Agung

Photo of this volcano
Google Earth icon
  Google Earth Placemark
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 8.342°S
  • 115.508°E

  • 3142 m
    10306 ft

  • 264020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Agung.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Agung.

Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

07/1989 (SEAN 14:07) Fumarolic activity

11/1989 (SEAN 14:11) Occasional seismicity but solfatara field quiet

03/2003 (BGVN 28:03) Hot-spots located outside the summit crater are most likely due to fires


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

07/1989 (SEAN 14:07) Fumarolic activity

Fumarolic and solfataric activity (restricted to the crater) emitted a thin white plume periodically seen from the observatory. In late July, 69 tectonic, three volcanic A-type, and six volcanic B-type events were recorded.

Information Contacts: VSI.

11/1989 (SEAN 14:11) Occasional seismicity but solfatara field quiet

Observations from both Rendang (S) and Budakeling (N) Observatories revealed neither white plumes from the solfatara field nor collapses of loose material from the inner crater wall. No explosion sounds from the crater have been heard. An earthquake was felt (MM I) on 9 June; 59 tectonic and two volcanic shocks [were] recorded in November.

Information Contacts: VSI.

03/2003 (BGVN 28:03) Hot-spots located outside the summit crater are most likely due to fires

Thermal anomalies were detected by MODIS throughout 2001 and 2002 in zones proximal to the summit of Agung. The first alert occurred on 23 September 2001 when two alert-pixels were detected with a maximum alert ratio of -0.789. Larger anomalies were detected on 12 August 2002 (two alert-pixels with maximum alert ratio of -0.429) and 5 October 2002 (one alert-pixel with alert ratio of -0.536). All the alerts seem to occur outside the summit crater, with the possible exception of 5 October 2002, and are more likely to represent fires than volcanic activity.

No volcanic activity has been reported recently by the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia.

Information Contacts: Diego Coppola and David A. Rothery, Department of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK (Email: d.coppola@open.ac.uk, d.a.rothery@open.ac.uk). Thermal alerts courtesy of the HIGP MODIS Thermal Alerts Team (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).

Symmetrical Agung stratovolcano, Bali's highest and most sacred mountain, towers over the eastern end of the island. The volcano, whose name means "Paramount," rises above the SE caldera rim of neighboring Batur volcano, and the northern and southern flanks of Agung extend to the coast. The 3142-m-high summit of Agung contains a steep-walled, 500-m-wide, 200-m-deep crater. The flank cone Pawon is located low on the SE side of Gunung Agung. Only a few eruptions dating back to the early 19th century have been recorded from Agung in historical time. Agung's 1963-64 eruption, one of the world's largest of the 20th century, produced voluminous ashfall and devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused extensive damage and many fatalities.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1963 Feb 18 1964 Jan 27 Confirmed 5 Historical Observations
1843 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1821 Mar 16 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1808 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Bali, Peak of | Agoeng | Gunungapi | Carang Assam


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Pawon Cone 800 m
An eruption column towers above Bali's Agung volcano on March 12, 1963. Five days later a devastating eruption produced pyroclastic flows and lahars that killed 1148 persons. Another powerful eruption on May 16 caused additional fatalities. The eruption left tens of thousands of persons homeless.

Photo by K. Kusumadinata, 1963 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
An ash cloud rises above the summit crater of Agung volcano on March 17, 1963, during the first of two powerful explosive eruptions that caused much devastation to the island of Bali. The eruption began on February 19 as andesitic lava flowed down the northern flank. Major explosive eruptions on March 17 and May 16 produced devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that killed more than 1100 persons.

Photo by Djazuli, 1963 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The summit of Bali's Gunung Agung volcano contains a steep-walled, 500-m-wide, 200-m-deep crater that is the source of Agung's historical eruptions. Grayish layers of lava flows and brownish tephra layers from explosive eruptions are exposed in the crater wall.

Photo by Sumarna Hamidi, 1973 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The summit of Agung volcano marks the highest point on the island of Bali. The broad irregular volcanic massif in the far distance is the 11 x 6 km wide Bratan caldera in north-central Bali. Batukau, the largest of several post-caldera cones overtopping the southern rim, is the sharp peak at the left. Three lakes occupy the floor of Bratan caldera. Many of the cones are quite old, but some postdate the youngest dacitic pumice eruptions of Batur volcano (<23,000 years ago).

Photo by Sumarma Hamidi, 1973 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Agung volcano towers over the eastern end of the island of Bali. A steep-walled, 200-m-deep crater is located at the summit of the 3142-m-high volcano, seen here from the Sakta River on the eastern flank. Only three eruptions have been recorded in historical time from Gunung Agung; the latest, during 1963-64, produced devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars.

Photo by Tom Pierson, 1989 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Gunung Agung, Bali's sacred mountain, towers above rice fields near the Gunungapi Rendang volcano observation post of the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia. The 3142-m-high stratovolcano has erupted infrequently during historical time, but its 1963 eruption was one of the most devastating in Indonesia during the 20th century.

Photo by M.E. Ilyas, 1991 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Marinelli G, Tazieff H, 1968. L'Ignimbrite et la caldera de Batur (Bali, Indonesia). Bull Volc, 32: 89-120.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Self S, King A J, 1996. Petrology and sulfur and chlorine emissions of the 1963 eruption of Gunung Agung, Bali, Indonesia. Bull Volc, 58: 263-285.

Zen M T, Hadikusumo D, 1964. Recent changes in the Anak-Krakatau volcano. Bull Volc, 27: 259-268.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Lava cone

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
5,657
76,781
968,381
4,550,176

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Agung Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.