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26 February-4 March 2014
PVMBG noted that the Alert Level for Kelut was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 28 February.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM
26 February-4 March 2014
PVMBG noted that the Alert Level for Kelut was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 28 February.
19 February-25 February 2014
PVMBG reported that on 14 February, the day after a large eruption at Kelut that began at 2250 on 13 February, gray-to-black plumes rose 400-600 m above the crater. On 15 February grayish white plumes rose as high as 3 km. During 16-20 February white plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted N, NE, and E. Heavy rain on 18 February caused lahars in Ngobo, Mangli (Kediri, 35 km WNW), Bladak (Blitar, 20 km SW), and Konto (Malang, 35 km E). BNPB noted that the lahars flooded five houses and one mosque, and destroyed two homes and one bridge.
The report noted that four out of the five seismic stations monitoring Kelut were destroyed during the eruption. The one remaining station, 5 km away, recorded declining seismicity during 14-20 February. Two more seismic stations were installed, 2-3 km from the crater, on 16 February. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 on 20 February. Visitors and residents were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km; residents outside of the 5-km restricted zone were permitted to return home.
12 February-18 February 2014
PVMBG reported that at 2115 on 13 February the Alert Level for Kelut was raised to 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and residents were prohibited from approaching the crater within a 10-km radius. BNPB reported that a major eruption occurred less than two hours later at 2250, followed by another large explosion at 2330. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 17 km (55,800 ft) a.s.l. and caused ashfall in areas NE, NW, and W, as far as Pacitan (133 km WSW), Kulon Progo (236 km W), Temanggung (240 km WNW), and Banyuwangi (228 km E). Forty flights from the Juanda (81 km NE), Adi Sucipto Yogya (208 km W), and Adi Sumarmo Solo (175 km WNW) airports were cancelled. News articles reported that flights in and out of seven airports were cancelled or rerouted. Ashfall and tephra 5-8 cm in diameter caused structures to collapse, including schools, homes, and businesses.
On 14 February BNPB reported that the eruption had killed four people: one died due to a collapsing wall, one from ash inhalation, and two from “shortness of breath”. All four victims lived within 7 km of Kelut in the regency of Malang, an area that received ashfall up to 20 cm thick. By 0600 the number of displaced people reached 100,248, but the report also noted that activity had declined. A report issued later that day noted that 76,388 people remained evacuated. Seismicity continued to decline and was at moderate levels during 15-17 February. An 18 February report noted that a total of seven people in Malang had died, and that the ashfall had affected cattle health and dairy production, farms, and the water supply. Damage to infrastructure in Malang included 3,782 houses, 20 government buildings, 251 schools, nine hospitals, and 36 churches.
5 February-11 February 2014
PVMBG reported that during 3-10 February seismic activity at Kelut was dominated by both shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes; earthquake hypocenters were 3 km below the summit. RSAM values increased on 6 and 9 February. Inflation was detected at one station. Crater lake water temperatures increased since September 2013, particularly during 23 January-9 February. Temperatures decreased slightly on 10 February. Based on increased seismicity, inflation, and higher water temperatures, PVMBG increased the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 10 February. Visitors and residents were prohibited from approaching the crater within a 5-km radius.
29 January-4 February 2014
PVMBG reported that during 1 January-2 February the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes at Kelut increased, with peaks of seismicity occurring during 15-16 January, 28 January, and 2 February. The number of volcanic earthquakes also fluctuated but increased overall. Earthquakes occurred 2-8 km below Kelut. The temperature in the crater lake increased 5.5 degrees Celsius since 10 September 2013. On 2 February the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
3 June-9 June 2009
On 9 June, CVGHM reported that the Alert Level for Kelut was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4). No changes had been seen; occasional diffuse white plumes rose 50-150 above the crater. CVGHM recommended that people not approach the lava dome due to instability of the area and the presence of potentially high temperatures and poisonous gases.
28 November-4 December 2007
CVGHM reported that on 29 November, the Alert level for Kelut was lowered from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4), due to a decrease in seismicity and a lack of deformation. Observations of video footage from a camera on 25 November revealed that the lava dome was still active. Visitors and tourists were advised not to go within a 1.5-km radius of the crater lake.
7 November-13 November 2007
CVGHM reported that on 6 November, temperatures at the surface of Kelut's crater lake measured 75 degrees Celsius and the newly exposed lava dome surface measured 150-210 degrees Celsius. Plumes inhibited clear views of the lava dome. CVGHM lowered the Alert Status of Kelut on 8 November from 4 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4), due to a decrease in seismicity and stability indicated by deformation-monitoring instruments. CVGHM recommended that evacuees could return to their homes, but activity within a 3-km radius was restricted.
According on a news article, a volcanologist reported that the lava dome was 250 m in diameter and 120 m above the crater lake surface. On 11 November, a plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and ashfall was reported in several areas.
31 October-6 November 2007
CVGHM reported that a series of earthquakes from Kelut during 24-31 October were dominated by shallow events and tremor. Seismicity intensified during 2-3 November, and then decreased on 4 November. On 2 November the temperature of the crater lake was 50 degrees Celsius, the highest temperature recorded. On 4 November, white plumes rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Observations of video footage from a closed-circuit television camera revealed that a black mass protruded from the lake and was likely the cause of the plumes. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4).
17 October-23 October 2007
CVGHM reported that the Alert Level for Kelut remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4) during 17-23 October. According to news articles, several thousand evacuated people remained in shelters.
10 October-16 October 2007
CVGHM reported that the Alert Status of Kelut was raised on 16 October from 3 to 4 (on a scale of 1-4). During 15-28 September, gas discharge from the crater lake increased and spread in a radius of 5 m. Inflation around the summit occurred during 13-16 October. On 16 October, the temperature in the crater lake increased to 37.8 degrees C.
In conjunction with the elevated Alert Status, CVGHM recommended to the local authorities that villagers within a 10 km radius should evacuate. According to a news article, about 50,000 people evacuated on 16 October. On 17 October, thousands of people returned to their homes to tend to crops and animals, and to get food.
3 October-9 October 2007
According to news articles, carbon dioxide and other gases emitted from Kelut reached 7 times normal levels. Increased seismicity and gas emissions prompted people from villages near the summit to self-evacuate. Villagers and tourists were advised not go within a 5 km radius of the active crater.
26 September-2 October 2007
CVGHM reported that the Alert Status of Kelut was raised on 29 September from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) based on observations, increased seismic activity, deformation measurements, and changes of crater lake water chemistry and temperature. Villagers and tourists were advised not go within a 5 km radius of the active crater.
12 September-18 September 2007
CVGHM reported that the Alert Status of Kelut was raised on 11 September from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). According to a news report, the water in the crater lake increased in temperature and changed color from the usual green to yellow. Villagers and tourists were advised not go within a 5 km radius of the active crater.
17 May-23 May 2006
Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 May an ash plume from Kelut reached a height of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. The report was not verified by ground observations. [Correction: VAAC report did not mention ash in the plume]
11 April-17 April 2001
VSI reported that there were no major changes in volcanic activity at Kelut during 2-9 April. The temperature of the water in the crater lake decreased slightly. On 2 April the lake was at 48.5°C and on 9 April it was at 48°C. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
21 February-27 February 2001
In the wake of earlier concern about renewed volcanic activity at Kelut, the VSI reported that during 12-17 February the temperature of Kelut's crater lake decreased and its pH increased. The temperature decreased to 47.5°C from a range of 50.1 °C to 51 °C, measured during 29 January to 7 February. The pH of the water increased to 5.3 from 5, measured on 7 February. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
7 February-13 February 2001
VSI scientists found that the temperature of Kelut's crater lake had increased and its pH dropped as follows. During 29 January to 7 February the lake's temperature ranged from 50.1 °C to 51 °C, compared with 47.5 °C on 18 January and 38.5 °C on 8 January. On 7 February the pH of the water was 5, compared with measurements of 6.3 in January 2001 and 6.9 in November 2000. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (ranging from 1-4).
31 January-6 February 2001
The VSI reported that activity remained normal during 23-29 January. There were no major changes since the previous week when the Alert Level was raised from level 1 to 2 on 19 January after several monitored parameters changed at the volcano. Kelut remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
17 January-23 January 2001
On 19 January the VSI raised the Alert Level at Kelut from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The temperature of the crater lake increased, the volcano inflated 5.5-6 mm, and a 5 cm increase in crater lake water level took place on 21 January.
Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|2007 Oct (?)||2008 Apr (in or before)||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1990 Feb 10||1990 Mar 13 ± 45 days||Confirmed||4||Historical Observations|
|1967 Dec 11||1967 Dec 11||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations||Crater floor at foot of Kelut Peak|
|1967 Feb 18||1967 Feb 18||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations|
|1966 Apr 26||1966 Apr 27||Confirmed||4||Historical Observations|
|1951 Aug 31||1951 Aug 31||Confirmed||4||Historical Observations|
|1920 Dec 6||1920 Dec 12||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1919 May 19||1919 May 20||Confirmed||4||Historical Observations|
|1901 May 22||1901 May 23||Confirmed||3||Historical Observations|
|[ 1875 Jan 29 ]||[ Unknown ]||Discredited|
|1864 Jan 4 (?)||1864 Jan 4 (?)||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1851 Jan 24||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|[ 1849 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
|1848 May 16||1848 May 17||Confirmed||3||Historical Observations|
|1826 Oct 11||1826 Oct 25||Confirmed||4||Historical Observations|
|1811 Jun 5||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1771 Jan 10||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|[ 1756 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
|1752 May 1||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1716 Jul 20||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|[ 1500 (?) ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
|0230 BCE ± 300 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)|
The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.
Alzwar M, 1985. Gunung Kelut. Bull Volc Surv Indonesia, 108: 1-60 (in Indonesian).
Bourdier J-L, Pratomo I, Thouret J-C, Boudon G, Vincent P M, 1997. Observations, stratigraphy and eruptive processes of the 1990 eruption of Kelut volcano, Indonesia. J Volc Geotherm Res, 79: 181-203.
Lesage P, Surono, 1995. Seismic precursors of the February 10, 1990 eruption of Kelut volcano, Java. J Volc Geotherm Res, 65: 135-146.
Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.
Stehn C E, 1929b. Keloet. 4th Pacific Sci Cong Java, Excur 2A, p 3-23.
Sudradjat A, 1977. . (pers. comm.).
Taverne N J M, 1926. Vulkanstudien op Java. Vulk Meded, 7: 1-132.
Thouret J-C, Abdurachman K E, Bourdier J-L, Bronto S, 1998. Origin, characteristics, and behavior of lahars following the 1990 eruption of Kelud volcano, eastern Java (Indonesia). Bull Volc, 59: 460-480.
Van Bergen M J, Bernard A, Sumarti S, Sriwana T, Sitorus K, 2000. Crater lakes of Java: Dieng, Kelud, Ijen. IAVCEI General Assembly, Bali 2000 Excursion Guide, 42 p.
Wirakusumah A D, 1991. Some studies of volcanology, petrology and structure of Mt. Kelut, East Java, Indonesia. Unpublished PhD thesis, Victoria Univ of Wellington, 460 p.
Zaennudin A, Dana I N, Wahyudin D, 1992. Geologic map of Kelut volcano, East Java. Volc Surv Indonesia, 1:50,000 geol map.
The relatively inconspicuous, 1731-m-high Kelut stratovolcano contains a summit crater lake that has been the source of some of Indonesia's most deadly eruptions. A cluster of summit lava domes cut by numerous craters has given the summit a very irregular profile. Satellitic cones and lava domes are also located low on the eastern, western, and SSW flanks. Eruptive activity has in general migrated in a clockwise direction around the summit vent complex. More than 30 eruptions have been recorded from Gunung Kelut since 1000 AD. The ejection of water from the crater lake during Kelut's typically short, but violent eruptions has created pyroclastic flows and lahars that have caused widespread fatalities and destruction. After more than 5000 persons were killed during an eruption in 1919, an ambitious engineering project sought to drain the crater lake. This initial effort lowered the lake by more than 50 m, but the 1951 eruption deepened the crater by 70 m, leaving 50 million cubic meters of water after repair of the damaged drainage tunnels. After more than 200 deaths in the 1966 eruption, a new deeper tunnel was constructed, and the lake's volume before the 1990 eruption was only about 1 million cubic meters.