Raung

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 8.125°S
  • 114.042°E

  • 3332 m
    10929 ft

  • 263340
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

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18 June-24 June 2014

PVMBG reported that RSAM values from Raung showed an increase in energy during March-April. Additionally, during March-April, the daily number of volcanic earthquakes was dominated by tremor (with an increase in tremor amplitude); however, since the beginning of May, the number and the amplitude of tremor decreased.

During 1-17 June, when weather permitted, a weak solfatera plume was visible rising up to 100 m above the summit. On 17 June the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)

Index of Weekly Reports


2014: January | June
2013: April
2012: October
2007: July | August
2002: May | June | August

Weekly Reports


18 June-24 June 2014

PVMBG reported that RSAM values from Raung showed an increase in energy during March-April. Additionally, during March-April, the daily number of volcanic earthquakes was dominated by tremor (with an increase in tremor amplitude); however, since the beginning of May, the number and the amplitude of tremor decreased.

During 1-17 June, when weather permitted, a weak solfatera plume was visible rising up to 100 m above the summit. On 17 June the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


1 January-7 January 2014

PVMBG reported that on 1 January seismicity at Raung increased, on 3 January diffuse white gas plumes rose 100 m and drifted W, and on 4 January diffuse brownish plumes also rose 100 m and drifted W. On 5 January the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


3 April-9 April 2013

CVGHM reported that during March white plumes rose at most 400 m above Raung. Seismicity decreased significantly on 25 March, and tremor was absent starting in April. On 5 April the Alert level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.8-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


17 October-23 October 2012

Seismicity at Raung increased on 17 October and remained elevated, prompting CVGHM to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 18 October. During 18-22 October white plumes rose 50-75 m above the crater. Seismic activity increased significantly on 22 October. That same day the Alert Level was raised to 3. Visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 3-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


22 August-28 August 2007

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Raung rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. during 26-27 August and drifted E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 July-31 July 2007

Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume possibly from Raung rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 August-27 August 2002

Based on pilot reports and satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume was visible rising from Raung on 25 August at 1534. The cloud reached a height of ~9.2 km a.s.l. and drifted to the W at high levels and to the E at lower levels.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 August-13 August 2002

The Darwin VAAC received reports stating that on 12 August at 1720 ash was visible drifting NW of Raung around summit level. The summit was partially obscured by meteorological clouds and no ash was identifiable on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 June-11 June 2002

The Darwin VAAC reported that possible ash clouds emitted from Raung were visible on satellite imagery. The clouds were at heights below 4.6 a.s.l. and were observed on 5 June at 0840 drifting to the S, on 7 June at 0934 drifting to the SW, and on 8 June at 1132 drifting to the NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 May-4 June 2002

A pilot reported observing an ash plume that was emitted from Raung on 2 June at 1625. The plume rose to a height of ~4.5 km a.s.l. and drifted to the S. According to the Darwin VAAC, ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

07/1982 (SEAN 07:07) Eruption cloud on 18 July

11/1985 (SEAN 10:11) Many small explosions; light ashfalls

12/1985 (SEAN 10:12) Small summit explosions during November

05/1989 (SEAN 14:05) Strombolian activity and seismicity

07/1989 (SEAN 14:07) Numerous small explosions

07/1990 (BGVN 15:07) Frequent light ash emissions

08/1991 (BGVN 16:08) Dense plumes

10/1991 (BGVN 16:10) Continued ash emission

05/1992 (NASA STS49) Infrared Space Shuttle photograph shows devegetated summit area

10/1995 (BGVN 20:10) Aviation report of a plume, but not seen on satellite imagery

06/1997 (BGVN 22:06) Aviators report April ash plume to 5 km and June "smoke" plume to 6 km altitude

10/2000 (BGVN 25:10) 9 July ash plume ends 3-year interval without reported eruptions

07/2002 (BGVN 27:07) Ash plumes to 4.6 km altitude reported in early June 2002

01/2004 (BGVN 29:01) Aviation reports describe ash plumes during 1999 to 2002

01/2005 (BGVN 30:01) MODIS-MODVOLC infrared hot spots 3 June-8 Oct 2004; aerial photos from 2001

09/2007 (BGVN 32:09) Uncertain July 2007 ash plume; August 2007 ash plume seen for several hours

06/2008 (BGVN 33:06) New eruption during 12-17 June sends ash plumes to 4.5 km altitude


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

All times are local (= UTC + 8 hours)

07/1982 (SEAN 07:07) Eruption cloud on 18 July

Raung erupted 18 July, emitting dark clouds of tephra to 6,000 m. Activity apparently began with a weak earth tremor at about 0300, felt by inhabitants of the tea and coffee plantations on the slopes and in the areas around Kalibaru and Glenmore, at the S foot of the volcano. On 19 July at about 0500 an earthquake was felt, and inhabitants at the foot of Raung reported hearing two consecutive explosions. A seismograph post for Ijen Volcano (8.058°S, 114.242°W) at Pal Tuding, which also monitors Raung, registered vibrations with a maximum amplitude of 3.9 mm.

Two eruptions on 19 July were reported by a Garuda Airlines pilot flying from Jakarta (about 840 km NW of Raung) to Denpasar (on Bali, about 140 km SE) and back. One eruption occurred around 0511 and the other around 1130. The pilot estimated that columns of "smoke" reached 0.6-0.9 km height. Flights have been diverted from near the volcano.

Ash fell lightly all day, leaving a whitish coat on the leaves of tea and coffee plants. An employee of one tea plantation said part of the top leaves were damaged and withered. Light ashfall was reported until 20 July.

Information Contacts: Kompas, Jakarta; AFP.

11/1985 (SEAN 10:11) Many small explosions; light ashfalls

"Raung resumed activity during November with a series of small explosions. The summit crater has not been visited since the start of the latest activity. However, observations begun 1 November from the new Raung observation post about 15 km SE of the summit at 700 m altitude (at Mangaran) indicated that the explosions have been centered along the E side of the large summit crater, near the recently active eruptive vent on the crater floor. At least 44 explosion clouds were observed during November, mostly whitish in color but dark gray ash-laden clouds were also seen. On 15 November, light ashfall was reported from SE flank villages (Bejong, Mangaran, and Seragi) and from Banjuyangi City, 35 km ESE of the volcano. The Mangaran seismometer recorded 52 explosion earthquakes during November. Activity was continuing as of 12 December."

"The last eruption of Raung that produced a lava flow was in 1973. That flow was confined to the summit crater. Explosions similar to the November activity have frequently been reported over the last decade."

Information Contacts: T. Casadevall and L. Pardyanto, VSI; Antara News Service, Jakarta.

12/1985 (SEAN 10:12) Small summit explosions during November

No explosions were recorded in December.

Information Contacts: Suparto S. and T. Casadevall, VSI.

05/1989 (SEAN 14:05) Strombolian activity and seismicity

Strombolian activity in the bottom of the crater was photographed by Michel Halbwach (Univ of Savoie, France) in July/August 1988, during overflights in an ultralight aircraft arranged in cooperation with the Federation Aerosport of Indonesia (FASI). Activity was continuing in March, when brownish plumes that rose 100-150 m above the summit were seen 41 times. Recorded March seismicity included: 1,771 episodes of volcanic tremor and plume emission tremor, 90 strong tectonic earthquakes, one local tectonic earthquake, and one A-type and 11 B-type volcanic earthquakes.

Additional aerial monitoring of activity at Raung and other volcanoes has been proposed by FASI and VSI.

Information Contacts: VSI.

07/1989 (SEAN 14:07) Numerous small explosions

During the last week of July, 45 visible explosions ejected plumes to 75-150 m above the summit before winds carried them S. Between explosions, weak white fumes reached 50 m above the crater. Recorded earthquakes were: distant tectonic (50), local tectonic (2), volcanic A-type (1), volcanic B-type (2), explosions (1,574), and volcanic tremor (1).

Information Contacts: VSI.

07/1990 (BGVN 15:07) Frequent light ash emissions

Raung continued to emit brownish-gray ash clouds to 200-300 m above the crater, with light ashfall NW of the volcano. A daily average of 104 ash pulses, one tremor event, and two tectonic earthquakes were detected during July.

Information Contacts: VSI.

08/1991 (BGVN 16:08) Dense plumes

The crew of Qantas flight 41 (Sydney-Jakarta) observed a very dense black plume emerging intermittently from a flank vent on 10 September at 1508. The plume was drifting N at ~6 km altitude, well below the aircraft's altitude of nearly 12 km. A voluminous, dense, mostly white plume with small pulses of ash in its center was observed from a commercial flight two days later.

Information Contacts: ICAO; J. Post, SI.

10/1991 (BGVN 16:10) Continued ash emission

Vigorous ash emissions, rising to 300-600 m, were observed from an aircraft on 3 October.

Information Contacts: N. MacLeod, Ridgefield WA, USA.

05/92 (NASA STS49) Infrared Space Shuttle photograph shows devegetated summit area

An infrared Space Shuttle photograph (figure 1) taken in May 1992 showed clear views of both Raung and the Ijen volcanic complex. Neither volcano was erupting, but the caldera lake in Kawah Ijen and the devegetated caldera and summit region at Raung were obvious features. The Ijen Caldera was clearly defined, along with some post-caldera cones on its southern margin (Kawah Ijen and Gunung Merapi, Gunung Rante, and Gunung Pendil).

Figure 1. This near-vertical color infrared photograph shows both Raung volcano and the Ijen volcanic complex on the E end of Java; the summit of Baluran, at the NE tip of the island, is hidden by clouds. Raung, the tall feature near the center of this photograph with a NE-flank vent (Gunung Suket), has a very wide caldera surrounded by a grayish rim. The difference in color of the rim and the flanks is caused by the rim’s lack of vegetation compared with the healthy and extensive vegetation on the flanks. The large elongate Ijen Caldera NE of Raung has numerous cones on its margin, the most obvious being Kawah Ijen with its acidic crater lake. North is to the left; the tip of the island is pointing NE. NASA Photo ID: STS049-097-050, May 1992.

Information Contacts: NASA JSC Digital Image Collection (URL: http://images.jsc.nasa.gov/).

10/1995 (BGVN 20:10) Aviation report of a plume, but not seen on satellite imagery

An aviation report stated that at 1705 on 15 August "smoke" from Raung at an altitude of 6 km was drifting W. Following this report, aviation notices were posted in Indonesia, New Zealand, and Australia for the next 24 hours. No plume was observed by Australian meteorologists on satellite imagery from 1800 on 15 August through 2050 the next day.

The last reported eruption, which occurred sometime between January and June 1993, generated an ash column 600 m above the rim and caused ashfall in the surrounding area.

Information Contacts: BOM Darwin, Australia.

06/1997 (BGVN 22:06) Aviators report April ash plume to 5 km and June "smoke" plume to 6 km altitude

On 10 April an ash cloud was reported drifting to the E at 5 km altitude. The Bureau of Meteorology had learned from the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia that the volcano had been erupting continuously, but ash was ejected only ~ 150 m above the crater. On 1 June a Qantas pilot described "smoke" at 6.1 km, drifting W. Similar reports were received on 18 and 22 June, but heavy clouds hampered the detection of ash in satellite imagery.

Information Contact: Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, P.O. Box 735, Darwin NT 0801, Australia.

10/2000 (BGVN 25:10) 9 July ash plume ends 3-year interval without reported eruptions

At 1720 on 9 July 2000 an air report to the Darwin VAAC noted an ash cloud near Raung with a growing plume at an unknown height. The plume discharged from Raung. Visible satellite imagery taken at 1630, hours before the air report was made, disclosed Raung surrounded by scattered low clouds, with a possible low-level ash plume extending 25 km to the NW. There was no evidence of ash in subsequent satellite imagery. No signs of activity were observed at Raung by Lee Siebert when passing nearby on commercial aircraft at about noon on 10 July and mid-morning on 11 July.

Information Contact: Darwin VAAC, Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina Northern Territory 0811 Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/, Email: darwin.vaac@bom.gov.au); Lee Siebert, Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560-0119 USA.

07/2002 (BGVN 27:07) Ash plumes to 4.6 km altitude reported in early June 2002

On 2 June 2002 at 1625, a pilot reported observing an ash plume emitted from Raung. The plume rose to a height of ~4.5 km altitude and drifted to the S. According to the Darwin VAAC, ash clouds were visible on satellite imagery a few days later. The clouds were at heights below 4.6 km altitude and were observed on 5 June at 0840 drifting S, on 7 June at 0934 drifting SW, and on 8 June at 1132 drifting NW.

According to the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Raung has been erupting for at least a decade, and recent eruptions are events within a single, broader eruptive period. Thus, the above-noted ash eruptions from June were noteworthy outbursts within a longer sustained eruption.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/, Email: darwin.vaac@bom.gov.au); Nia Haerani, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: haerani@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).

01/2004 (BGVN 29:01) Aviation reports describe ash plumes during 1999 to 2002

Raung volcano was last discussed in BGVN 27:07, when a pilot reported ash plumes to 4.6 km altitude in early June 2002. That issue of theBulletin also noted a Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) comment that Raung had been erupting for at least a decade, with recent eruptions being events within a single, broader eruptive period.

The Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) subsequently received reports that on 12 August 2002 ash was visible drifting NW of Raung around the summit level. The summit was partially obscured by clouds and no ash was identified on satellite imagery. On 25 August 2002, based on pilot observations and satellite imagery, the VAAC reported a visible ash plume rising to about 9.2 km, drifting to the W at high levels and to the E at lower levels.

The Darwin VAAC has an archive of their reports available on their website. Those for Raung are summarized in table 1. The last set of reports (25 August 2002) discussed a plume becoming increasingly diffuse over a 16.5-hour interval.

Table 1. Dates and principal comments in Darwin VAAC reports concerning Raung, July 1999-February 2004. Dates and times are not local but instead refer to the Prime Meridian, for example 04/2240Z means the fourth day of the stated month at 2240 UMT. Similar or duplicate message are not shown. In general, ash cloud trajectory information has been omitted. In a few cases the VAAC delineated bounding area surrounding an observed ash cloud ("OBS ASH CLOUD"), delineated with a series of latitude and longitude coordinates (eg. S00700, E11000; which translates to 7 degrees S, 110 degrees E). In the original reports, altitudes were given in shorthand (eg. FL 100, which corresponds to 10,000 feet altitude; 3,048.0 m altitude, but typically not known to better than two significant figures and thus here rounded to ~ 3.0 km altitude). Courtesy of the Darwin VAAC.

    Date           Text from Volcanic Ash Advisory

    30 Jul 1999    INFORMATION SOURCE: AIREP reported plume height to FL 150
                   [~ 4.6 km altitude] and drifting to SW. ASH CLOUD:
                   30/1025UTC IR satellite imagery shows cloud in the area
                   with possible extension to the SSW. Nature of this
                   extension not discernable.

    09 Jul 2000    INFORMATION SOURCE: AIREP QFA123. ERUPTION DETAILS: Ash
                   cloud active with growing plume reported at 09/0920 UTC.
                   Height unknown. ASH CLOUD: Visible satellite imagery at
                   09/0830 UTC shows Mt. Raung surrounded by scattered low-
                   level clouds with a possible low-level ash plume extending
                   25 kilometres to the northwest. No evidence is visible on
                   subsequent imagery

    02 Jun 2002    INFORMATION SOURCE: AIREP QANTAS, GMS Satellite Imagery.
                   ERUPTION DETAILS: Ash plume to FL150 [~ 4.6 km altitude]
                   reported 02/0825Z, drifting south at 15 knots. OBS ASH
                   DATE/TIME: 02/0825Z. OBS ASH CLOUD: Ash cloud not
                   identifiable from satellite data.

    05 Jun 2002    INFORMATION SOURCE: Satellite Imagery. ERUPTION DETAILS:
                   Possible ash cloud below FL150 [~ 4.6 km altitude] drifting
                   south at 10/15 knots. OBS ASH DATE/TIME: 04/2240Z. OBS ASH
                   CLOUD: Ash cloud identifiable from satellite data.

    07 Jun 2002    INFORMATION SOURCE: Satellite Imagery. ERUPTION DETAILS:
                   Possible ash cloud below FL150  [~ 4.6 km altitude]
                   drifting SW at 10/15knots. OBS ASH DATE/TIME: 06/2334Z. OBS
                   ASH CLOUD: Ash cloud identifiable from satellite data
                   extending SW from Ruang 10NM either side of a line S0800
                   E11400 S0850 E11360.

    12 Aug 2002    INFORMATION SOURCE: AIREP QFA29 via QANTAS OPERATIONS,
                   GMS/NOAA satellite. ERUPTION DETAILS: Ash plume to FL120
                   [~ 3.7 km altitude] reported at 12/0920Z, drifting
                   northwest. OBS ASH DATE/TIME: 12/0920Z. OBS ASH CLOUD: Ash
                   cloud not identifiable from satellite data. Summit
                   partially obscured by cloud.

    25 Aug 2002    INFORMATION SOURCE: AIREP QFA29, NOAA16 SATELLITE. ERUPTION
                   DETAILS: Ash plume to FL300 [~ 9.1 km altitude] reported
                   25/0734Z drifting west, low-level drift towards the east.
                   OBS ASH DATE/TIME: 28/0611Z. OBS ASH CLOUD: S0807 E11402
                   S0812 E11342 S0807 E11335 S0800 E11347 S0807 E11402.

    25 Aug 2002    INFORMATION SOURCE: AIREP QFA29, NOAA16 SATELLITE, GMS
                   SATELLITE. ERUPTION DETAILS: Ash plume to FL300  [~ 9.1 km
                   altitude] reported 25/0734Z drifting west, low-level drift
                   towards the east. OBS ASH DATE/TIME: 25/1332Z OBS ASH
                   CLOUD: FL100/350  [~ 10.7 km altitude]  S0735 E11122 S0817
                   E11119 S0805 E11017 S0731 E11031 S0735 E11122.

    25 Aug 2002    ERUPTION DETAILS: Ash plume to FL300  [~ 9.1 km altitude]
                   reported 25/0734Z drifting west, low-level drift towards
                   the east. OBS ASH DATE/TIME: 25/1932Z OBS ASH CLOUD:
                   FL100/350  [~ 10.7 km altitude] S0700 E11000 S0800 E11000
                   S0800 E10630 S0700E10630 S0700 E11000. Ash cloud getting
                   more diffuse and difficult todefine with satellite imagery.

    25 Aug 2002    INFORMATION SOURCE: AIREP QFA29. NOAA/GMS SATELLITE.
                   ERUPTION DETAILS: Ash plume to FL300  [~ 9.1 km altitude]
                   reported 25/0734Z drifting west, low-level drift towards
                   the east. OBS ASH DATE/TIME: 26/0132Z OBS ASH CLOUD: Ash
                   cloud not visible on satellite imagery.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/, Email: darwin.vaac@bom.gov.au); Nia Haerani, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: haerani@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).

01/2005 (BGVN 30:01) MODIS-MODVOLC infrared hot spots 3 June-8 Oct 2004; aerial photos from 2001

Though frequently active, Raung is seldom the subject of reports from either the news media or the Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (DVGHM). The most recent Darwin VAAC report was issued late on 26 August 2002 (UTC). It noted that aviators had estimated an ash plume at ~ 10 km altitude drifting W (reported 25 August in an AIREP). Ash clouds were not visible on NOAA/GMS satellite imagery. A summary of Darwin VAAC reports of Raung for the period July 1999-August 2002 was given in BGVN 29:01.

There were nine anomalous Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of volcanic hot spots at Raung during 3 June-8 October 2004 (table 2). The 2004 alerts were the first detected by MODIS at Raung. Minor explosive activity documented intermittently during 1999 to 2002 (BGVN 29:01) did not have a thermal component sufficient to trigger alerts.

Table 2. Thermal anomalies at Raung observed with MODIS during 2004. Some of the UTC times were for the previous date. Spectral radiance for the hot pixels in band 21 (central wavelength of 3.959 µm) are in units of watts per square meter per steradian per micron (W-2 sr-1 µm-1). Courtesy of the Hawaiian Institute of Geophysics and Planetology.

    Date (2004)    Time (local / UTC)      Spectral radiance

    15 Apr         2300 / 1500                   0.852
    16 Apr         0200 / 1800 (15 Apr)          0.847
    22 Apr         2310 / 1510                   0.814
    02 May         0200 / 1800 (01 May)          0.813
    03 Jun         0200 / 1800 (02 Jun)          0.677
    18 Jun         2300 / 1500                   0.729
    04 Jul         2300 / 1500                   0.795
    11 Jul         2310 / 1510                   0.814
    14 Jul         0155 / 1755 (13 Jul)          0.778
    22 Sep         2300 / 1500                   0.849
    23 Sep         0200 / 1800 (22 Sep)          0.740
    29 Sep         2305 / 1505                   0.893
    08 Oct         2300 / 1500                   0.776

No ground observations have been reported during 2004, but in a message from Dali Ahmad (DVGHM), he noted the absence of observed emissions during 2004. With respect to the thermal alerts, he speculated that they could conceivably have originated from brush fires. Rob Wright commented that the levels of radiance in the 2004 alerts were both "too weak and too intermittent to be lava flows" and stood near the system's lower threshold. Similar weak anomalies occur at volcanoes such as Villarrica and during intervals at Anatahan, but the source of the alerts at Raung remains uncertain.

Clear aerial photographs of Raung were taken on 26 and 30 July 2001 (figure 2) by Franz Jeker of Singapore Airlines as he flew past in descent towards, or ascent from, the Bali airport. Jeker also included a detailed map of the Raung area (figure 3).

Figure 2. A photograph taken on 26 July 2001 of a small fumarolic plume from the central crater of Raung looking SW during a fly-by of a commercial airplane across the NNE flank. Courtesy of F. Jeker.
Figure 3. Map showing relative locations of Raung volcano at the SW end of Java, and adjacent Bali. Courtesy of F. Jeker.

Information Contacts: Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (DVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/advisories.shtml, Email: Darwin.vaac@bom.gov.au); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu); Franz Jeker, Rigistrasse 10, 8173 Neerach, Switzerland (Email: franz.jeker@swissonline.ch).

09/2007 (BGVN 32:09) Uncertain July 2007 ash plume; August 2007 ash plume seen for several hours

Nine anomalous Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of volcanic hot spots were reported during 3 June-8 October 2004 (BGVN 30:01). No other activity was reported from Raung until 26 July 2007. That day the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) indicated that a pilot had observed an ash plume, possibly from Raung, which their ash advisory reported as follows: "AIREP [an aircraft observation] reported ash cloud observed over volcano on eastern tip of Java. Plume up to 5000 feet [~ 1.2 km] above summit. Volcano assumed to be Raung. Ash not seen on latest satellite pass due to cloud."

Darwin VAAC produced five reports in reference to a Raung ash plume emitted on 26 August 2007. Visible wavelength imagery on MT SAT disclosed a plume at FL 150 (15,000 feet, or 4.6 km altitude) drifting E at ~ 10 km/hr (at 0430 UTC on 26 August). The last view of the cloud was reported at 0833 UTC, still at the same altitude and moving at the same velocity. That plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery. The Darwin VAAC reported that satellite imagery had detected an ash plume from Raung during 26-27 August that rose to an altitude of 4.6 km and drifted E.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center, Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, Northern Territory 0811, Australia (Email: darwin.vaac@bom.gov.au, URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/ vaac/).

06/2008 (BGVN 33:06) New eruption during 12-17 June sends ash plumes to 4.5 km altitude

In an Antara News report, Balok Suryadi, an observer at the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) Raung monitoring post at Sumber Arum village, described clouds of "smoke and ash" that occurred on 12 and 13 June. He was also quoted in the 19 June article as saying that activity was "likely" continuing but that it could not be clearly monitored from the observation post.

Another ash eruption was seen rising through the clouds on 17 June 2008 around 1500. This event was photographed by Karim Kebaili while flying from Bali to Jakarta approximately 30 minutes after take-off (figure 4). The same eruption was seen at 1430 by pilot Nigel Demery, who stated that the ash cloud initially rose to about 4.5 km altitude but had dissipated on his return flight about two hours later. The Darwin VAAC was unable to identify the plume in satellite imagery due to meteorological clouds.

Figure 4. Ash plume rising from Raung at about 1500 on 17 June 2008. Courtesy of Karim Kebaili.

Thermal anomalies were detected by the MODIS instrument aboard the Terra satellite on 23 July 2005 and 15 August 2005. No additional thermal anomalies were detected through the end of June 2008. However, ash plumes were reported by pilots on 26 July 2007 and seen in satellite imagery on 26 August 2007 (BGVN 32:09).

Information Contacts: Rebecca Patrick, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, Northern Territory 0811, Australia (Email: darwin.vaac@bom.gov.au, URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac); Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Nigel Demery, Indonesia (Email: nigel@vortices.com); Karim Kebaili, Indonesia (Email: karimkebaili@yahoo.com); Antara News (URL: http://www.antara.co.id/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/).

Raung, one of Java's most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The 3332-m-high, unvegetated summit of Gunung Raung is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the west flank produced a large debris avalanche that traveled 79 km from the volcano, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and west, respectively.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2008 Jun 12 2008 Jun 17 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2007 Jul 26 2007 Aug 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 2005 Jul 23 (?) ] [ 2005 Aug 15 (?) ] Uncertain 2  
[ 2004 Apr 15 (?) ] [ 2004 Oct 8 (?) ] Uncertain 2  
2002 Jun (in or before) 2002 Aug 25 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2000 Jul 9 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1999 Jul 30 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1997 Apr (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1995 Aug 15 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1995 Mar 1995 Mar Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1994 Jul 14 1994 Jul 14 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1993 Apr 1 ± 90 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1991 Sep 10 1991 Nov 12 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1990 Jan 16 (in or before) 1990 Dec (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1987 May 1989 Jul 28 ± 3 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1985 Aug 23 1986 Feb 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1982 Jul 18 1982 Jul 20 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1978 Jan 1979 Dec (in or after) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1977 Jun 9 1977 Jun 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1976 Jun 7 1976 Nov 21 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1975 Mar 1975 May Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1974 Jun 15 1974 Jul 17 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1973 May 1973 Oct Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1971 Sep 14 1971 Sep 14 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1956 Feb 13 1956 Mar 25 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1955 Jan 18 1955 Jan 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1953 Jan 31 1953 Apr 15 ± 5 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1944 Jun 30 1945 Apr 19 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1943 Mar 17 1943 Jun 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1941 Dec 13 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1940 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1938 Aug 13 1939 Jan 10 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1937 Oct 27 1937 Nov 27 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1936 Aug 22 1936 Dec 11 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1933 Nov 21 1933 Dec 6 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1929 Apr 27 ± 60 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1928 Nov Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1927 Aug 2 1928 Mar (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central cone and NW crater wall
[ 1924 Aug 20 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1924 Feb (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1921 Feb 14 ± 4 days 1921 Apr Confirmed 2 Historical Observations 1913 cone
1917 Feb 22 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1916 Nov 1916 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1915 May Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1913 May 10 1913 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1903 Nov 28 1904 Jan Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1902 Feb 16 1902 Feb 27 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1897 Apr Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1896 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1890 Jul 1890 Sep 15 ± 2 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1885 Jun 21 1885 Jun 22 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1881 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1864 Jul 2 1864 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1860 Sep (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1859 Dec 14 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1849 Dec 1 ± 30 days Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1838 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1817 Jan 16 1817 Feb 10 (?) Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1815 Dec 31 ± 365 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1812 1814 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1804 ± 4 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1793 ± 6 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1730 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1638 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1597 Jan 17 1597 Feb 2 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1593 Unknown Confirmed 5 Historical Observations
[ 1586 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 3  

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Raoeng | Rawon | Ringgit | Roung


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Suket
    Soeket
Stratovolcano 2950 m 8° 5' 0" S 114° 5' 0" E
Eruption plumes above Raung volcano were observed from commercial aircraft on September 10 and 12 and October 3, 1991. Although the initial report was of flank vent activity, photographs such as this one on September 12 taken from the south, show the eruption cloud originating from the summit caldera and the plume being dispersed by the wind to the NW.

Photo by Jeff Post, 1991 (Smithsonian Institution).
An aerial view from the SW on September 12, 1991 shows an eruption plume from Raung volcano in eastern Java blown by strong winds to the NW. Behind Raung is the massive Ijen caldera, capped by the post-caldera cone of Gunung Merapi (upper right). The light spot below and to the left of Merapi is Kawah Ijen, a renowned crater lake. The flat-topped volcano at the upper left is Gunung Baluran, which occupies the NE-most tip of the island of Java.

Photo by Jeff Post, 1991 (Smithsonian Institution).
An ash plume originating from a caldera-floor cinder cone rises above the rim of the 2-km-wide Raung caldera in July 1988 as photographed from an ultra-light aircraft. Raung erupted frequently between 1987 and July 1989.

Photo by Willem Rohi, 1988 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
An eruption plume from a cinder cone on the floor of the 2-km-wide Raung caldera rises high above the caldera rim in July 1988. Frequent explosive eruptions occurred at Raung from 1987 through July 1989. During August and September 1988 more than 300-400 individual eruptions were recorded.

Photo by Willem Rohi, 1988 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Raung volcano, near the eastern tip of Java, is truncated by a steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera. One of Java's most active volcanoes, Raung produces frequent moderate explosive eruptions, like this one in 1988 from a cone within the caldera, that keep the upper flanks of the volcano sparsely vegetated. Raung forms part of a NW-SE-trending chain of volcanoes constructed near the SW rim of the massive Ijen caldera.

Photo by Willem Rohi, 1988 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
An ultralight aircraft was used by scientists from France and the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia to monitor eruptions from Raung volcano in 1988. This July view shows an ash-rich plume rising above the forested northern flank of Raung volcano. Hundreds of explosive eruptions were recorded during August and September 1988. This eruption began in 1987 and continued into 1989.

Photo by Willem Rohi, 1988 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
This composite photo shows the steep-walled, 2-km-wide summit caldera of Raung volcano. A steaming, 90-m-high cinder cone on the caldera floor at the left formed beginning in 1902 and is the source of recent explosive eruptions from Raung. Fresh lava flows cover the caldera floor.

Photo by Igan Sutawidjuja, 1984 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
A massive 8.5 x 13 km wide caldera, whose floor is seen here partly covered with rice fields, formed as a result of collapse of Gunung Gadung, a stratovolcano on the west side of Raung volcano. The collapse, whose northern and southern walls form cliffs at the left and right sides of the photo, produced one of the world's largest subaerial debris avalanches, which reached nearly to the Indian Ocean.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
Three generations of volcanoes are visible in this view from the west flank of Raung volcano. The rounded forested peak at left center is Gunung Pajungan, a small stratovolcano that grew near the headwall of a massive horseshoe-shaped caldera produced by gravitational collapse of Gunung Gadung. The arcuate ridge to the right of Gunung Pajungan is the headwall of the massive 8.5 x 13 km landslide scarp that cuts Gunung Gadung. Behind it, above the clouds, is the rim of the historically active summit caldera of Raung volcano.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
The hilly terrain is part of a massive debris-avalanche deposit formed as a result of collapse of Gunung Gadung stratovolcano on the west side of Raung volcano. The massive debris-avalanche deposit has an estimated volume of about 25 cu km. The avalanche banked against the slopes of Iyang-Argapura volcano in the right background and was deflected to the SW, traveling nearly to the Indian Ocean.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
This conical hill, about 20 m high, is not a volcanic cone, but a hummock that is part of a massive debris-avalanche deposit produced by collapse of Gunung Gadung, a stratovolcano on the west side of Raung volcano. The hilly topography produced by the massive landslide extends many tens of km from the volcano.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
A quarry displays a cross section of a debris-avalanche hummock, showing bedded layers of tephra on the right and a segment of a lava flow on the left. Both the the massive lava and the unconsolidated tephra layers were transported relatively intact for about 30 km within a massive debris avalanche from Raung volcano in eastern Java. The preservation of original stratigraphy from within the volcano is a common feature of debris-avalanche deposits.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
Steam clouds rise above the 1913 crater and a point on its flank in this August 1922 aerial photo of Raung's summit caldera from the NW. A blocky lava flow covers the caldera floor to the left of the 1913 pyroclastic cone.

Photo published in Taverne, 1926 "Vulkaanstudien op Java," (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The pyroclastic cone at the lower left on the floor of Raung's summit caldera formed during an eruption in 1913. A lava flow erupted from the cone extends to the right across the caldera floor. This aerial photo, taken sometime before 1926, shows the steep, roughly 500-m-high SW caldera wall in the background.

Photo published in Taverne, 1926 "Vulkaanstudien op Java," (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Raung volcano, with its unvegetated summit caldera and satellitic peak of Gunung Suket is at the upper left in this aerial view from the eastern tip of Java. In the foreground are Gunung Rante (left-center) and Gunung Merapi (lower right), constructed near the margin of the Ijen caldera complex. The Semeru-Tengger caldera complex is on the far right-center horizon, and the Iyang-Argapura complex is on the upper right.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2000 (Smithsonian Institution).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Caldera
Pyroclastic cone

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
152
572
581,515
8,123,987

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Raung Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.