Raung

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  • Indonesia
  • Java
  • Stratovolcano
  • 2008 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 8.125°S
  • 114.042°E

  • 3332 m
    10929 ft

  • 263340
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

1 January-7 January 2014

PVMBG reported that on 1 January seismicity at Raung increased, on 3 January diffuse white gas plumes rose 100 m and drifted W, and on 4 January diffuse brownish plumes also rose 100 m and drifted W. On 5 January the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM



 Available Weekly Reports


2014: January
2013: April
2012: October
2007: July | August
2002: May | June | August


1 January-7 January 2014

PVMBG reported that on 1 January seismicity at Raung increased, on 3 January diffuse white gas plumes rose 100 m and drifted W, and on 4 January diffuse brownish plumes also rose 100 m and drifted W. On 5 January the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


3 April-9 April 2013

CVGHM reported that during March white plumes rose at most 400 m above Raung. Seismicity decreased significantly on 25 March, and tremor was absent starting in April. On 5 April the Alert level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.8-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


17 October-23 October 2012

Seismicity at Raung increased on 17 October and remained elevated, prompting CVGHM to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 18 October. During 18-22 October white plumes rose 50-75 m above the crater. Seismic activity increased significantly on 22 October. That same day the Alert Level was raised to 3. Visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 3-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


22 August-28 August 2007

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Raung rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. during 26-27 August and drifted E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 July-31 July 2007

Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume possibly from Raung rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 August-27 August 2002

Based on pilot reports and satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume was visible rising from Raung on 25 August at 1534. The cloud reached a height of ~9.2 km a.s.l. and drifted to the W at high levels and to the E at lower levels.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 August-13 August 2002

The Darwin VAAC received reports stating that on 12 August at 1720 ash was visible drifting NW of Raung around summit level. The summit was partially obscured by meteorological clouds and no ash was identifiable on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 June-11 June 2002

The Darwin VAAC reported that possible ash clouds emitted from Raung were visible on satellite imagery. The clouds were at heights below 4.6 a.s.l. and were observed on 5 June at 0840 drifting to the S, on 7 June at 0934 drifting to the SW, and on 8 June at 1132 drifting to the NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 May-4 June 2002

A pilot reported observing an ash plume that was emitted from Raung on 2 June at 1625. The plume rose to a height of ~4.5 km a.s.l. and drifted to the S. According to the Darwin VAAC, ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2008 Jun 12 2008 Jun 17 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2007 Jul 26 2007 Aug 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 2005 Jul 23 (?) ] [ 2005 Aug 15 (?) ] Uncertain 2  
[ 2004 Apr 15 (?) ] [ 2004 Oct 8 (?) ] Uncertain 2  
2002 Jun (in or before) 2002 Aug 25 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2000 Jul 9 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1999 Jul 30 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1997 Apr (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1995 Aug 15 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1995 Mar 1995 Mar Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1994 Jul 14 1994 Jul 14 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1993 Apr 1 ± 90 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1991 Sep 10 1991 Nov 12 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1990 Jan 16 (in or before) 1990 Dec (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1987 May 1989 Jul 28 ± 3 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1985 Aug 23 1986 Feb 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1982 Jul 18 1982 Jul 20 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1978 Jan 1979 Dec (in or after) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1977 Jun 9 1977 Jun 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1976 Jun 7 1976 Nov 21 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1975 Mar 1975 May Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1974 Jun 15 1974 Jul 17 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1973 May 1973 Oct Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1971 Sep 14 1971 Sep 14 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1956 Feb 13 1956 Mar 25 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1955 Jan 18 1955 Jan 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1953 Jan 31 1953 Apr 15 ± 5 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1944 Jun 30 1945 Apr 19 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1943 Mar 17 1943 Jun 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1941 Dec 13 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1940 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1938 Aug 13 1939 Jan 10 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1937 Oct 27 1937 Nov 27 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1936 Aug 22 1936 Dec 11 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1933 Nov 21 1933 Dec 6 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1929 Apr 27 ± 60 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1928 Nov Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1927 Aug 2 1928 Mar (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central cone and NW crater wall
[ 1924 Aug 20 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1924 Feb (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1921 Feb 14 ± 4 days 1921 Apr Confirmed 2 Historical Observations 1913 cone
1917 Feb 22 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1916 Nov 1916 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1915 May Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1913 May 10 1913 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1903 Nov 28 1904 Jan Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1902 Feb 16 1902 Feb 27 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1897 Apr Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1896 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1890 Jul 1890 Sep 15 ± 2 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1885 Jun 21 1885 Jun 22 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1881 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1864 Jul 2 1864 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1860 Sep (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1859 Dec 14 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1849 Dec 1 ± 30 days Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1838 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1817 Jan 16 1817 Feb 10 (?) Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1815 Dec 31 ± 365 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1812 1814 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1804 ± 4 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1793 ± 6 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1730 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1638 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1597 Jan 17 1597 Feb 2 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1593 Unknown Confirmed 5 Historical Observations
[ 1586 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 3  

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Raung, one of Java's most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The 3332-m-high, unvegetated summit of Gunung Raung is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the west flank produced a large debris avalanche that traveled 79 km from the volcano, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and west, respectively.