Paluweh

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 8.32°S
  • 121.708°E

  • 875 m
    2870 ft

  • 264150
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

2 April-8 April 2014

PVMBG reported that observers at a post located in Kampung Ropa, Keliwumbu Village, noted that during January-5 April activity at Paluweh mainly consisted of white and gray fumarolic plumes rising at most 100 m above the lava dome and drifting W, N, and E. The report stated that the lava dome had not changed between September 2013 and March 2014 observations. Seismicity had decreased in November 2013 and remained low; the number of avalanches had also decreased. On 7 April the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM



 Available Weekly Reports


2014: April
2013: January | February | March | April | May | June | August
2012: January | September | October | November | December
2011: June
2009: April
2005: January


2 April-8 April 2014

PVMBG reported that observers at a post located in Kampung Ropa, Keliwumbu Village, noted that during January-5 April activity at Paluweh mainly consisted of white and gray fumarolic plumes rising at most 100 m above the lava dome and drifting W, N, and E. The report stated that the lava dome had not changed between September 2013 and March 2014 observations. Seismicity had decreased in November 2013 and remained low; the number of avalanches had also decreased. On 7 April the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


7 August-13 August 2013

According to news articles, a partial lava-dome collapse at Paluweh on 10 August generated a pyroclastic flow that traveled N towards a beach village and killed at least 5 people. A volcanologist at the monitoring post for Paluweh noted that the eruption lasted seven minutes, and that the pyroclastic flow burned trees around the beach and villages, making it difficult to reach the victims. Pyroclastic flows continued to be reported hours after the initial eruption. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km W.

News sources noted that a mandatory evacuation order had caused some residents to evacuate prior to the eruption on 10 August, but nearly10,000 still remained on the island. After the eruption, a rescue team was sent to evacuate about 2,000 people that remained inside a 3-km exclusion zone. A team member noted that rescuing people was difficult since they were reluctant to leave their livestock and homes, but also that the ground was hot and covered in 10-20 cm of ash. The VAAC reported that during 11-12 August ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110-130 km W. A news article noted that the eruptions were smaller on 12 August, but pyroclastic flows continued to be observed. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Associated Press, CNN, Agence France-Presse (AFP), National Public Radio (NPR)


19 June-25 June 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 June ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 May-28 May 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 and 24 May ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km NW, W, and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


8 May-14 May 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 May ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km WNW and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 May-7 May 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5 May ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-55 km SW and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 April-30 April 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29-30 April ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-110 km NW and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 April-23 April 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 April an ash plume from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 April-16 April 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 April an ash plume from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 April-9 April 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 April an ash plume from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37 km SE and W. During 6-7 April ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km W and WSW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 March-2 April 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27 March-1 April ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.7 km (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-100 km N, NE, and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 March-26 March 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-21 and 24-26 March ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-335 km SW, WSW, W, NW, and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


13 March-19 March 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that duirng 13 and 17-19 March ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4 km (7,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-95 km E, W, and WNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 March-12 March 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-12 March ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4 km (7,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-75 km E and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


13 February-19 February 2013

CVGHM reported that activity at Paluweh during October 2012-January 2013 was characterized by lava-dome growth, incandescent avalanches, pyroclastic flows, ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km above the dome, and ejected material deposited 3 km away. The whole island was affected by ashfall, which was an average of 2 cm thick on some areas. Some infrastructure and several homes were damaged by ash and lahars.

On 1 February at 1652 an eruption generated an ash plume that rose 2 km. Pyroclastic flows and avalanches were observed. On 2 February an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 4 km and was accompanied by booms and rumbling. The ash plume drifted S and deposited ashfall up to 1 mm thick in Ende (60 km S); thick ashfall was reported in Ona (SE part of the island) and thin deposits were reported in other areas of the island to the W, N, and E. About 25% of the S portion of the dome was lost; the lava-dome volume was an estimated 5.1 million cubic meters on 13 January. On 3 February an ash eruption was observed as well as incandescence from the crater. During 4-10 February diffuse white plumes rose 50-100 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors and residents were prohibited from approaching the crater within a 3-km-radius.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-18 February ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km E and NE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 February-12 February 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-12 February ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-110 km NW, NNW, and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 January-5 February 2013

According to news articles, an explosion from Paluweh occurred at 2300 on 2 February and was clearly heard by local residents. Authorities evacuated by boat all residents from the eight villages on the island. Ashfall was reported during 2-3 February.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind data, and pilot reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 February ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 13.1-13.7 km (43,000-45,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 325-590 km SE, S, and SW. Elevated levels of sulfur dioxide were also detected. The next day ash plumes at an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. were observed.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), TribunNews.com


23 January-29 January 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 January ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 20 km ENE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 January-8 January 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 January ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37 km NE. On 7 January an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 20 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 December-25 December 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19 and 21-23 December ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4-2.7 km (8,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-75 km E, SW,W, and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 December-18 December 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-15 December ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-65 km NW and W. On 17 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km E. The next day an ash plume drifted 55 km E at altitudes of 3.4-3.7 km (11,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 December-11 December 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 and 8 December ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-75 km NW, W, and SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 November-4 December 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28 November-4 December ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-65 km NW and W.

The Volcano Discovery team observed Paluweh during 30 November-2 December. They reported that a lava dome seemed to be visibly growing from all sides, with almost constant incandescent rockfalls in multiple areas. The dome was about 150 m high, the highest point on the island, and the basal diameter was 200-250 m. A vent on the upper E part of the dome ejected ash for periods of several hours and produced jet-like degassing sounds. A steam-and-ash plume rose several kilometers. Small pyroclastic flows descended the lava dome, but vegetation immediately surrounding the dome was only slightly damaged by fires caused by hot blocks and ashfall. The report also noted that local people observed the dome growing next to the Rokatenda crater in late October.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), VolcanoDiscovery


21 November-27 November 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21 and 23-27 November ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-115 km WNW, W, and SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


14 November-20 November 2012

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-19 November ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-150 km NW and W. A thermal anomaly was detected on 14 November.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 November-13 November 2012

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and other data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-13 November ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-150 km NW and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 October-16 October 2012

Based on seismic data and visual observations, CVGHM raised the Alert Level for Paluweh from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 13 October. The Alert Level had been raised to 2 five days earlier.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


3 October-9 October 2012

Based on seismic data and visual observations, CVGHM raised the Alert Level for Paluweh (also known as Rokatenda) from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 October.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 September-11 September 2012

CVGHM reported that on 7 September the Alert Level for Paluweh was lowered from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


25 January-31 January 2012

Seismic activity from Paluweh (also known as Rokatenda) increased during 12-18 January, prompting CVGHM to raise the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 19 January. Fog prevented visual observations of the volcano.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


15 June-21 June 2011

CVGHM reported that volcanic tremor from Paluweh had not been detected since 1 March 2010 and during January 2011-June solfatara emissions from the summit were not observed. On 17 June, the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4)

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


15 April-21 April 2009

During 1-17 April, seismic activity from Paluweh increased, prompting CVGHM to raise the Alert Level to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 18 April.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 January-1 February 2005

News reports of an increase in volcanic activity at Paluweh (also known as Rokatenda) on 31 January were found to be false by DVGHM. DVGHM staff found no activity at the volcano, so it remained at Alert Level 1.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, The Jakarta Post


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2012 Oct 27 ± 4 days 2013 Aug 12 (continuing) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Rokatenda
1985 Feb 3 1985 Feb 3 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Rokatenda (west side of lava dome)
1984 May 9 1984 May 21 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Rokatenda (west side of lava dome)
1980 Nov 5 1981 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Rokatenda
1973 Oct 27 1973 Oct 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1972 Oct 22 1973 Jan 16 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Rokatenda
1963 Dec 31 1966 Mar 16 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Rokatenda (1928 crater)
1928 Aug 4 1928 Sep 25 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Rokatenda
[ 1831 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1650 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Kemmerling G L L, 1929. Vulkanen van Flores. Vulk Seism Meded Dienst Mijnw Ned-Indie, 10: 1-138.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1930. Padoweh. Vulk Seism Meded Dienst Mijnw Ned-Indie, 11: 1-141.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Stolz A J, Varne R, Davies, G R, Wheller G E, Foden J D, 1990. Magma source components in an arc-continent collision zone: the Flores-Lembata sector, Sunda arc, Indonesia. Contr Mineral Petr, 105: 585-601.

Sudradjat A, 1977. . (pers. comm.).

Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, 1986b. Annual report of the Volcanological Survey 1984-1985. Bull Volc Surv Indonesia, no 113.

Wheller G E, Varne R, Foden J D, Abbott M J, 1987. Geochemistry of Quaternary volcanism in the Sunda-Banda arc, Indonesia, and three-component genesis of island-arc basaltic magmas. J Volc Geotherm Res, 32: 137-160.

Paluweh volcano, also known as Rokatenda, forms the 8-km-wide island of Paluweh north of the volcanic arc that cuts across Flores Island. Although the volcano rises about 3000 m above the sea floor, its summit reaches only 875 m above sea level. The broad irregular summit region contains overlapping craters up to 900 m wide and several lava domes. Several flank vents occur along a NW-trending fissure. The largest historical eruption of Paluweh occurred in 1928, when a strong explosive eruption was accompanied by landslide-induced tsunamis and lava dome emplacement.