Tengger Caldera

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  • Indonesia
  • Java
  • Stratovolcano(es)
  • 2012 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 7.942°S
  • 112.95°E

  • 2329 m
    7639 ft

  • 263310
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

3 October-9 October 2012

CVGHM reported that during 1 September-3 October diffuse white plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 50 m above the crater. Seismicity increased on 1 October, and during 1-3 October a sulfur odor was occasionally noted at the Bromo Observation Post. On 3 October the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM



 Available Weekly Reports


2012: March | October
2011: January | February | March | April | May | June
2010: November | December
2007: June
2006: July | August | September
2004: June | August
2001: January
2000: November | December


3 October-9 October 2012

CVGHM reported that during 1 September-3 October diffuse white plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 50 m above the crater. Seismicity increased on 1 October, and during 1-3 October a sulfur odor was occasionally noted at the Bromo Observation Post. On 3 October the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


28 March-3 April 2012

CVGHM reported that during 1 January-29 March white plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 50 m above the crater and seismicity declined. On 30 March the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


8 June-14 June 2011

CVGHM reported that during 1-10 May white-to-gray ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 400-600 m above the crater and drifted ENE, and incandescence emanated from the crater. During 11-20 May white-to-gray ash plumes rose 200-400 m above the crater and drifted E. Ash plumes continued to rise from the crater during 1-13 June to heights of 100-200 m above the crater and drifted E. Ash continued to fall in areas within 2 km E and NE during May and June. On 13 June the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


4 May-10 May 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-10 May ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-75 km NE and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 April-3 May 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 April an ash plume from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 75 km WSW. On 2 May an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 75 km N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 March-5 April 2011

CVGHM reported that during 29 March-4 April brownish-gray ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted N, E, and NE. Ash fell at the Bromo observation post. Incandescence emanated from the crater and incandescent material was periodically ejected above the crater. Roaring of varying intensity was heard. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km radius of the active crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


23 March-29 March 2011

CVGHM reported that during 22-25 March brownish-gray ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted SW, NE, and E. Incandescent material was ejected 300 m above the crater, and landed as far as 500 m away during 22-23 March, 300 m away on 24 March, and 250 m away on 25 March. Roaring and booming was also noted. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km-radius of the active crater.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 March ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 March-22 March 2011

CVGHM reported that on 10 March ash from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone fell in areas to the E and NE, including in the Probolinggo district (35 km NE). During 18-20 March gray-to-brown ash plumes rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted SE. Incandescent material was ejected 300 m above the crater and landed up to 500 m away. Roaring and booming noises were also noted. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km radius of the active crater.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-20 March ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 27-150 km NW, SW, and S.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 February-22 February 2011

CVGHM reported that during 17-18 February brownish gray ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted ENE. Incandescent material was ejected 300 m above the crater and landed as far as 500 m away, and roaring and booming was heard. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km-radius of the active crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


9 February-15 February 2011

CVGHM reported that during 8-9 February gray-to-brown ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted E. Incandescent material was ejected 300 m above the crater and landed as far as 500 m away, and roaring and booming was heard. Ash fell at the Bromo observation post on 8 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km-radius of the active crater.

Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 February an eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. On 11 February satellite imagery showed an ash plume drifting 37 km SE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes on 12 February rose to altitudes of 3-7.9 km (10,000-26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37-167 km NW and SE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 February-8 February 2011

CVGHM reported that on 5 February volcanic bombs ejected from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone were found 1.2-1.4 km from the crater rim. During 5-8 February gray-to-brown ash plumes rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted ENE. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m above the crater and landed as far as 500 m away. Roaring and booming noises were noted. Ash fell at the Bromo observation post, and in nearby villages including Ngadirejo (10 km WNW), Sukapura (14 km NE), and Sumber (18 km E). High-amplitude seismicity and volcanic tremor were detected. Deformation measurements had remained stable since 31 December 2010. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km-radius of the active crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 January-1 February 2011

According to news articles, ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone caused flights between Perth and Bali to be disrupted during 27-28 January. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 January an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 370 km E and SE. On 29 January an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 93 km E. The ash cloud from the previous day was again detected and slowly drifted N. Based on analysis of imagery from multiple satellites and information from CVGHM, the VAAC reported that during 29-31 January ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NW.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), The Sydney Morning Herald, The West Australian


19 January-25 January 2011

CVGHM reported that during 22-23 January gray-to-brown plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted E. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m above the crater and landed as far as 500 m away on 22 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km-radius of the active crater. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 January an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 220 km E. A high concentration of sulfur dioxide in the area was also detected.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 December-4 January 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 December an ash plume from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 95 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 December-28 December 2010

CVGHM reported that during 8-19 December gray-to-brown plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted E, NE, and N. On 19 December explosions produced an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was heavy around the crater and was reported in areas as far away as the Juanda Airport (70 km NNW) in Surabaya. The ash damaged agricultural land, impacted trees and river valleys, and disrupted transportation infrastructure. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km-radius of the active crater.

During 20-25 December gray-to-brown plumes rose 800-1,200 m above the crater and drifted N and NE. Ejected material fell back around the crater. On 25 December, ash and occasionally lapilli fell at the Bromo observation post, about 2 km away. The ashfall was about 20 cm thick.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-27 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 150 km NE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 December-21 December 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 December a possible ash plume from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 95 km S. The area was partially obscured by meteorological cloud cover.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 December-7 December 2010

On 6 December, CVGHM reported that seismicity from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone had declined since 30 November, and deformation measurements showed deflation. White-to-gray plumes rose 200-300 m above the crater rim and drifted N. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km-radius of the active crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


24 November-30 November 2010

According to the Darwin VAAC, CVGHM stated that an eruption from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone had occurred on 26 November. An ash plume detected in satellite imagery rose to an altitude of 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipated. During 27-29 November satellite imagery showed ash plumes drifting 55-165 km at an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. According to news articles, Malang city's domestic airport, 25 km W, closed on 29 November. Meteorological clouds prevented observations during 29-30 November. The Alert Level remained at 4, the highest level, on a scale of 1-4.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Agence France-Presse (AFP)


17 November-23 November 2010

CVGHM reported that during November seismicity from Tengger Caldera increased, and volcanic tremor was first detected on 8 November. The heights of gas-and-steam plumes increased during the month, going from 75 m above the crater during 1-7 November to100-250 m above the crater during 8-23 November. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 23 November. Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 3-km-radius of the active crater. Later that night, seismic activity increased and a white-to-gray plume rose 200-300 m above the crater. The Alert Level was raised to 4. The tourist areas surrounding Tengger Caldera was closed.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


20 June-26 June 2007

CVGHM reported that during 18-25 June diffuse ash plumes from Tengger Caldera rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (7,900 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). [Correction: CVGHM later confirmed that the plumes did not contain ash.]

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


13 September-19 September 2006

CVGHM reported that the Alert Level for Tengger Caldera was lowered one level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 18 September due to decreased activity.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


6 September-12 September 2006

CVGHM reported that the Alert Level for Tengger Caldera was raised one level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 9 September due to an increase in tremor.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


30 August-5 September 2006

CVGHM reported that the Alert Level for Tengger Caldera was raised one level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 1 September due to heightened activity and a strong smell of sulfur.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, The Star


12 July-18 July 2006

A small plume from Tengger Caldera was visible on a satellite image on 14 July. No ash was detected.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 August-24 August 2004

Due to a decrease in seismic and volcanic activity at Tengger Caldera, DVGHM decreased the Alert Level from 2 to 1 on 16 August. They warned that gas emissions could still be dangerous to visitors and recommended that people do not enter a 1 km radius zone around the volcano.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


16 June-22 June 2004

During 15-17 June, low-level activity continued at the Bromo cone of Tengger caldera, with "thin smoke" emissions rising 25-150 m above the summit. Seismicity was dominated by emission earthquakes. EDM (electric distance meter) and GPS (global positioning system) techniques were used to measure deformation; 1-5 and 0.2-6.2 mm of deflation were recorded, respectively. The Alert Level at Tengger caldera remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


9 June-15 June 2004

According to DVGHM, a phreatic eruption at the Bromo cone of Tengger caldera on 8 June at 1526 produced an ash cloud that rose 3 km above the volcano. The eruption lasted ~20 minutes. Ash drifted WNW and rocks and ash were deposited in a ~300 m radius around the volcano's crater. Two tourists were killed and five people were injured. At this time the volcano was at Alert Level 3. After the explosion, only steam and gas were emitted until an explosion on 14 June at 0819 sent ash ~100 m above the volcano. Around 15 June activity generally decreased and the Alert Level was reduced to 2. The public was prohibited from entering within a 1-km-radius around the crater.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Agence France-Presse (AFP), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 June-8 June 2004

On 8 June, the Bromo vent of Tengger Caldera erupted, producing a gas-and-ash plume that rose ~3 km above the summit and caused light tephra-fall in the surrounding area. Two people were killed and at least seven injured by ballistics during the eruption. No evacuations have been ordered.

Sources: BBC News, The Jakarta Post, Agence France-Presse (AFP), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 January-23 January 2001

Ground-based observers reported to the Darwin VAAC that on 15 January an ash plume rose to ~3 km and irregular eruptions sent ash to ~2.7 km. Extensive cloudiness prohibited the detection of ash on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 January-16 January 2001

Explosions and seismic activity during 2-8 January decreased in comparison to the previous week. Minor explosions from Bromo sent ash to ~200 m above the crater rim, with an average of 28 events per day. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


20 December-26 December 2000

The VSI reported that during 12-18 December explosion and tremor activity at the volcano increased in comparison to the previous week. Minor explosions sent ash to 500-600 m above the crater rim. In addition, continuous tremor and a large number of explosion earthquakes (2,375) were recorded. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (ranging from 1 to 4). Tengger caldera has been active for approximately one month; therefore any further Tengger activity will be reported in the "Continuous Activity" section.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


13 December-19 December 2000

The VSI reported that during 5-11 December volcanic activity at Bromo cone in the Tengger caldera was marked by ongoing explosions and continuous tremor. Ash clouds produced from the explosions reached 150-900 m above the crater rim. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (ranging from 1 to 4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


6 December-12 December 2000

According to reports from the VSI and aviation sources, a minor explosion took place on 8 December that sent ash to ~3 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 November-5 December 2000

The VSI reported that several small explosions occurred at Bromo cone in the Tengger caldera. The explosions started on 29 November, increasing in intensity until 3 December. During this period ash was ejected up to 100-150 m above the crater rim. At 2130 on 4 December small-scale explosions began, sending ash up to 900 m above the crater rim to the NNE and depositing 1- to 3-cm-thick layers of ash up to 40 km from the volcano. As of 0600 on 5 November only small ash explosions were reported. There was no noted precursory activity; prior to 29 November daily activity at the volcano consisted of small ash plumes that rose up to 50 m above the crater. Seismic data were not available. On 29 November the local government recommended that no one climb the volcano. The Alert Level is at 2 (ranging from 1 to 4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2010 Nov 26 2012 Jun 13 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Bromo
2004 Jun 8 2004 Jun 24 ± 3 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
2000 Nov 29 2001 Jan 15 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1995 Sep 9 1995 Dec Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Bromo
1995 Mar 3 1995 May 26 ± 5 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Bromo
1984 May 12 1984 May 31 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Bromo
1983 Dec 21 1983 Dec 21 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Bromo
[ 1983 Apr 15 ± 5 days ] [ 1983 Jun 28 ± 1 days ] Uncertain 1   Bromo
1980 Jun 5 ± 1 days 1980 Sep 20 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1972 Jan 26 1972 Mar Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1956 Jun 1956 Jul (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1955 Dec 29 1955 Dec 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1950 May 27 1950 Aug Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1948 Feb 15 1948 Apr 25 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Bromo
1940 Apr 25 1940 Jul 3 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1939 Jun 24 1939 Jul Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1935 Jul Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1930 May 30 1930 Jul Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1929 Aug 7 1929 Sep 8 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1928 Dec 16 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1928 Mar 15 ± 5 days 1928 Jul Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1922 Feb 5 1922 Jun 20 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1921 Jun 1921 Oct 17 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1915 Nov 1916 Jun Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Bromo
1910 Jan 18 1910 Jan 21 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1909 Jan 12 1909 Jan 14 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1907 Dec 14 1908 Feb 13 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1907 Aug 28 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1906 Sep 25 1907 May 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1896 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1893 Jan 13 1893 Mar 27 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1890 May 1890 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
[ 1888 Feb 27 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2   Bromo
1886 Nov 11 1887 Jan 25 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1886 Apr 15 1886 Apr 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1885 Oct 31 1886 Jan 10 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1885 Jun (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1877 Apr 24 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1867 Dec 13 1868 Jan 12 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1866 Jul Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1865 Dec 1 1865 Dec 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1865 Apr 1865 May Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1860 Jun 12 1860 Jun 14 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1859 Jan 30 1859 Mar 4 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1858 Oct 18 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1858 Mar 4 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1857 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1856 Sep 10 Unknown Confirmed 2 Unknown Bromo
1844 Nov 9 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1843 Jan Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1842 Jan 24 1842 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1835 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1830 Dec 15 1830 Dec 16 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1830 Mar 3 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1829 Nov 5 1829 Nov 11 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1825 Nov 5 1825 Nov 8 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1822 Dec 28 1823 Jan 5 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1820 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1815 Apr 5 1815 Apr 17 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
1804 Sep Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bromo
[ 1775 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Bromo
[ 1767 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Bromo
1590 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Bromo
0330 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Segorowedi
0190 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Widodaren
0830 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Sandsea caldera
5260 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Sandsea caldera

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Carn S A, 1999. Application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to volcano mapping in the humid tropics: a case study in East Java, Indonesia. Bull Volc, 61: 92-105.

Carn S A, Pyle D M, 2001. Petrology and geochemistry of the Lamongan volcanic field, east Java, Indonesia: primitive Sunda arc magmas in a extensional tectonic setting?. J Petr, 42: 1643-1683.

Green J, Short N M, 1971. Volcanic Landforms and Surface Features: a Photographic Atlas and Glossary. New York: Springer-Verlag, 519 p.

Hadisantono R D, 1990. The Sukapura, and other ignimbrites, in the Sapikerep-Sukapura valley and their relationship to caldera formation, of Bromo Tengger volcanic complex, East Java, Indonesia. Unpublished MSci thesis, Victoria Univ Wellington.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Mulyadi E, 1992. Le complexe de Bromo-Tengger (Est Java, Indonesie): estude structurale et volcanologique. Unpublished PhD thesis, Univ Blaise Pascal.

Mulyadi E, Zaennudin, Wahyudin D, Dana I N, 2000. Guide book for field excursion at Lamongan, Semeru, Bromo-Tengger volcanic complex, East Java, 13-17 July 2000. IAVCEI General Assembly, Bali 2000 Excursion Guide, 28 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

van Bemmelen R W, 1937. The volcano-tectonic structure of the residency of Malang (eastern Java). Ing Ned-Indie, 4: 159-172.

Wahyudin D, 1990. Volcanology and petrology of Mt. Semeru volcanic complex, East Java - Indonesia. Unpublished undergraduate thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, 131 p.

The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive Tengger volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley. The most recent of the Tengger calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes.