Tongkoko

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  • Indonesia
  • Sulawesi
  • Stratovolcano
  • 1880 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 1.52°N
  • 125.2°E

  • 1149 m
    3769 ft

  • 266130
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

21 April-27 April 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 April a possible ash plume from Tongkoko rose to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. [Note: The Darwin VAAC later stated that, according to CVGHM, the plume was caused by a fire and not an eruption.]

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



 Available Weekly Reports


2010: April
2002: October


21 April-27 April 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 April a possible ash plume from Tongkoko rose to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. [Note: The Darwin VAAC later stated that, according to CVGHM, the plume was caused by a fire and not an eruption.]

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 October-5 November 2002

An increase in the number of volcanic earthquakes at Tongkoko since 24 October led VSI to raise the Alert Level from 1 to 2. The number of deep volcanic earthquakes decreased in comparison to the previous week. VSI reported that the increased number of shallow volcanic earthquakes indicated that seismicity was migrating to the surface.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


16 October-22 October 2002

Relocation of an observatory to the area near Tongkoko provided scientists with previously unavailable seismic data. During 7-14 October, four deep-volcanic events were recorded at Tongkoko. This is significant because the volcano has been in repose for almost 122 years. Tongkoko was at Alert Level 1 (on a scale of 1-4) (note: VSI later corrected Alert Level from 2).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1880 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Batu Angus
1843 1846 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Batu Angus
1821 Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Batu Angus Baru
1801 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and east flank (Batu Angus)
1694 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1683 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1680 Unknown Confirmed 5 Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Morrice M G, Jezek P A, Gill J B, Whitford D J, Monoarfa M, 1983. An introduction to the Sangihe arc: volcanism accompanying arc-arc collision in the Molucca Sea, Indonesia. J Volc Geotherm Res, 19: 135-165.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Tatsumi Y, Murasaki M, Arsadi E M, Nohda S, 1991. Geochemistry of Quaternary lavas from NE Sulawesi: transfer of subduction components into the mantle wedge. Contr Mineral Petr, 107: 137-149.

The NE-most volcano on the island of Sulawesi, Tongkoko (also known as Tangkoko) has a summit that is elongated in a NW-SE direction with a large deep crater that in 1801 contained a cone surrounded by lake water. The slightly higher Dua Saudara stratovolcano is located only 3 km to the SW of Tongkoko, and along with Tongkoko, forms the most prominent features of Gunung Dua Saudara National Park, a noted wildlife preserve. Eruptions occurred from the summit crater of Tongkoko in the 17th century and in 1801. The prominent, flat-topped lava dome Batu Angus formed on the E flank in 1801, and along with an adjacent E-flank vent has been the source of all subsequent eruptions.