Kelimutu

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 8.77°S
  • 121.82°E

  • 1639 m
    5376 ft

  • 264140
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

10 July-16 July 2013

CVGHM reported that on 6, 10, and 12 June, and during 14 June-9 July, the color of the water in Kelimutu’s Crater II (Tiwu Nua Muri Kooh Tai Crater) was bluish white. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 50 m above the lake’s surface and in some areas the water appeared or sounded like it was boiling. A sulfur odor was also reported. The water in Crater I (Tiwu Ata Polo) was light green and churned, and the water in Crater III (Tiwu Ata Mbupu) was mossy green.

During 22-29 June sulfur dioxide concentrations from Crater II were occasionally detected at 2.8 ppm, when the wind blew the gas towards the sensor. CVGHM noted that plumes rising from the lakes became lower and barely visible during 3 June-9 July, and that the “rustling sound” of water from near the dividing wall of craters I and II gradually faded away. Based on visual observations, seismicity, and gas emissions, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 July.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM



Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

04/1986 (SEAN 11:04) Gas emission from crater lake; felt earthquake

11/1989 (SEAN 14:11) Degassing from one of three crater lakes and flank fumaroles

06/1993 (BGVN 20:06) Increased seismicity for three months

06/1995 (BGVN 20:06) Minor bubbling in very acidic crater lake

06/2013 (BGVN 38:06) Crater water boils; diffuse, white plume increases to 50 m


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

04/1986 (SEAN 11:04) Gas emission from crater lake; felt earthquake

". . . signs of unrest from the Tiwu Nua Muri crater . . . consisted of increased gas bubbling from the crater lake beginning on 27 April and a felt earthquake on 28 April."

Information Contacts: Olas, Suratman, Suparto, Kaswanda, and A. Sudradjat, VSI.

11/1989 (SEAN 14:11) Degassing from one of three crater lakes and flank fumaroles

In November, moderate degassing with a weak sulfur odor occurred from the the E crater's Tiwu Ata Polo, reddish in 1986 and dark green in 1989. No degassing was evident from the light green Tiwu Nua Muri Kooh Tai in the central crater. A small amount of sulfur was deposited around the lakeshore. In the W crater, Tiwu Ata Mbupu, dark brown in May, was greenish in November. No degassing or other activity was evident. Fumaroles on the upper flanks had temperatures of [96-97°C] in 21°C air. An earthquake was felt at MM II on 28 June at 2255. November seismicity included [three] A-type and [two] B-type events, plus [23] local and [37] distant tectonic earthquakes.

Information Contacts: VSI.

06/1993 (BGVN 20:06) Increased seismicity for three months

[Seismicity rose during February-April 1993, with 318 deep and 196 shallow earthquakes, but declined in June (VSI, 1993a).] (originally in 20:06)

Reference. Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, 1993a, Kelimutu Volcano: Journal of Volcanic Activity in Indonesia, v. 1:1/2, p. 14.

Information Contacts: VSI.

06/1995 (BGVN 20:06) Minor bubbling in very acidic crater lake

Between 15 and 19 May 1995 a search was conducted for the body of a missing Dutch tourist who had fallen into one of Kelimutu's three crater lakes (figures 1, 2, and 3). During the search of the turquoise-blue Tiwu Nua Muri Kooh Tai lake, ~600 x 380 m in size and located 100-150 m below the crater rim, pH measured by litmus-paper was 0.5. Access to the crater lake was achieved by rope-aided descent, but rocks on the crater wall were very loose and rockfalls were frequent. A portable boat was used to tow a dredging net to comb the 3-6 m depth range of the entire lake. The water temperature was 37°C, ~8° cooler than the air. A film of yellow sulfur (~30 x 150 m) floated on the lake's surface. The searchers breathed bottled oxygen because of the high levels of SO2 in the air, which measured 5 ppm. On 18 May "little bubbles or very small fountains" were observed within the lake. Although the body was not recovered, the search was terminated on 19 May.

Figure 1. Map of the summit area of Kelimutu showing the three crater lakes and the location of the volcano observatory.
Figure 2. Kelimutu summit area in mid-May 1995, view is to the SE. The turquoise-green Tiwu Nua Muri Kooh Tai crater lake is in the foreground (~600 x 380 m) with the darker-colored Tiwu Ata Polo crater lake behind it to the right. Photograph courtesy of Ton Biesemat, Outdoor Magazine.
Figure 3. Crater lakes at Kelimutu, mid-May 1995. View is approximately WSW looking along the heavily altered shared crater rim between the turquoise-green Tiwu Nua Muri Kooh lake (right) and the dark Tiwu Ata Polo lake (left). Photograph courtesy of Ton Biesemat, Outdoor Magazine.

Further Reference. Outdoor Magazine, Bergingsactie op een actieve vulkaan, De Kelimutu Zwijgt, 3e jaargang:4, July 1995, p. 40-45 (in Dutch, with 14 photos).

Information Contacts: Ton Biesemaat, Outdoor Magazine, Netherlands; VSI; AP; UPI.

06/2013 (BGVN 38:06) Crater water boils; diffuse, white plume increases to 50 m

An HTML version of this report is not available, please read this report as a PDF file.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1968 Jun 3 1968 Jul 29 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Tiwu Nua Muri
1938 May 1938 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1865 ± 5 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Kemmerling G L L, 1929. Vulkanen van Flores. Vulk Seism Meded Dienst Mijnw Ned-Indie, 10: 1-138.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Pasternack G B, Varekamp J C, 1994. The geochemistry of the Keli Mutu crater lake, Flores, Indonesia. Geochem J, 28: 243-262.

Sudradjat A, 1977. . (pers. comm.).

van Bemmelen R W, 1949b. The Geology of Indonesia. The Hague: Government Printing Office, v 1, 732 p.

Kelimutu is a small, but well-known Indonesian volcano in central Flores Island with three summit crater lakes of varying colors. The western lake, Tiwi Ata Mbupu (Lake of Old People) is commonly blue. Tiwu Nua Muri Kooh Tai (Lake of Young Men and Maidens) and Tiwu Ata Polo (Bewitched, or Enchanted Lake), which share a common crater wall, are commonly green- and red-colored, respectively, although lake colors vary periodically. Active upwelling, probably fed by subaqueous fumaroles, occurs at the two eastern lakes. The scenic lakes are a popular tourist destination and have been the source of minor phreatic eruptions in historical time. The summit of the compound 1639-m-high Kelimutu volcano is elongated 2 km in a WNW-ESE direction; the older cones of Kelido and Kelibara are located respectively 3 km to the north and 2 km to the south.