Rinjani

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 8.42°S
  • 116.47°E

  • 3726 m
    12221 ft

  • 264030
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

17 November-23 November 2010

CVGHM reported that during June-15 November seismicity from Rinjani decreased; visual observations indicated no activity since August. On 19 November the Alert level was lowered to Normal, or 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM



 Available Weekly Reports


2010: April | May | November
2009: April | May | June | December
2004: September | October


17 November-23 November 2010

CVGHM reported that during June-15 November seismicity from Rinjani decreased; visual observations indicated no activity since August. On 19 November the Alert level was lowered to Normal, or 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


19 May-25 May 2010

According to news articles, three eruptions from Rinjani during 22-23 May were accompanied by tremors. Ash and incandescent material was ejected as high as 2 km. Ash plumes drifted 12 km and caused ashfall in multiple areas. Lava flowed into the caldera lake and caused the lake water temperature to rise from 21 to 35 degrees Celsius.

Source: RTT News


5 May-11 May 2010

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 May a possible ash plume from Rinjani rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 150 km NW. The plume was not seen in imagery about six hours later. CVGHM advised the VAAC that intermittent activity could produce ash plumes to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) above the caldera.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 April-4 May 2010

CVGHM reported that observers at a post located 12.5 km NE of Rinjani saw one whitish-colored plume that rose 100 m from the volcano during February. Dense whitish plumes (and possibly brown) rose 500-900 m in March on 26 occasions and as high as 1,500 m in April on 41 occasions. Plumes seen on 1 and 2 May were "chocolate" in color and rose a maximum height of 1,600 m. From February through April seismicity decreased, although the maximum amplitude of earthquakes increased. CVGHM also noted that ash eruptions and ejected incandescent material fell within Rinjani caldera, but some ash was blown out of the caldera. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 2 May.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


30 December-5 January 2010

Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 January an ash plume from Rinjani rose to an unspecified altitude. The plume was not identified in satellite imagery; however a meteorological cloud was present in the area.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 June-23 June 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21 June ash plumes from Rinjani rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 June-16 June 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 and 16 June ash plumes from Rinjani rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15-55 km W and WSW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 May-12 May 2009

CVGHM reported than during 3-7 May seismicity from Rinjani continued to be elevated and tremor was detected. On 4 May, an eruption of ash produced a white-to-brown plume that rose 500-700 m above the Barujari cone and drifted N. No eruption plumes were seen during times of clear weather on 5 and 6 May. On 7 May, thick white "smoke" from Rinjani was noted. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


29 April-5 May 2009

CVGHM reported than during 29 April-2 May seismicity from Rinjani increased and tremor was detected. On 2 May, an eruption produced dense brown "smoke" that rose 1 km from Barujari cone and was accompanied by a booming noise. On 4 May, an eruption of ash produced a white to brown plume that rose 500-700 m above the cone and drifted N. Fog often prevented observations. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). According to a news article, ash fell in the local village of Senaru.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Bali Discovery Tours


6 October-12 October 2004

An eruption occurred at Rinjani on 1 October at 1730 following an increase in seismicity that began on 5 September (0-7 earthquakes occurred per day). DVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) or Orange. During 2-4 October, explosions produced thick gray ash plumes to heights of ~300-800 m above the post-caldera cone, Barujari. The explosions occurred on the NE slope of Barujari cone every 5 to 160 minutes. Seismicity was dominated by explosion earthquakes.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


29 September-5 October 2004

Based on information from DVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption at Rinjani on 1 October at 0530 produced a plume to ~600 m above the volcano's summit. No ash was visible on satellite imagery. The volcano was at Aviation Color Code Orange. Visual observations revealed that eruptions on 5 October reached ~4.5 km a.s.l. A news article reported that hikers were banned from climbing the volcano, but the evacuation of villagers near the volcano was deemed unnecessary by local officials.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), The Jakarta Post


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2009 May 2 2010 Aug (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE flank of Gunung Barujari
2004 Oct 1 2004 Oct 5 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and NE flank of Barujari
[ 1995 Sep 12 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1994 Jun 3 1994 Nov 21 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Gunung Barujari
1966 Mar 28 1966 Aug 8 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations East side of Barujari (2250 m)
1965 Sep Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Gunung Barujari
1953 Oct 15 ± 45 days Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Gunung Barujari
1949 1950 Confirmed 0 Historical Observations NW flank of Gunung Barujari
1944 Dec 25 1945 Jan 1 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NW flank of Barujari (Rombongan)
[ 1941 May 30 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Rinjani summit
1915 Nov 4 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Gunung Barujari (Segara Munjar)
1909 Nov 30 1909 Dec 2 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Gunung Barujari
1906 Apr 29 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Gunung Barujari
1901 Jun 1 1901 Jun 2 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Gunung Barujari
1900 Nov 30 1900 Dec 2 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Gunung Barujari
1884 Aug 8 1884 Aug 10 ± 1 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Gunung Barujari
1847 Sep 10 1847 Sep 12 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Gunung Barujari
1257 Jul 1 ± 90 days Unknown Confirmed 7 Ice Core Samalas
0600 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Foden J D, 1983. The petrology of the calcalkaline lavas of Rindjani volcano, east Sunda arc: a model for island arc petrogenesis. J Petr, 24: 98-130.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Lavigne F, Degeai J-P, Komorowski J-C, Guillet S, Robert V, Lahitte P, Oppenheimer C, Stoffel M, Vidal C M, Surono, Pratormo I, Wassmer P, Hajdas I, Hadmoko D S, de Belizal E, 2013. Source of the great A.D. 1257 mystery eruption unveiled, Samalas volcano, Rinjani volcanic complex, Indonesia. Proc Nat Acad Sci, US, 110: 16,742-16,747.

Nasution A, Takada A, Udibowo, Widarto D, Hutasoit L, 2010. Rinjani and Propok Volcanics as a heat sources of geothermal prospects from Eastern Lombok, Indonesia. Jurnal Geoaplika, 5(1): 1-9.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Varne R, Foden J D, 1986. Geochemical and isotopic systematics of eastern Sunda arc volcanics; implications for mantle sources and mantle mixing processes. In: F-C Wezel (ed), {The Origin of Arcs}, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 159-189.

Rinjani volcano on the island of Lombok rises to 3726 m, second in height among Indonesian volcanoes only to Sumatra's Kerinci volcano. Rinjani has a steep-sided conical profile when viewed from the east, but the west side of the compound volcano is truncated by the 6 x 8.5 km, oval-shaped Segara Anak (Samalas) caldera. The caldera formed during one of the largest Holocene eruptions globally in 1257 CE, which truncated Samalas stratovolcano. The western half of the caldera contains a 230-m-deep lake whose crescentic form results from growth of the post-caldera cone Barujari at the east end of the caldera. Historical eruptions dating back to 1847 have been restricted to Barujari cone and consist of moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows that have entered Segara Anak lake.