August-8 August 2006

On 2 August, the Alert Level at Karangetang was raised to 4, the highest level. During 1-5 August, white plumes reached heights of 50-300 m (164-984 ft) above the summit (6,000-6,800 ft a.s.l.). Lava flows advanced hundreds of meters to over a kilometer E toward the Batu Awang river and S towards the Keting river during the reporting period. Incandescent rockfalls originating from the summit and ends of the lava flows traveled hundreds of meters E toward the Kahetang and Batu Awang rivers and S towards the Keting and Batang rivers. On 5 August, the Alert level was lowered to 3.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 July-1 August 2006

Fog limited clear views of summit activity at Karangetang during the reporting period. Lava flows were observed during 27-31 July moving E toward the Kahetang and Batu Awang rivers at a maximum distance of ~750 m from the vent. Rockfalls traveled up to 2 km towards the Keting River. On 31 July, gas plumes reached a maximum height of 200 m above the summit (or ~6,500 ft a.s.l.).

According to news reports, between 3,000 and 4,000 people from five villages were evacuated on 27 and 28 July due to advancing lava flows and reports of lahars. The news also noted that on 29 July, about 1,300 people remained in shelters.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Agence France-Presse (AFP), Jaknews


19 July-25 July 2006

The Alert Status of Karangetang was raised on 22 July from 3 to 4 (on a scale of 1-4) due to a further increase in eruptive activity since the last reporting period. On 20 July, lava flows were observed moving E toward the Kahetang and Batu Awang rivers at a maximum distance of 1.8 km from the vent, towards the Keting river at unknown location and distance, and S towards the Bahembang river at a maximum distance of 2 km. On 21 July, a pyroclastic flow originating from the upper S flank traveled 2.5 km toward the Stone river (unknown direction) and was followed by lava flows that traveled toward the Keting river and E towards the Kahetang river at a maximum distance of 2 km. A "thin white smoke" was seen at a height of ~350 m above the summit (7,000 ft a.s.l.). Lava flows traveled a maximum distance of ~2.3 km towards the Keting river and S towards the Bahembang river during 22-23 and 25 July.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


12 July-18 July 2006

The Alert Status of Karangetang was raised on 13 July from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) due to increased eruptive activity. On 12 July, lava flows were observed moving E toward the Kahetang and Batu Awang rivers at a maximum distance of 2 km from the vent. White emissions reached a height of 600 m above the crater (7,800 ft a.s.l.).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


28 June-4 July 2006

According to the Darwin VAAC, a small eruption at Karangetang on 3 July produced an ash plume observed on satellite imagery that reached an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 October-18 October 2005

Gas was emitted from Karangetang's North and Batukole craters during 10-16 October. Seismicity was dominated by multiphase events, which decreased in number in comparison to the previous week. The number of deep volcanic earthquakes increased. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 October-11 October 2005

Gas was emitted from Karangetang's South and Batukole craters during 26 September to 9 October. Seismicity was dominated by multiphase events, with more occurring than during the previous week. The number of deep volcanic and shallow volcanic earthquakes decreased. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


3 August-9 August 2005

Satellite imagery showed an ash cloud from Karangetang on 5 August at a height of 4.6 km (~15,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 July-2 August 2005

Satellite imagery showed an ash cloud from Karangetang on 2 August at a height of 4.6 km (~15,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 May-31 May 2005

Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash from Karangetang was at a height below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. drifting E on 30 May. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 February-1 March 2005

Lava avalanches continued at Karangetang during 25-27 February, traveling 500-1,200 m down the drainages of Kali Beha, Kali Kahetang, Kali Batuawan, and Kali Nanitu. Seismicity was dominated by avalanche earthquakes. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


16 February-22 February 2005

DVGHM reported that on 16 February, a lava flow traveled 600 m from Karangetang's crater towards Kali Nanitu. Lava avalanches in the same area traveled as far as 1,200 m down the volcano's flank. At 1830 that day a pyroclastic flow traveled ~3,400 m, reaching the sea. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


2 February-8 February 2005

Lava avalanches from the fronts of lava flows occurred at Karangetang during 26 January to at least 30 January. The avalanches traveled towards several rivers; Beha Barat (750-1,200 m), Batu Awan (750-2,200 m), and Kahetang (1750 m). Karangetang was at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


8 October-14 October 2003

During 1-28 September, gas emissions rose 150-350 m above Karangetang's South Crater and incandescence was seen extending ~25 m above the crater. Also, gas emissions rose 50-150 m above North Crater. No lava avalanches occurred during the report period. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


16 July-22 July 2003

Based on an aircraft report, the Darwin VAAC stated that a thick ash plume was visible above Karangetang at a height of ~7.5 km a.s.l. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 July-8 July 2003

During 2-29 June, volcanic activity continued at Karangetang at moderate levels, with low-level ash plumes rising above South Crater and gas emissions from North Crater. During 2-8 June, lava avalanches traveled as far as 1 km toward Batang River. During 9-15 June, lava avalanches traveled as far as 1 km down Beha River and ~250 m toward Batu Awang River. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


28 May-3 June 2003

Satellite imagery showed a low-level plume extending NE from Karangetang on 30 May at 0646.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 May-27 May 2003

A reduction in volcanic activity at Karangetang during 12-18 May led VSI to reduce the Alert Level from 3 to 2. Activity during the week consisted of low-level ash clouds rising above Karangetang's South crater, incandescence extending 25 m above the crater, and incandescent avalanches traveling toward Kali Batang to runout distances of 750-1,000 m. In addition, there was a decrease in the number of multiphase earthquakes compared to the previous week.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


7 May-13 May 2003

On 22 April at 1802 an ash explosion occurred at Karangetang that was accompanied by the ejection of incandescent volcanic material. The resultant ash column rose to ~1,750 m above the volcano, and incandescent material was ejected to ~750 m above the volcano. Ash was deposited on the volcano's W slope, including in the villages of Lehi, Mini, Kinali, and Hiung. The explosion was followed by lava avalanches to the W and S and pyroclastic flows toward Batang River to a runout distance of 2,250 m. Another explosion occurred on 24 April that produced an ash cloud to ~750 m above the volcano. Generally, during 21 April to 4 May, low-level ash plumes rose above South Crater, and glowing was seen up to 25 m above the crater. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


16 April-22 April 2003

Karangetang's S crater gave off ash emissions that reached 250 m high during the week of 16-22 April. Just prior, on 15 April, an explosion that sounded like a blast was followed by lava avalanches traveling S and W and reaching ~1 km from their source at S crater. The resulting dark-gray ash column reached 1.5 km above the crater. Ash fell around Dame and Karalung villages, some fell into the sea on the E. Another similar explosion occurred on 20 April, but it generated a pyroclastic flow that extended 2.5 km in length. Blasting noises were audible for ~3 minutes. Seismic records suggested 32 explosion events, 226 multiphase earthquakes, and 26 emission earthquakes. Karangetang=s hazard status was at level 3 (out of a possible 4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


2 April-8 April 2003

During 24-30 March, Karangetang's South Crater generated low-level "white-gray ash emissions" and incandescence visible to 25 m above the crater. There was a significant decrease in the number of earthquakes. The Alert Level at Karangetang remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 March-1 April 2003

During 17-23 March, Karangetang's South Crater generated low-level "white-gray ash emissions" and incandescence visible to 25 m above the crater. In addition, incandescent lava avalanches traveled down the volcano's flanks. During the report period, there was a significant increase in the number of volcanic and multiphase earthquakes. The Alert Level at Karangetang remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


19 March-25 March 2003

During 10-16 March, Karangetang's South crater generated low-level "white-gray ash emissions" and incandescence visible to 50 m above the crater. Incandescent lava avalanches traveled toward Kahetang, Batuawang, Batang, and Beha rivers. During the report period, there was a decrease in the number of earthquakes, and seismicity was dominated by 125 avalanche earthquakes. The Alert Level at Karangetang remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 March-11 March 2003

During 24 February to 2 March, volcanic activity at Karangetang's South crater consisted of "white-gray ash emissions" rising to low levels, incandescent glow extending to 50 m above the crater, and a booming noise that was heard from the observatory post. During the report period, there was an increase in the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes, while the number of multiphase earthquakes decreased. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 February-11 February 2003

Volcanic activity at Karangetang during 3-9 February consisted of low-level ash clouds rising above South and North craters, incandescent glow extending to 50 m above South Crater, and booming noises that were heard at the observation post. On 6 February at 0027 an ash explosion produced a cloud to an unknown height that deposited ash in villages SW of the volcano, including Akesembeka, Tarurane, Tatahadeng, Bebali, and Salili. During the report week, there was a significant increase in volcanic and emission earthquakes in comparison to the previous week. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


22 January-28 January 2003

Moderate volcanic activity continued at Karangetang during 13-26 January. Low-level ash plumes rose above North and South craters, incandescent glow rose to 50 m above the crater, and booming noises were sometimes heard at the observation post. On 14 January two ash explosions occurred at South crater, ejecting incandescent material that fell up to 50 m around the crater. Some of the material traveled as far as 200 m into the Beha River. An ash column rose to 300 m and ash fell into the E part of the sea. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


27 November-3 December 2002

Volcanic activity at Karangetang during 19-24 November consisted of low-level ash plumes rising above South and North craters. In addition, there was a significant increase in the number of volcanic earthquakes in comparison to the previous week. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


30 October-5 November 2002

During 21-27 October, low-level plumes continued to rise above Karangetang's South and North craters. Weak-to-strong thundering sounds emanated from the volcano frequently. Seismicity was dominated by emission earthquakes and there was an increase in the number of volcanic earthquakes in comparison to the previous week. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


16 October-22 October 2002

During 7-14 October, VSI raised the Alert Level at Karangetang from 2 to 3. During this period, a thick ash plume rose ~400 m above South Crater and incandescent lava avalanches traveled ~250 m toward Nanitu River and ~400 m W toward Beha River. Also, a thin ash plume rose ~50 m above North Crater. On 19 October at 1759 an explosion produced an ash cloud to ~750 m above the volcano. The ash cloud drifted N, depositing ash into the sea. In addition, glowing material was ejected 500 m vertically and landed inside the crater. During 14-21 October, lava avalanches continued to travel down Karangetang's flanks and lava flowed 1,500 m toward Nanitu River, 1,000 m toward Beha River, and 750 m E toward Kahetang River.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


9 October-15 October 2002

Karangetang remained active during 9 September to 6 October, with low-level ash clouds rising above South and North craters, lava flowing from the crater, and volcanic tremor being recorded. The lava flows traveled 25-200 m from the crater rim toward the Nanitu River and as far as 400 m toward Beha River. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


31 July-6 August 2002

According to VSI, a small ash plume reached 400 m above the S part of the main crater of Karangetang this week. Crater II produced a small ash plume to 200 m. Seismicity decreased compared to the previous week. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 July-30 July 2002

According to VSI, on 15 July at 1355 an explosion at Karangetang's main crater produced an ash cloud to a height of 1.5 km above the crater. Ash fell to the N of the volcano. An accompanying lava avalanche traveled up to 1.5 km into Kahetang River Valley. During the rest of 15-21 July, low-level plumes continued to rise above Karangetang's main crater and Crater II. Based on information from a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that a smoke plume was observed on 29 July at 1323 rising to an unknown height. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 July-23 July 2002

During 8-14 July, volcanic activity increased in comparison to the previous week at Karangetang. On July 8 at 1806 an explosion at the main crater produced an ash cloud that rose 1 km above the crater and drifted to the NNW. Lava was visible flowing down the volcano's W slope and burning crops in its path. During the rest of the report week, low-level plumes continued to rise above Karangetang's main crater and Crater II. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


10 July-16 July 2002

During 1-7 July, low-level emissions continued from Karangetang's main crater and Crater II, and a red reflection was visible 25 m above the summit. In addition, seismicity decreased in comparison to the previous week. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


3 July-9 July 2002

During 24-30 June, low-level emissions continued from Karangetang's main crater and Crater II, and a red reflection was visible 25 m above the summit. In addition, a large number of shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes continued to occur. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 June-2 July 2002

During 17-23 June, there was a significant increase in the number of shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes at Karangetang in comparison to the previous week. In addition, low-level plumes rose above the main crater and crater II. A red reflection was visible 25 m above the rim of crater II. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


29 May-4 June 2002

During 22 April-26 May, small steam plumes rose 50-500 m above Karangetang's main crater and 10- to 25-m-high "red reflections" were visible above the crater at night. An ash explosion on 12 May at 1116 rose 750 m above the crater and drifted E over the sea. The eruption was followed by lava avalanches that traveled S down the Batu Awang river, and E down the Kahetang river to a maximum run-out distance of ~500 m. Another explosion occurred on 26 May at 1747; it produced an ash cloud to a height of 300 m above the crater that drifted to the W. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


27 March-2 April 2002

During 18-24 March, lava avalanches traveled down Karangetang's flanks. On 23 March at 1115 a thunderous sound from the main crater was followed by lava avalanches down the Kahetang and Batu Awang rivers. During the report period, observers noted a thick plume rising 400 m above the crater rim and a 75-m-high "red reflection" rising above the volcano's summit. Seismicity slightly decreased in comparison to the previous week. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


6 March-12 March 2002

An eruption that began at Karangetang on 5 March at 1344 produced an ash cloud to a height of ~1.5 km above the volcano's summit. Ash fell to the NE of the volcano. The eruption was accompanied by lava avalanches down the volcano's slopes. After the eruption, a plume of steam and possible ash was seen reaching ~400 m above the crater rim and a "red reflection" extended up to 25 m above the crater. An increase in volcanic and tectonic earthquakes occurred in comparison to the previous week. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


27 February-5 March 2002

VSI reported that at Karangetang during 25 February-3 March small volcanic plumes were emitted, a "red reflection" extended 25 m above the crater, and seismicity was high although it decreased in comparison to the previous week. A pilot report to the Darwin VAAC stated that a layer of apparent ash was seen on 5 March at 1544. The layer was located 18.5-37 km from Karangetang at an altitude near 7.5 km (winds in the area suggest ash was at least as high as ~5.5 km). The Karangetang Volcano Observatory reported that an explosion at 1344 the same day rose 1 km above the volcano's summit (2.8 km a.s.l.). No ash was visible in satellite imagery under clear conditions; the ash layer may have been too thin to detect. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


13 February-19 February 2002

An explosion at Karangetang on 11 February produced an ash cloud and lava flows. The ash cloud drifted to the WSW, depositing 0.5-1 mm of ash in the villages of Kanawong, Lehi, Mimi, Kinali, and Pehe. Incandescent lava flows travelled as far as 1-1.5 km to the W down the Beha River and E down the Kahetang River. Seismicity decreased at the volcano in comparison to the previous week and a "red reflection" was visible at night reaching 25 m above the volcano. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


2 January-8 January 2002

During 30 December-6 January multiphase earthquakes continued to be recorded at Karangetang, reflecting the continued growth of the 2001 lava dome. Heavy rain throughout the report period generated a cold 40,000-cubic-meter lahar on 3 January around 1200 that traveled down the Kahetang River. The lahar destroyed two buildings and damaged several homes in Tarurane and Bebali villages. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


14 November-20 November 2001

During 5-11 November volcanic activity decreased at Karangetang in comparison to the previous week. No lava flows had been observed since 25 October. White plumes rose 100 m over the main crater and 50 m above Crater II. A "red reflection" was visible up to 20 m over the volcano. Multiphase earthquakes associated with lava dome growth were recorded. During 12-18 November visual observations revealed an increase in gas pressure, and plume emissions rising 600 m above the main crater. In addition, volcanic earthquakes increased in comparison to the previous week and no multiphase earthquakes were recorded. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


31 October-6 November 2001

On 29 October at 0029 an explosion from Crater IV, in the southern portion of the main crater, produced a gray cloud that rose 1.5 km above the crater. During 22-28 October white plumes rose 600 m above main crater, and 50-100 m above Crater II. A "red reflection" was observed reaching up to 75 m above the crater. The number of deep volcanic earthquakes increased compared to the previous week, but no seismicity associated with eruptive activity was recorded. Multiphase earthquakes, associated with lava dome growth, continued to be detected. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


24 October-30 October 2001

During 15-21 October volcanic activity at Karangetang continued to decrease, as it did the previous week, and the Alert Level was reduced from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The number of volcanic earthquakes decreased compared to the previous week and no avalanche, tremor, or explosion earthquakes were recorded. Multiphase earthquakes, associated with lava dome growth, were detected. White plumes rose 400 m above main crater, and 50-100 m above Crater II. A "red reflection" was observed reaching up to 25 m above the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


17 October-23 October 2001

During 8-14 October the number of deep volcanic earthquakes at Karangetang decreased compared to the previous week and no incandescent lava avalanches occurred. Steam plumes rose 400 m above the main crater and 50-100 m above Crater II. A 25-m-high "red reflection" was observed. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


3 October-9 October 2001

During 1-7 October there was an increase of deep volcanic earthquakes at Karangetang. On 1 and 2 October incandescent lava avalanches traveled from the main crater. Steam plumes rose 600 m above the main crater and 50-150 m above Crater II. A 50-m-high "red reflection" was observed. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 September-2 October 2001

During 17-23 September lava flows and lava avalanches rarely occurred at Karangetang. Small white-colored emissions rose ~500 m above the main crater and 50-200 m above Crater II. A 10- to 100-m-high "red reflection" was visible above the volcano. Seismic activity decreased in comparison to the previous week and was dominated by multiphase and avalanche earthquakes. During 24-30 September seismic activity continued to decrease and few lava avalanches were observed emanating from main crater. Plumes rose 400 m above the summit of the main crater and 50-100 m above Crater II. A 25-m-high "red reflection" was observed. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


19 September-25 September 2001

During 10-16 September fewer lava flows and lava avalanches traveled down the flanks of Karangetang than in the previous week. Lava flowed down the Kahetang and Keting rivers as far as 1.5 km, and one-km-long avalanches developed at the ends of these flows. Seismicity was dominated by small explosion and multiphase earthquakes. Emissions of steam and possibly ash at the northern main crater rose to 0.5 km. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


12 September-18 September 2001

During 3-9 September lava flowed 0.5-1.8 km towards the Kahetang and Keting rivers. Lava avalanches that originated from the edges of the flows traveled up to 1 km. On 9 September at 0001 a pyroclastic flow traveled as far as 750 m from the main crater to the Batang River (West Siau). During the week seismicity was dominated by small explosion, avalanche, and multiphase earthquakes. Discontinuous volcanic tremor was also detected. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


29 August-4 September 2001

During 13-26 August lava flowed ~1 km towards the Kehetang River, and ~1.6 km towards the Keting River. Avalanches that originated from the edges of the lava flows traveled up to 1.5 km. Seismicity was dominated by small explosion, avalanche, and multiphase earthquakes. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


22 August-28 August 2001

During 30 July-12 August seismic activity at Karangetang was dominated by explosion, avalanche, and multiphase earthquakes. A steam-and-ash plume rose to 600 m above the volcano. During 1-12 August lava flows and lava avalanches were rarely observed. On 10 August cold lahars crossed roads as they traveled down the Batu Awang River and the Kahetang River. The volcano was at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


18 July-24 July 2001

During 9-15 July volcanic activity was at a level similar to the previous week. Seismicity was dominated by 572 small explosions, 451 multiphase earthquakes, and continuous lava avalanches. The avalanches traveled up to 2.5 km down the Keting River and lava flowed as far as 750 m down the Kahetang River. In addition, a gray plume was emitted from the volcano, which remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


11 July-17 July 2001

After eruptions occurred on 25 and 29 June, volcanic activity continued at high levels at Karangetang. During 30 June to 8 July seismographs recorded signals that represented small explosions, avalanches, and an average of 33 multiphase earthquakes per day. During this period a gray plume was emitted from the volcano, and lava avalanches traveled as far as 2.5 km down the Keting River and 750 m down the Kahetang River. The volcano is at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


2 May-8 May 2001

During 23-29 April Karangetang Observatory personnel observed lava flowing from Karangetang's main crater to a maximum distance of 700 m. A possible steam plume rose 500 m above the main crater. No seismic data were available. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


25 April-1 May 2001

During 16-23 April lava flowed from crater I to a maximum distance of 50 m, and lava avalanches often originated from the end of the lava flow and traveled about 750 m to the Nanitu River. In addition, a medium-gray plume that likely contained ash rose 50-300 m above the main crater, and a possible steam cloud from crater II rose 200 m above the summit. A red-colored reflection was visible rising 25 m above the volcano. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


11 April-17 April 2001

Observers noted that during 2-9 April a plume, which may have contained ash, rose 25-400 m above the volcano and a steam plume rose 200 m above crater II. A red-colored reflection was visible rising 25-75 m above the volcano. No seismic data were available. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


7 February-13 February 2001

The VSI reported that since the 28 January eruption there has been no significant change in activity observed at Karangetang. Seismicity remained dominated by multi-phase earthquakes. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


31 January-6 February 2001

The VSI reported that during 23-29 January explosive activity continued, with explosions on both 25 and 28 January. At 2227 on 25 January a minor explosion produced a thick ash plume that rose 700 m above the volcano, blew to the W, and dropped ash over the sea. The explosion also produced a lava avalanche that traveled ~1,250 m down the Kelitu River. The second explosion during the report period occurred at 2109 on 28 January and produced a Strombolian-type eruption with glowing ejecta that reached up to 300 m above the crater. In addition, a black ash-filled plume rose to ~1 km above the volcano. The explosion opened a new crater in the lava dome and produced a lava avalanche that traveled ~1.5 km down the W slope of the volcano. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


17 January-23 January 2001

The VSI reported that at 0845 on 17 January a minor explosion produced ash and a lava avalanche. Ash fell around the villages of Salili and Beong and the lava avalanche traveled to the E and W. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


10 January-16 January 2001

Explosions occurred at Karangetang on 2 and 7 January. At 1258 on 2 January an explosion sent an ash plume to ~500 m above the summit and at 1845 a glowing lava avalanche from the main crater flowed ~50 m to the Naitu River. A larger explosion on 7 January sent an ash plume to ~1,500 m above the summit and incandescent material reached a height of 200 m. Shocks from ash explosions were felt on the W side of the volcano in Pahe village, Lehi, Mini, and Kinali. "Glowing lava" flowed out to 1,000 m from the main crater down the Tanitu River. A minor explosion on 10 January produced ash that fell back into the crater. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


20 December-26 December 2000

The VSI reported that during 12-18 December, activity increased at Karangetang in comparison to the previous week. A thin plume continued to be emitted from the main crater and Crater II, but it rose higher than last week: up to 150 m above the summit. A "red flame," possibly indicating illumination of the plume by lava fountaining or incandescent material at the summit, was observed rising up to 75 m above the summit. Overall seismic activity decreased in comparison to the previous week. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (ranging from 1 to 4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


13 December-19 December 2000

The VSI reported that during 5-11 December activity increased at Karangetang in comparison to previous weeks. Seismic activity was high, with an extreme increase in volcanic earthquakes. A thin plume was emitted from the main crater and Crater II; the plume rose up to 50 m above the summit and a "fire plume" reached up to 25 m above the summit. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (ranging from 1 to 4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


29 November-5 December 2000

The VSI reported that volcanic activity during 21-27 November was similar to the previous week. A thin ash plume was observed rising ~600 m above the summit from the main crater and Crater II. Booming sounds were frequently heard from the volcano's summit, and a "red flame" was observed some nights rising ~100 m above the summit. Seismic activity was high and dominated by discontinuous tremor. In total, 21 small explosions were recorded. The Alert Level remained at 2 (ranging from 1 to 4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


22 November-28 November 2000

The VSI reported that volcanic activity during 14-20 November was similar to the previous week. A thin ash plume was observed rising ~600 m above the summit from the main crater and crater II. A booming sound was frequently heard from the volcano's summit, and a "red flame" was observed some nights rising ~75 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (ranging from 1 to 4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


15 November-21 November 2000

The VSI reported that volcanic activity continued at Karangetang. Low-level ash plumes were emitted from the main crater and crater II. A booming sound was frequently heard from the volcano's summit, and a "red flame" was observed some nights rising ~75 m above the summit. On 11 November a minor explosion produced a dark ash cloud that rose to 600 m above the summit, depositing material around the summit area. The Alert Level remained at 2 (ranging from 1 to 4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


8 November-14 November 2000

The VSI reported that volcanic activity continued at Karangetang. At 2030 on 2 November a small explosion produced an ash cloud that reached a height of 1.5 km above the volcano. The ejected material fell around the summit and flowed 1.5 km down the E, S, and W flanks of the volcano. A "red flame" was observed some nights rising ~ 75 m above the volcano's summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


1 November-7 November 2000

VSI reported that at 1131 on 27 October a small explosion at Karangetang sent ash to 1 km above the volcano. The ash cloud drifted E over the sea and ash flowed ~1.5 down the E, W, and S flanks of the volcano. The volcano is at Alert Level 2 out of 4.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2012 May 17 2013 Jul 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2011 Mar 11 2011 Aug 13 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2010 Aug 6 2010 Dec (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
2008 Nov 29 (?) 2010 Mar 24 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 2008 Mar 12 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
2006 Jul 3 2007 Oct (in or after) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2004 Apr 2 (?) 2005 Aug 5 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1999 Mar (in or before) 2003 Oct 28 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1998 Jul 5 ± 4 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1996 Oct 1 (in or before) 1997 Jun (in or after) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1995 Nov 9 1995 Dec 17 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1991 Jul 2 (in or before) 1993 Dec 31 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1989 Jul 1989 Jul Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1983 May 1988 Dec 31 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and SW flank (1443 m)
1982 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1980 Mar 24 1980 Sep 13 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1979 May 31 1979 May 31 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NNW flank, 1300 m (Kawah Maralebule)
1978 Feb 22 1978 Dec 18 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1976 Sep 15 1977 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South flank (1100 m) and summit
1972 Jan 1976 Apr 5 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1970 Nov 27 1971 Mar Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1967 Nov 29 1967 Dec 2 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1965 Apr 5 ± 4 days 1967 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1962 Jan 29 1963 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1961 Oct 9 1961 Oct 19 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1961 Feb 28 1961 Apr Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1953 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1952 Feb 1952 Jun 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Craters I, II and III
1949 Sep 14 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1948 Dec Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1947 Dec 1 1947 Dec 21 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1947 Feb 9 1947 Feb 9 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1941 Oct 30 1941 Oct 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1940 Jun 20 1940 Aug 23 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1940 Mar 1 1940 Mar 9 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1935 Aug 31 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1930 Nov (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1930 Feb 4 1930 Feb 6 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Crater IV
1926 Oct Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1924 May Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1922 May 4 1922 Dec 13 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Crater IV
1921 Mar 1921 Jun (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Crater V
1905 May 21 1905 May 22 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1900 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1899 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1892 Jun 14 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1887 May 27 1887 May 27 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1886 Apr 25 1886 Jun 19 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Crater III
1883 Aug 25 1883 Aug 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Crater II?
1864 Jun 6 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1825 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1712 Jan 16 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1675 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Manalu L, 1986. G Karangetang. Bull Volc Surv Indonesia, 109: 1-48.

Morrice M G, Jezek P A, Gill J B, Whitford D J, Monoarfa M, 1983. An introduction to the Sangihe arc: volcanism accompanying arc-arc collision in the Molucca Sea, Indonesia. J Volc Geotherm Res, 19: 135-165.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Sudradjat A, 1977. . (pers. comm.).

Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, 1986b. Annual report of the Volcanological Survey 1984-1985. Bull Volc Surv Indonesia, no 113.

Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.