Lokon-Empung

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  • Indonesia
  • Sulawesi
  • Stratovolcano
  • 2013 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 1.358°N
  • 124.792°E

  • 1580 m
    5182 ft

  • 266100
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

18 September-24 September 2013

According to a news article, a spokesperson from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) stated that activity at Lokon-Empung continued to decline after a 9 September eruption. The frequency of deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes had continued to decline.

Source: The Jakarta Post



 Available Weekly Reports


2013: January | March | April | September
2012: February | April | September | October | November | December
2011: February | June | July | August | October | December
2008: February
2007: June | December
2003: February | March | April | September
2002: February | April | May | June
2001: January | February | March | May | August | November


18 September-24 September 2013

According to a news article, a spokesperson from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) stated that activity at Lokon-Empung continued to decline after a 9 September eruption. The frequency of deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes had continued to decline.

Source: The Jakarta Post


4 September-10 September 2013

Based on ground reports from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 September an ash plume from Lokon-Empung rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Ash was not detected in satellite images due to meteorological clouds. According to a news article an explosion at 0630 generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km; the explosion was heard 10 km away. The VAAC noted that the next day ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. although ash was again not identified in satellite images.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Jakarta Globe


10 April-16 April 2013

Based on both web-camera views and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 April an ash plume from Lokon-Empung rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 April-9 April 2013

Based on both CVGHM and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 April an eruption from Lokon-Empung produced an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 3-3.4 km (10,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SE. On 8 April an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 March-26 March 2013

According to a news article, an eruption from Lokon-Empung occurred on 20 March at 0757, producing an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater.

Source: newKerala.com


30 January-5 February 2013

According to news articles, Lokon-Empung erupted twice on 31 January, producing an ash plume that rose 800 m after the first eruption. Seismicity had increased the day before. In another article the head of the Lokon observation post reported that eruptions from Lokon occurred daily, and specifically that nine eruptions had occurred on 2 February.

Based on a ground report from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Lokon-Empung rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. on 3 February. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery.

Sources: Xinhua, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Kompas.com


16 January-22 January 2013

Based on reports from CVGHM and ASHTAMs (a special NOTAM for volcanic ash), the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes rose from Lokon-Empung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.5 km (12,000-14,800 ft) a.s.l. during 15-16 January. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 January-8 January 2013

Based on ground reports from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes rose from Lokon-Empung rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 December-18 December 2012

Based on ground reports from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes rose from Lokon-Empung on 17 December.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 December-11 December 2012

Based on information from CVGHM and the WAAA MWO (in Ujung Pandang,Indonesia), the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption from Lokon-Empung produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. on 6 December and drifted S. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery. On 10 December a plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 November-4 December 2012

According to the Darwin VAAC, CVGHM reported that an eruption from Lokon-Empung produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. on 28 November. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 November-13 November 2012

Based on a SIGMET, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 November an ash plume from Lokon-Empung rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 October-9 October 2012

According to the Darwin VAAC, CVGHM reported that on 6 October an ash plume from Lokon-Empung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l.; the plume altitude was determined by wind data. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery. According to a news article, an eruption at 1405 on 7 October ejected incandescent tephra as high as 350 m above the crater and generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km. The article also noted that Lokon-Empung had erupted 41 times in September and three times on 5 October.

Sources: Jakarta Globe, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 September-25 September 2012

According to the Darwin VAAC, ground-based observers reported that on 21 September an ash plume from Lokon-Empung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified in satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 September-18 September 2012

According to the Darwin VAAC, ground-based observers reported that on 15 September an ash plume from Lokon-Empung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. On 15 September satellite imagery showed an ash plume drifting 185 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 April-1 May 2012

According to the Darwin VAAC, ash plumes from Lokon-Empung, that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km N, were detected in satellite imagery and reported by ground-based observers.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


18 April-24 April 2012

CVGHM reported that during the morning on 24 April diffuse white plumes rose 25-50 m above Tompaluan crater, in the saddle between the Lokon-Empung peaks. Later that day an eruption was accompanied by loud "thumping" noises heard at local observation posts, though fog prevented views of the crater. The next day diffuse white plumes rose 50-100 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


8 February-14 February 2012

According to news articles, an explosion from the Tompaluan crater, in the saddle between the Lokon-Empung peaks, produced an ash plume that rose as high as 2 km above the crater on 10 February; loud "thumping" noises were also heard. Based on information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3-3.4 km (10,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. during 10-12 February, though clouds prevented the detection of ash in satellite imagery.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), CNN, Antara News


28 December-3 January 2012

CVGHM reported that on 27 December seismic activity at Lokon-Empung suggested that an eruption had occurred, but fog prevented visual observations of the crater area. CVGHM noted on 28 December that the Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and reminded residents and tourists to not approach within a 2.5 km radius of the crater. Based on information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 December-27 December 2011

According to a news article, three explosions from the Tompaluan crater, in the saddle between the Lokon-Empung peaks were recorded by the CVGHM on 27 December. CVGHM recorded 23 deep volcanic tremors and 40 shallow volcanic tremors. Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 2.5 km radius of the crater. Based on visual and seismic observations during 27-28 December, the Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The Darwin VAAC reported a low-level eruption on 27 December based on media reports.

Sources: The Jakarta Post, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 October-1 November 2011

According to a news article, a gray plume rose 1.2 km above Tompaluan crater, in the saddle between the Lokon-Empung peaks, and drifted SW on 26 October, followed by an explosion that sent incandescent material as far as 800 m away from Tompaluan crater. A second eruption produced a plume that rose 500 m above the crater.

Source: Kompas.com


5 October-11 October 2011

CVGHM reported that on 10 October white and gray plumes rose 100-300 m above Tompaluan crater, in the saddle between the Lokon-Empung peaks. Based on information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 October an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 August-30 August 2011

According to a news article, activity from Tompaluan crater, in the saddle between the Lokon-Empung peaks, decreased on 29 August after erupting several times the previous week and specifically 12 times on 28 August. One explosion on 29 August ejected material 250 m above the crater. The article also noted that 222 people remained at temporary refugee camps because their homes were located within 3 kilometers of the crater.

Source: BNO News


3 August-9 August 2011

CVGHM reported that during 24 July-8 August seismicity decreased at Tompaluan crater, in the saddle between the Lokon-Empung peaks, with a drastic reduction on 26 July. During 27 July-8 August white plumes rose 100-400 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 3-km radius of the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


20 July-26 July 2011

CVGHM reported that during 20-21 July seismicity and visual observations of Tompaluan crater, in the saddle between the Lokon-Empung peaks, indicated that activity continued to be high. On 20 July plumes rose 100-500 m above the crater, and during 21-24 July white plumes rose 100-300 m above the crater. CVGHM noted that, since the eruption on 18 July, most data showed a decline in activity and therefore on 24 July the Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 3-km radius of the crater. A news article stated that on that same day about 5,000 residents that had evacuated returned home, and about 200 people remained in shelters.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Straits Times


13 July-19 July 2011

According to news articles, three eruptions during 14-15 July from Tompaluan crater, in the saddle between the Lokon-Empung peaks, ejected lava and ash, and caused forest fires on the W flank. A local mayor noted that 6,000 people were in shelters and one person had died from a heart attack while evacuating. Other articles stated that 5,200 people had evacuated. Explosions during 17-18 July produced ash plumes that rose 0.6-3.5 km above the crater.

Sources: Daily Mail, Agence France-Presse (AFP)


6 July-12 July 2011

CVGHM reported that during 28 June-9 July white plumes rose 50-400 m above Tompaluan crater, in the saddle between the Lokon-Empung peaks, and gray ash plumes rose 100-500 m above the crater. An ash eruption on 10 July produced white-to-gray plumes that rose 200-400 m above the crater. Fluctuations in the sulfur dioxide gas emission rate were noted during 30 June-10 July. Based on gas flux, seismicity, visual observations, and hazard assessment CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 4 (on a scale of 1-4). On 11 July, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes detected in satellite imagery rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. According to news articles, close to 1,000 residents were evacuated from the area during 11-12 July.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Associated Press


29 June-5 July 2011

CVGHM reported that during 1-25 June white plumes rose 50-200 m above Tompaluan crater, in the saddle between the Lokon-Empung peaks. On 26 June a phreatic eruption ejected material that fell around the crater and produced a gray plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted N. Seismicity increased the next day and white plumes rose 50-200 m above the crater. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and residents were prohibited from going within a 3-km radius of the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


23 February-1 March 2011

According to news articles, a phreatic eruption from Tompaluan crater, in the saddle between the Lokon-Empung peaks, produced an ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted SE on 22 February.

Source: Tempo


27 February-4 March 2008

CVGHM reported that on 28 February the Alert level for Lokon-Empung was lowered from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) due to a decrease in seismicity during 3-26 February, analysis of visual observations, and a lack of deformation. During 14-26 February, white plumes rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. Visitors and tourists were prohibited from going within a 1-km radius of the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 December-11 December 2007

CVGHM raised the Alert Level for Lokon-Empung from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 9 December based on visual observations, inflation detected by deformation instruments, and an increase in seismicity. The water in the Tompaluan crater changed color from green to gray and noises from degassing became stronger. White plumes rose from the crater to an altitude of 1.6 km (5,200 ft) a.s.l. Visitors and tourists were advised not to go within a 2-km radius of the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


20 June-26 June 2007

Based on visual observations, CVGHM reported that during 18-25 June diffuse ash plumes from Lokon-Empung rose to an altitude of 1.6 km (5,200 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). [Correction: diffuse white plumes from Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan crater rose to an altitude of approximately 1.2 km (3,900 ft) a.s.l.]

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


10 September-16 September 2003

According to a report from aircraft personnel, on 12 September at 1510 an ash plume emitted from Lokon-Empung rose to a height of ~7.6 km a.s.l. and drifted W. The plume was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 April-15 April 2003

After an explosion on 1 April at Lokon-Empung, volcanic activity decreased through 6 April. A "white-thick ash plume" rose to low levels and there were no observations of ash explosions. Seismicity after the 1 April explosion was dominated by tremor due to the release of gases. Lokon-Empung remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


2 April-8 April 2003

Beginning on 31 March the number of volcanic earthquakes at Lokon-Empung was relatively high. On 1 April at 2242 an explosion produced an ash column to a height of ~1.5 km over the crater. Ash drifted SSE and accumulated as an up to 1-mm-thick layer in the town of Tomohon. Incandescent material was hurled to ~350 m high and cascaded around the crater. Through 0900 on 3 April tremor earthquakes continued to be recorded. Lokon-Empung remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 March-1 April 2003

VSI decreased the Alert Level at Lokon-Empung on 24 March from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) due to a decrease in volcanic activity. During 17-23 March, "white-thick ash emissions" rose to ~300 m above Tompaluan crater, ash explosions occurred, and there was a significant decrease in emission earthquakes compared to the previous week. On 27 March at 0156 an explosion ejected ash to 1.5 km and incandescent volcanic material to 400 m above the crater. An ash cloud drifted S and ash fell around the summit. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery. Lokon-Empung remained at Alert Level 2.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Associated Press


19 March-25 March 2003

During 10-16 March, volcanism remained at relatively high levels at Lokon-Empung with "white-thick ash emissions" rising to low levels above Tompaluan crater. No explosions occurred during 14-16 March. Seismicity was dominated by emission and tremor earthquakes. The Alert Level at Lokon-Empung remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 March-11 March 2003

Explosive activity continued at Lokon-Empung during 24 February to 2 March, with 12 explosions producing "white-gray ash columns" that rose 300 m above the volcano. An explosion on 2 March at 2129 was preceded by 204 shallow and 77 deep volcanic earthquakes. During the explosion a "gray-dark ash column" rose 1.5 km above the crater, but incandescent volcanic material remained within the crater. Ash drifted about 14.5 km from the crater to the Tondano area, depositing ~1 mm of ash. Tremor was recorded after the eruption. Lokon-Empung remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


19 February-25 February 2003

An eruption at Lokon-Empung on 23 February around 1100 produced an ash cloud that rose 2.5 km above the crater. According to news reports, ash fell in the villages of Kinilouw and Kakaskasen and the Tondano Lake. On the 24th authorities put residents near the volcano on alert and banned recreational activities on Lokon-Empung's flanks. Two small eruptions on the 24th sent ash 200 m above the volcano. Lokon-Empung was at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), News 24, Agence France-Presse (AFP)


12 February-18 February 2003

On 10 February at 2219 an ash explosion occurred at Lokon-Empung, but the height of the resultant ash cloud could not be determined due to heavy rain. On 12 February, mainly during 0100-1000, there was a significant increase in volcanic earthquakes. At 1048 an explosion occurred, followed by seismic data indicating a larger explosion at 1102. On 12 February during 0800-1100 the Alert Level was raised from 3 to 4 (the highest level). Tremor was continuously recorded during 1255 on the 12th to 0046 the following day. According to the Darwin VAAC, an explosion occurred on 19 February at 0403 that produced a plume to 500 m above the summit.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 February-11 February 2003

Starting at the beginning of the report week (3-9 February), there was an increase in seismicity and surface activity at Lokon-Empung in comparison to the previous week. There were more emission, and deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes and ash emissions. On 8 February at 0443 an ash explosion was accompanied by the ejection of incandescent volcanic material. A thick ash cloud rose to 1.4 km over the crater and 0.5-1 mm of ash was deposited S of the volcano in the villages of Kayau, Tara-tara I and II, and Woloan II and III. At this time the Alert Level was raised from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


12 June-18 June 2002

Seismic and volcanic activity at Lokon-Empung were above "normal" levels during 3-9 June, but there was a decline in seismicity in comparison to the previous week. The Alert Level at Lokon-Empung was reduced from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 June-11 June 2002

Seismic and volcanic activity continued at high levels at Lokon-Empung during 27 May-2 June. Volcanic tremor occurred and thin emissions rose to low-levels above the crater. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


29 May-4 June 2002

Seismicity at Lokon-Empung during 22 April-26 May remained above background levels. Several deep and shallow volcanic, tectonic, and small explosion earthquakes occurred. Thin, white plumes rose 50-250 m above the crater rim. Lokon-Empung remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


24 April-30 April 2002

Activity at Lokon remained higher than normal during 15-21 April. Volcanic tremor was high, gas explosions occurred at the bottom of the crater, and a low-level steam plume was visible. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


17 April-23 April 2002

Increases in volcanic and seismic activity at Lokon-Empung led VSI to raise the Alert Level from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 April. Eruptions occurred on 10 April at 2302 and on the 12th at 1816. On 13 April eight gas-and-ash explosions occurred and on the 14th five occurred. Tremor that began on 11 April continued through at least the 14th.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


10 April-16 April 2002

VSI reported that an eruption occurred at Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan crater on 10 April at 1104. The dark plume rose about 1 km above the volcano and tephra fell around the crater. Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC first erroneously attributed the ash cloud to an eruption from Mahawu. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


13 February-19 February 2002

After an eruption on 9 February, volcanism decreased at Lokon-Empung through at least the 17th. During 11-17 February, observers saw small volcanic plumes rise 50-150 m above the crater rim. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


14 November-20 November 2001

Following a tectonic earthquake near Lokon on 19 October, activity increased at the volcano; high-frequency tremor occurred and gray emissions rose 50-250 m above Tompaluan crater. While fewer earthquakes were recorded during 12-18 November (10 per day) in comparison to the previous week (19 per day), the number of earthquakes was still above normal levels. No major changes in volcanic activity were seen at Lokon's summit. The Alert Level at Lokon remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


29 August-4 September 2001

On 18 August at 2230 an explosion produced an ash cloud that rose ~800 m above the crater and drifted over the town of Manado 25 km N of the volcano. Following the explosion there was a significant increase in volcanic earthquakes in comparison to the previous week. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


22 August-28 August 2001

VSI reported that there was a significant decrease in seismic activity at Lokon during 30 July-12 August in comparison to during previous weeks. Small explosions at Tompaluan crater produced plumes that rose 25-250 m above the summit. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


16 May-22 May 2001

An article in the Jakarta Post stated that an eruption at Lokon that began at 2014 on 20 May deposited ash in a wide area around the volcano, including the provincial capital of Manado, approximately 20 km NE of the volcano. They reported that ash rose up to 900 m above the volcano and that the eruption was accompanied by tremor.

Source: The Jakarta Post


21 March-27 March 2001

Activity continued after the 28 January 2001 explosion. On 26 March 2001 at 1440 another eruption sent a dark ash plume 1,500 m above the crater rim. Ash drifted E and N. No incandescent material was observed, but 25 minutes after the explosion ash started to fall at Kinilow village (3.5 km from the crater) and Kakaskasen village (4 km from the crater). Activity slowly decreased though 1510, when thick white gas emissions from the crater rose 400 m. The ashfall was 0.3-0.5 cm thick at Kinilow village, 0.1-0.3 cm thick at Kakaskasen village, and 1-2 cm thick around Pasahapen river, about 1 km from the crater. After the initial explosion, volcanic tremor was recorded between 1442 and 1457 with a maximum amplitude of 2-16 mm. The seismograph recorded 13 deep volcanic (type A) and 12 shallow volcanic (type B) events on 25 March; six deep and seven shallow volcanic earthquakes were detected on the 26th.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


7 March-13 March 2001

The VSI reported that visual observations made during 27 February to 5 March revealed that activity decreased at Lokon-Empung. Only small-to-medium sized steam plumes were observed rising 50-150 m above the crater. The Alert level was reduced from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


28 February-6 March 2001

The VSI reported that following the 28 January eruption, activity decreased at Lokon-Empung with only small steam emissions occurring. A small tectonic earthquake (M 1) was reported in the area. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


21 February-27 February 2001

Visual observations by VSI personnel during 12-17 February revealed that volcanic activity remained low at Lokon, with steam plumes rising 200-350 m above the crater rim. Seismic data were not available because the seismograph on the volcano was broken. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


7 February-13 February 2001

After explosions occurred on 28 January, volcanic activity decreased. During 30 January to 5 February an ash plume was observed rising 200-350 m above the volcano. The seismograph on the volcano broke on 30 January. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


31 January-6 February 2001

The VSI reported that volcanic activity increased in comparison to the previous week. Explosions began occurring at 1920 on 28 January and produced glowing ejecta (volcanic bombs) that fell on the N slope of the volcano. The height of the ash cloud that was produced by the eruption could not be measured due to unfavorable weather conditions. A strong sulfurous smell was detected from Kakaskasen observatory. On the morning of 29 January an ash plume rose continuously up to 300 m above the crater. The Alert Level at the volcano was raised during the report period from level 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2012 Sep 15 2013 Sep 9 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
2011 Jun 26 2012 May 1 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan crater
2011 Feb 22 2011 Feb 22 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Tompaluan crater
2003 Sep 12 2003 Sep 12 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Tompaluan
2002 Dec 23 2003 Apr 1 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
2002 Feb 9 2002 May (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
2000 May 10 ± 3 days 2001 Aug 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1991 May 17 1992 Jan Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1988 Apr 21 1988 May 1 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1986 Mar 22 1987 May 13 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
[ 1984 Jun 5 ± 4 days ] [ 1984 Nov ] Uncertain 1   Tompaluan
1975 Nov (in or before) 1980 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1973 Sep 15 1974 Dec Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1971 May 11 1971 Oct 26 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1969 Nov 27 1970 Dec 26 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1966 Sep 24 1966 Sep 30 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1965 Jul 10 1965 Jul 10 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1963 Dec 17 1964 Apr Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1962 Apr 1962 Nov Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1961 May 19 1961 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1958 Feb 19 1959 Dec 23 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1951 Jul 2 1953 Mar Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1949 Sep 14 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1942 Sep 3 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1930 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1893 Mar 29 1894 Aug 14 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1829 Mar Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tompaluan
1775 ± 25 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Empung
1375 ± 25 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Empung

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Matahelumual J, 1986b. G Lokon-Empung. Bull Volc Surv Indonesia, 114: 1-52 (in Indonesian).

Morrice M G, Jezek P A, Gill J B, Whitford D J, Monoarfa M, 1983. An introduction to the Sangihe arc: volcanism accompanying arc-arc collision in the Molucca Sea, Indonesia. J Volc Geotherm Res, 19: 135-165.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

The twin volcanoes Lokon and Empung, rising about 800 m above the plain of Tondano, are among the most active volcanoes of Sulawesi. Lokon, the higher of the two peaks ( whose summits are only 2.2 km apart), has a flat, craterless top. The morphologically younger Empung volcano has a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep crater that erupted last in the 18th century, but all subsequent eruptions have originated from Tompaluan, a 150 x 250 m wide double crater situated in the saddle between the two peaks. Historical eruptions have primarily produced small-to-moderate ash plumes that have occasionally damaged croplands and houses, but lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows have also occurred.