Tondano Caldera

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  • Indonesia
  • Indonesia
  • Caldera
  • Unknown - Unrest / Holocene
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 1.23°N
  • 124.83°E

  • 1202 m
    3943 ft

  • 266070
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Tondano Caldera.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Tondano Caldera.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Tondano Caldera.

Tondano is an approximately 20 x 30 km Quaternary caldera in north Sulawesi containing post-caldera pyroclastic cones, obsidian flows, and thermal areas. Lake Tondano lies against the well-defined eastern caldera rim. The historically active andesitic-to-basaltic stratovolcanoes Soputan, Sempu, Lokon-Empung and Mahawu (described elsewhere in this compilation) lie astride the poorly defined southern and northern rims of the caldera. The age of the latest eruptions within the caldera is not known, although thermal areas occur at Batu Kolok and Sarangson, and at the Tampusu cinder cone and Lahendong maar.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Tondano Caldera. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Tondano Caldera page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Lengkoan Cone 1° 15' 0" N 124° 49' 0" E
Tempang
    Tempaso
    Wahi, Gunung
Cone 900 m 1° 11' 0" N 124° 48' 0" E
Tompusu
    Tampusu
Cone 1202 m 1° 15' 0" N 124° 51' 0" E

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Lahendong
    Linow Lahendong
Maar 988 m 1° 17' 0" N 124° 48' 0" E

Thermal

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Batukolok Thermal 890 m 1° 9' 29" N 124° 45' 0" E
Conte Vidua Solfatara Field Fumarole
Langoan Thermal
Rano Kulo Thermal 770 m 1° 17' 0" N 124° 49' 0" E
Rano Randang Thermal 770 m 1° 17' 0" N 124° 49' 0" E
Rano Sapet Thermal 770 m 1° 17' 0" N 124° 49' 0" E
Sarangsong Thermal 770 m 1° 17' 0" N 124° 49' 0" E
Tompasso Thermal
A fumarole rises above an area of extensive hydrothermal alteration at Raindang, on the western flank of Gunung Lahendong, one of several post-caldera cones in the 20 x 30 km Tondano caldera in northern Sulawesi. The caldera floor is dotted with pyroclastic cones, obsidian flows, and numerous hydrothermal areas. No historical eruptions are known from the caldera itself, although several stratovolcanoes constructed along its rim have been historically active.

Photo by Sukiman Kamal, 1979 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Effendi A C, 1976. Geologic map of the Manado quadrangle, north Sulawesi. Volc Surv Indonesia, geol map.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.

Volcano Types

Caldera
Stratovolcano(es)
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
321,308
321,308
903,706
1,558,655

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Tondano Caldera Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.