Paluweh

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 8.32°S
  • 121.708°E

  • 875 m
    2870 ft

  • 264150
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

2 April-8 April 2014

PVMBG reported that observers at a post located in Kampung Ropa, Keliwumbu Village, noted that during January-5 April activity at Paluweh mainly consisted of white and gray fumarolic plumes rising at most 100 m above the lava dome and drifting W, N, and E. The report stated that the lava dome had not changed between September 2013 and March 2014 observations. Seismicity had decreased in November 2013 and remained low; the number of avalanches had also decreased. On 7 April the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)

Index of Weekly Reports


2014: April
2013: January | February | March | April | May | June | August
2012: January | September | October | November | December
2011: June
2009: April
2005: January

Weekly Reports


2 April-8 April 2014

PVMBG reported that observers at a post located in Kampung Ropa, Keliwumbu Village, noted that during January-5 April activity at Paluweh mainly consisted of white and gray fumarolic plumes rising at most 100 m above the lava dome and drifting W, N, and E. The report stated that the lava dome had not changed between September 2013 and March 2014 observations. Seismicity had decreased in November 2013 and remained low; the number of avalanches had also decreased. On 7 April the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


7 August-13 August 2013

According to news articles, a partial lava-dome collapse at Paluweh on 10 August generated a pyroclastic flow that traveled N towards a beach village and killed at least 5 people. A volcanologist at the monitoring post for Paluweh noted that the eruption lasted seven minutes, and that the pyroclastic flow burned trees around the beach and villages, making it difficult to reach the victims. Pyroclastic flows continued to be reported hours after the initial eruption. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km W.

News sources noted that a mandatory evacuation order had caused some residents to evacuate prior to the eruption on 10 August, but nearly10,000 still remained on the island. After the eruption, a rescue team was sent to evacuate about 2,000 people that remained inside a 3-km exclusion zone. A team member noted that rescuing people was difficult since they were reluctant to leave their livestock and homes, but also that the ground was hot and covered in 10-20 cm of ash. The VAAC reported that during 11-12 August ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110-130 km W. A news article noted that the eruptions were smaller on 12 August, but pyroclastic flows continued to be observed. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC); Associated Press; CNN; Agence France-Presse (AFP); National Public Radio (NPR)


19 June-25 June 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 June ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 May-28 May 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 and 24 May ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km NW, W, and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


8 May-14 May 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 May ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km WNW and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 May-7 May 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5 May ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-55 km SW and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 April-30 April 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29-30 April ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-110 km NW and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 April-23 April 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 April an ash plume from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 April-16 April 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 April an ash plume from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 April-9 April 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 April an ash plume from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37 km SE and W. During 6-7 April ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km W and WSW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 March-2 April 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27 March-1 April ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.7 km (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-100 km N, NE, and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 March-26 March 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-21 and 24-26 March ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-335 km SW, WSW, W, NW, and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


13 March-19 March 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that duirng 13 and 17-19 March ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4 km (7,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-95 km E, W, and WNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 March-12 March 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-12 March ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4 km (7,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-75 km E and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


13 February-19 February 2013

CVGHM reported that activity at Paluweh during October 2012-January 2013 was characterized by lava-dome growth, incandescent avalanches, pyroclastic flows, ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km above the dome, and ejected material deposited 3 km away. The whole island was affected by ashfall, which was an average of 2 cm thick on some areas. Some infrastructure and several homes were damaged by ash and lahars.

On 1 February at 1652 an eruption generated an ash plume that rose 2 km. Pyroclastic flows and avalanches were observed. On 2 February an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 4 km and was accompanied by booms and rumbling. The ash plume drifted S and deposited ashfall up to 1 mm thick in Ende (60 km S); thick ashfall was reported in Ona (SE part of the island) and thin deposits were reported in other areas of the island to the W, N, and E. About 25% of the S portion of the dome was lost; the lava-dome volume was an estimated 5.1 million cubic meters on 13 January. On 3 February an ash eruption was observed as well as incandescence from the crater. During 4-10 February diffuse white plumes rose 50-100 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors and residents were prohibited from approaching the crater within a 3-km-radius.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-18 February ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km E and NE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 February-12 February 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-12 February ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-110 km NW, NNW, and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 January-5 February 2013

According to news articles, an explosion from Paluweh occurred at 2300 on 2 February and was clearly heard by local residents. Authorities evacuated by boat all residents from the eight villages on the island. Ashfall was reported during 2-3 February.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind data, and pilot reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 February ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 13.1-13.7 km (43,000-45,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 325-590 km SE, S, and SW. Elevated levels of sulfur dioxide were also detected. The next day ash plumes at an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. were observed.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC); TribunNews.com


23 January-29 January 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 January ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 20 km ENE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 January-8 January 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 January ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37 km NE. On 7 January an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 20 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 December-25 December 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19 and 21-23 December ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4-2.7 km (8,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-75 km E, SW,W, and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 December-18 December 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-15 December ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-65 km NW and W. On 17 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km E. The next day an ash plume drifted 55 km E at altitudes of 3.4-3.7 km (11,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 December-11 December 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 and 8 December ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-75 km NW, W, and SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 November-4 December 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28 November-4 December ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-65 km NW and W.

The Volcano Discovery team observed Paluweh during 30 November-2 December. They reported that a lava dome seemed to be visibly growing from all sides, with almost constant incandescent rockfalls in multiple areas. The dome was about 150 m high, the highest point on the island, and the basal diameter was 200-250 m. A vent on the upper E part of the dome ejected ash for periods of several hours and produced jet-like degassing sounds. A steam-and-ash plume rose several kilometers. Small pyroclastic flows descended the lava dome, but vegetation immediately surrounding the dome was only slightly damaged by fires caused by hot blocks and ashfall. The report also noted that local people observed the dome growing next to the Rokatenda crater in late October.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC); VolcanoDiscovery


21 November-27 November 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21 and 23-27 November ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-115 km WNW, W, and SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


14 November-20 November 2012

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-19 November ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-150 km NW and W. A thermal anomaly was detected on 14 November.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 November-13 November 2012

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and other data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-13 November ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-150 km NW and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 October-16 October 2012

Based on seismic data and visual observations, CVGHM raised the Alert Level for Paluweh from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 13 October. The Alert Level had been raised to 2 five days earlier.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


3 October-9 October 2012

Based on seismic data and visual observations, CVGHM raised the Alert Level for Paluweh (also known as Rokatenda) from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 October.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


5 September-11 September 2012

CVGHM reported that on 7 September the Alert Level for Paluweh was lowered from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


25 January-31 January 2012

Seismic activity from Paluweh (also known as Rokatenda) increased during 12-18 January, prompting CVGHM to raise the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 19 January. Fog prevented visual observations of the volcano.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


15 June-21 June 2011

CVGHM reported that volcanic tremor from Paluweh had not been detected since 1 March 2010 and during January 2011-June solfatara emissions from the summit were not observed. On 17 June, the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4)

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


15 April-21 April 2009

During 1-17 April, seismic activity from Paluweh increased, prompting CVGHM to raise the Alert Level to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 18 April.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


26 January-1 February 2005

News reports of an increase in volcanic activity at Paluweh (also known as Rokatenda) on 31 January were found to be false by DVGHM. DVGHM staff found no activity at the volcano, so it remained at Alert Level 1.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); The Jakarta Post


Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

03/1973 (CSLP 33-73) Eruption ejects tephra 100 m and damages local vegetation

01/1981 (SEAN 06:01) Loud explosions; intermittent tephra ejection

02/1981 (SEAN 06:02) Explosions and lava dome

08/1981 (SEAN 06:08) Incandescent material; seismicity

09/1981 (SEAN 06:09) Lava dome destoyed; pyroclastic flows

06/2009 (BGVN 34:06) April 2009 spike in seismicity but no explosive activity or visible emissions

01/2014 (BGVN 39:01) August 2013 pyroclastic flows took lives; dome growth stopped late 2013


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

All times are local (= UTC + 8 hours)

03/1973 (CSLP 33-73) Eruption ejects tephra 100 m and damages local vegetation

Card 1590 (22 March 1973) Eruption ejects tephra 100 m and damages local vegetation

According to Mrs. Suryanti, a correspondent of the Vulcain Group in Indonesia, on 9 and 16 January the crater of the Paluweh Island volcano, named Rokatinda, was throwing gases, ash, and bombs to a height of about 100 m. As a consequence the greater part of the vegetation, coconut trees, and maize was burned and destroyed. Before the eruption, the volcano had displayed weak fumarolic activity. When Maurice Krafft visited this volcano in October 1971, the maximum temperature of the gases escaping from the crater was 100°C. About 2,000 people are living on the island of Paluweh.

Information Contacts: N. Suryanti, Djakarta II, Indonesia; Maurice Krafft, Equipe Vulcain, Mulhouse, France.

01/1981 (SEAN 06:01) Loud explosions; intermittent tephra ejection

Activity began to increase on 5 November and continued intermittently through the end of January. On 9 November, an eruption column rose 1 km from the summit crater. Bombs fell nearby and 2 mm of ash were deposited 1 km to the W. Bombs and ash were ejected for about 15 minutes starting at 1115 on 13 November, from a summit crater vent [but see 6:2] 40 m in diameter. The tephra column reached 700 m in height. On 27 January ejecta set bushes afire near a flank village. Detonations from explosions on 31 January were heard at Kota Baru, Flores Island . . . at 0740, 0803, 0807, 0913, 1030, and 1215. No additional activity had occurred as of 5 February.

Information Contacts: A. Sudradjat and L. Pardyanto, VSI.

02/1981 (SEAN 06:02) Explosions and lava dome

VSI provided further details about the intermittent explosive activity. The 40-m-diameter vent was formed during one of the early November eruptions and is situated on the upper NNE flank. Bombs from the 1-km-high eruption column on 9 November measured up to 60 cm in diameter. Beginning 18 January renewed activity was reported. A hot air wave was felt by the inhabitants of two E-flank villages. About 1,850 persons were evacuated from the danger zone. After the explosions on 31 January a new lava dome was observed in the crater. Activity declined gradually, and the volcano appeared to be normal again on 1 February at 1200. No casualties from Paluweh's November-January activity were reported.

Information Contacts: A. Sudradjat and L. Pardyanto, VSI.

08/1981 (SEAN 06:08) Incandescent material; seismicity

Indonesian Meteorological Institute personnel reported that Paluweh has erupted for the second time this year. The meteorology bureau on Flores Island . . . said it recorded 809 "strong tremors" 17-22 August. "Lava and burning rocks" were repeatedly erupted on 22 August. On 24 August the bureau recorded ocean water temperatures as high as [98°C] around the island. No casualties were reported, but inhabitants evacuated the area. Crops and fishing boats were damaged.

Information Contacts: UPI.

09/1981 (SEAN 06:09) Lava dome destoyed; pyroclastic flows

No pyroclastic flows were observed during the growth of the lava dome first seen 31 January (although some sliding occurred), but it generated blasts of hot air felt by residents of a flank village. They were evacuated by the end of February, after VSI had issued a volcanic hazard warning. By July, the lava dome was 200 m high, its volume exceeded 8.5 x 106 m3, and its summit had become the highest point on the volcano at 875 m above sea level. Explosive activity resumed on 5 September between 2010 and 2105, producing a 1-km-high plume. This activity was followed by the destruction of the lava dome. Pyroclastic flows and nuées ardentes d'avalanche moved downslope, depositing 5-20 cm of tephra at one village, and starting fires at 36 structures, including a church and five shelters, at another. Because residents had previously been evacuated, there were no casualties. Since the destruction of the dome, the 3-component seismograph monitoring the volcano has recorded shallow earthquakes which VSI believes may be generated by sliding from remnants of the dome.

Information Contacts: A. Sudradjat and L. Pardyanto, VSI.

06/2009 (BGVN 34:06) April 2009 spike in seismicity but no explosive activity or visible emissions

During 1-17 April 2009, seismicity increased at Paluweh (table 1), prompting the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) to raise the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (Waspada) on 18 April. CVGHM staff in the observation post did not see any gas or ash emissions. Visitors were requested to stay away from the active crater adjacent to the peak.

Table 1. Average number of daily seismic events recorded from Paluweh, April 2009. Courtesy of CVGHM.

    Date               Deep volcanic     Shallow volcanic
                        earthquakes        earthquakes
                      (daily average)    (daily average)

    01-03 Apr 2009           2                  2
    04-05 Apr 2009          17                 18
    06-10 Apr 2009           6                 11
    11-13 Apr 2009           6                 10
    14-15 Apr 2009          22                 10
    16 Apr 2009             23                 15

Explosive activity had most recently been observed in May 1984 and previously during November 1980-September 1981 (SEAN 06:01, 06:02, 06:08, and 06:09), October 1973, and October 1972-January 1973. Activity in December 1963-March 1966 included lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and fatalities.

An unconfirmed news report of activity in January 2005, not reported in the Bulletin, was later found to be false. The CVGHM staff found no activity at the volcano.

As background on hazard considerations, the mouth of the principal crater opens to the S, where there is plantation agriculture almost to the volcano's peak. In the advent of a future crisis, evacuation would be complicated because a safer area is about two hours journey by motor vessel, and leaving the island might not be possible during storms or rough seas. CVGHM is in continuous contact with the provincial and regional governments, some monitor of Paluweh occurs from the hamlet of Ropa on the N-central coast of the big island of Flores, to Paluweh's S. Regional civil-defense agencies (such as SATKORLAK-PB, the Provincial Coordinating Unit for Disaster Management) and district government agencies of Sikka and Ende (such as SATLAK-PB, the Local Coordinating Body for Disaster Relief) are continually apprised of the activity level.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/).

01/2014 (BGVN 39:01) August 2013 pyroclastic flows took lives; dome growth stopped late 2013

An HTML version of this report is not available, please read this report as a PDF file.

Paluweh volcano, also known as Rokatenda, forms the 8-km-wide island of Paluweh north of the volcanic arc that cuts across Flores Island. Although the volcano rises about 3000 m above the sea floor, its summit reaches only 875 m above sea level. The broad irregular summit region contains overlapping craters up to 900 m wide and several lava domes. Several flank vents occur along a NW-trending fissure. The largest historical eruption of Paluweh occurred in 1928, when a strong explosive eruption was accompanied by landslide-induced tsunamis and lava dome emplacement.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2012 Oct 27 ± 4 days 2014 Apr 5 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Rokatenda
1985 Feb 3 1985 Feb 3 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Rokatenda (west side of lava dome)
1984 May 9 1984 May 21 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Rokatenda (west side of lava dome)
1980 Nov 5 1981 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Rokatenda
1973 Oct 27 1973 Oct 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1972 Oct 22 1973 Jan 16 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Rokatenda
1963 Dec 31 1966 Mar 16 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Rokatenda (1928 crater)
1928 Aug 4 1928 Sep 25 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Rokatenda
[ 1831 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1650 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Paloe | Palowe | Nusa Kua | Rusa Raja | Nuha Lua | Rusa Radja


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Jawalo
    Djawalo
Crater
Poa Crater
Rokatenda
    Rokatinda
Crater
Tudu
    Toedoe
Crater
Utama, Kawah Crater
Waikoro Crater


Thermal
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Cawalo Thermal
Koa Thermal
Nitung Thermal
Nuakaju Thermal
Tanjung Tiramana Thermal
Tomu Thermal
Tudu Thermal
Waikoro Thermal
A small plume rises from a lava dome at the summit of Paluweh volcano, seen here in 1985 from the south. The dome is one of several lava domes emplaced during historical time at Paluweh volcano.

Photo by Ruska Hadian, 1985 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Paluweh volcano is seen here in April 1985, shortly after a brief explosive eruption from a vent near the 1981 lava dome. Paluweh volcano, also known as Rokatenda, forms an 8-km-wide island located north of the volcanic arc that cuts across Flores Island. The summit region contains overlapping craters and lava domes; several flank vents occur along a NW-trending fissure. The largest historical eruption of Paluweh occurred in 1928.

Photo by Sumailani, 1985 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The broad forested 8-km-wide island of Paluweh is seen here from off its NE coast. A rounded lava dome forms the summit of the volcano, sometimes known as Rokatenda.

Photo published in Kemnerling 1929, "Vulkanen van Flores" (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
A new lava dome in the summit of Paluweh volcano is viewed from the north in 1964. An explosive eruption began on December 31, 1963, and the following day a lava dome was seen between the 1928 dome and the north crater wall. Occasional explosive eruptions accompanied by avalanches from the dome continued into 1966. The last reported activity was on March 16, 1966, when a large avalanche produced ashfall on the west side of the island, damaging cultivated areas.

Photo by J. Matahelumual, 1964 (published in Kusumadinata 1979 "Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia").
An unvegetated lava dome is visible at the summit of Paluweh volcano, also known as Rokatenda. The complex stratovolcano forms an 8-km-wide island located north of the volcanic arc that cuts across Flores Island. The summit region contains overlapping craters and lava domes; several flank vents occur along a NW-trending fissure. The largest historical eruption of Paluweh occurred in 1928.

Photo by Volcanological Survey of Indonesia.

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Kemmerling G L L, 1929. Vulkanen van Flores. Vulk Seism Meded Dienst Mijnw Ned-Indie, 10: 1-138.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1930. Padoweh. Vulk Seism Meded Dienst Mijnw Ned-Indie, 11: 1-141.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Stolz A J, Varne R, Davies, G R, Wheller G E, Foden J D, 1990. Magma source components in an arc-continent collision zone: the Flores-Lembata sector, Sunda arc, Indonesia. Contr Mineral Petr, 105: 585-601.

Sudradjat A, 1977. . (pers. comm.).

Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, 1986b. Annual report of the Volcanological Survey 1984-1985. Bull Volc Surv Indonesia, no 113.

Wheller G E, Varne R, Foden J D, Abbott M J, 1987. Geochemistry of Quaternary volcanism in the Sunda-Banda arc, Indonesia, and three-component genesis of island-arc basaltic magmas. J Volc Geotherm Res, 32: 137-160.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Crustal thickness unknown

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
446
446
5,284
548,803

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Paluweh Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.