Merapi

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  • Indonesia
  • Java
  • Stratovolcano
  • 2013 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 7.542°S
  • 110.442°E

  • 2968 m
    9735 ft

  • 263250
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

16 April-22 April 2014

PVMBG reported that Merapi observers at the Ngepos post noted white plumes rising 300 m above the lava dome on 15 April. Seismicity increased during 18-20 April. During 0426-0440 on 20 April an explosion occurred and rumbling was heard in areas as far as 8 km away. Ash plumes were observed from some observations posts, but foggy conditions prevented views from others. Based on satellite images and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 260 km WNW. PVMBG noted that ashfall was reported in areas within 15 km S, SW, and W. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



 Available Weekly Reports


2014: March | April
2013: July | November
2011: January | March | September
2010: September | October | November | December
2008: May
2007: March | May | August
2006: March | April | May | June | July | August
2005: July
2002: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September
2001: January | February | March | April | May | July | August | September | October | November | December
2000: November


16 April-22 April 2014

PVMBG reported that Merapi observers at the Ngepos post noted white plumes rising 300 m above the lava dome on 15 April. Seismicity increased during 18-20 April. During 0426-0440 on 20 April an explosion occurred and rumbling was heard in areas as far as 8 km away. Ash plumes were observed from some observations posts, but foggy conditions prevented views from others. Based on satellite images and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 260 km WNW. PVMBG noted that ashfall was reported in areas within 15 km S, SW, and W. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 March-1 April 2014

PVMBG reported explosions from Merapi on 9 March. An explosion detected at 0654 was followed by a plume observed on CCTV from Pasarbubar that drifted W. Two Explosions were also recorded at 0655. At 0708 a volcanic earthquake occurred and CCTV in Market Bubar recorded brown plumes that rose 1.5 km above the crater. At 0730 ash fell in the villages of Umbulharjo (30 km S), Kepuharjo, Sidorejo (27 km NNE), and Balerante (6 km SSE). During 14-20 March dense gas plumes rose 600 m. Seismicity was at normal levels. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 March an ash plume rose to an altitude of 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The VAAC noted that an eruption occurred around 0630, confirmed by a news article. Ash had dissipated the next day. Another news article noted that the increased activity lasted only four minutes, from 0112 to 0116, and that ashfall occurred on the S and SE flanks.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), The Jakarta Post, The Jakarta Post


13 November-19 November 2013

According to news articles, a phreatic eruption at Merapi on 18 November produced an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater and caused ashfall in areas as far as 60 km E. About 600 families from the Glagaharjo village gathered at evacuation assembly points, while others on the W flank evacuated then returned to their homes hours later.

Source: Jakarta Post


17 July-23 July 2013

Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kegunungapian (BPPTK) reported that at 0415 on 22 July a booming sound from Merapi was followed by a rising plume observed from multiple observation posts. Ashfall was reported in areas S, including Kaliurang and Balerante. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale from 0-4).

According to news articles, the eruption lasted until about 0530, and generated a dense black plume that rose 1 km. A booming sound was heard 30 km away. Ashfall affected the district of Deles, Tlogowatu, Kemalang, Balerante, Klaten, and Jawa Tengah. Hundreds of residents evacuated but returned to their homes later that day.

Sources: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kegunungapian (BPPTK), Bernama, Associated Press


7 September-13 September 2011

CVGHM reported that during 29 August-4 September white solfatara plumes rose at most 350 m above Merapi and drifted W. On 4 September small avalanches traveled 700 m SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 30 km N.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 March-22 March 2011

According to news articles, on 21 March a lahar traveled through the village of Sleman, approximately 20 km SW of Merapi, burying 21 homes in addition to vehicles and livestock. At least 200 residents were evacuated.

Source: The Jakarta Post


2 March-8 March 2011

CVGHM reported that gas plumes rose from Merapi during 28 February-6 March. The highest plume which rose 100 m and drifted E was observed on 5 March from the Babadan post on the NW flank. The number of multi-phase (MP) earthquakes was slightly lower compared to the previous week. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


19 January-25 January 2011

CVGHM reported that the Alert Level for Merapi was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 9 January. During 10-16 January seismicity had decreased compared to the previous week. Gas plumes rose from the crater; on 11 January gas plumes rose to a maximum height of 80 m above the crater. On 12 January avalanches descended the Krasak drainage, traveling 1.5 km SW. Lahars and high water during 15-23 January damaged infrastructure and caused temporary road closures. On 22 January plumes rose 175 m above the crater and drifted E.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 January-11 January 2011

According to a news article, lahars on Merapi's flanks that occurred on 3 and 9 January caused damage to houses, farms, and infrastructure in multiple villages in the Magelang district, 26 km WNW of Merapi. One death and one injury were reported. On 9 January, the Red Cross evacuated people trapped in their homes in the Sirihan village. An estimated 3,000 people live in the flooded area, but the number of people evacuated was unknown.

Source: IRIN News


1 December-7 December 2010

CVGHM reported that activity at Merapi declined during 1-3 December. Seismic data showed a decrease in the number of earthquakes as well as amplitude of the events. Deformation measurements did not show any significant changes. Although fog often prevented visual observations or views through webcams, gas plumes were seen rising 500 m above the crater and drifting W. Sulfur dioxide plumes were no longer detected in satellite imagery. CVGHM noted that lahar deposits were seen in multiple drainages and that several bridges had been recently damaged by lahar activity. On 4 December, the Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


24 November-30 November 2010

CVGHM reported that avalanches on Merapi's flanks were detected by the seismic network during 25-30 November. Although fog often prevented observations, white and brown plumes rising 100 m above the crater drifted SW on 25 November, and brownish plumes rose 300 m above the crater on 27 November. During 27-30 November, white plumes rose 100-800 m above the crater and drifted W, SW, N, and E. Incandescence from the crater was observed through cameras installed at the Merapi museum. According to news articles, a lahar in the Code River that runs through Yogyakarta, 30 km SSW, flooded streets and damaged bridges, and caused about 1,000 residents to evacuate. The Alert Level remained at 4, the highest level, on a scale of 1-4.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, BNO News


17 November-23 November 2010

CVGHM reported that on 15 November no pyroclastic flows descended Merapi's flanks and few avalanches were detected compared to the previous day. During 16-18 November, the number of seismic signals and the number of avalanches both continued to decrease. Although fog often prevented observations, a gas-and-ash plume was observed rising 1.5 km above the crater and drifting SW. A steam plume rose 250 m above the crater and drifted W. On 18 November a pyroclastic flow occurred with low intensity. Lahar deposits were seen in multiple drainages. CVGHM noted areas that remained within a 10-20 km danger zone. On 21 November one pyroclastic flow was detected and five were recorded the next day. During 21-23 November avalanches continued to occur. Lahars traveling S on 23 November carried material up to 100 cm in diameter. According to news articles, the Yogyakarta airport resumed operations on 20 November. The death toll from the eruption reached 322 and more than 130,000 people continued to live in temporary shelters.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-21 November ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.6-6.1 km (15,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-165 km W and NW.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Agence France-Presse (AFP), Agence France-Presse (AFP)


10 November-16 November 2010

CVGHM reported that during 10-11 November seismicity from Merapi along with the number of avalanches and pyroclastic flows decreased compared to the previous two days. Lahar deposits were seen in multiple drainages around Merapi at a maximum distance of 16.5 km from the summit.

On 10 November, plumes generally rose 800 m above the crater, but at about 2200 a brownish plume rose to a height of 1.5 km. Heavy ashfall was reported in areas to the WSW and WNW. A 3.5-km-long pyroclastic flow and a 200-m-long avalanche both traveled S in the Gendol drainage. Incandescence from the crater was observed through a closed-circuit television (CCTV) system installed at the Merapi museum. On 11 November, roaring was followed by light ashfall at the Ketep observation post. Plumes, brownish-black at times, rose 800 m above the crater and drifted W and NW. Avalanches again traveled S in the Gendol drainage. One pyroclastic flow was observed through the CCTV traveling 3 km S. A brownish plume rose 1.5 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4).

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-14 November ash plumes drifted 185-280 km SW at an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. High-altitude sulfur dioxide clouds detected over the Indian Ocean possibly contained ash. In the latter part of 14 November and during 15-16 November, ash plumes rose to altitude of 6.1-7.6 km (20,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110-130 km S, SW, and W. The sulfur dioxide concentration in the high-level clouds had decreased; the clouds were not thought to contain ash.

During 14-15 November, news articles stated that the death toll from the eruption was over 250, and the Yogyakarta airport had remained closed. About 390,000 residents also began to return home after the "danger zones" were reduced in some areas due to decreased activity during the previous few days.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Associated Press, RTT News, The Jakarta Post


3 November-9 November 2010

CVGHM reported that during 3-8 November the eruption from Merapi continued at a high level, characterized by incandescent avalanches from the lava dome, pyroclastic flows, ash plumes, and occasional explosions. Visual observations were often difficult due to inclement weather and gas-and-ash plumes from the eruption. On 7 November, a news article stated that since the eruption began on 26 October approximately156 people have died and more that 200,000 people have been displaced.

On 3 November observers stationed at multiple posts reported ash plumes from pyroclastic flows. One pyroclastic flow traveled 10 km, prompting CVGHM to extend the hazard zone to a 15-km-radius and recommend evacuations from several more communities. Another pyroclastic flow traveled 9 km SE later that day. The Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 18.3 km (60,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km W. Ground observers noted a significant eruption, but could not confirm the plume altitude. On 4 November an ash-and-gas plume rose to an altitude of 11 km (36,100 ft) a.s.l., and pyroclastic flows descended the NW, NNW, and N flanks as far as 3 km. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 10.7-11.9 km (35,000-39,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. On 5 November, rumbling sounds were heard in areas 30 km away. Pyroclastic flows continued to descend the flanks. Ash fell in Yogyakarta, 30 km SSW, and "sand"-sized tephra fell within 15 km. CVGHM recommended evacuations from several more towns within a 20-km radius.

Activity remained very intense on 6 November. Pyroclastic flows descended the flanks; one traveled 4 km W. Incandescent avalanches traveled 2 km down multiple drainages to the SSE, S, and SSW. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. Flashes from the lava dome were reported from observations posts and incandescent material was ejected above the crater. A subsequent pyroclastic flow sent an ash plume to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. that drifted W, N, and E. Throughout the day, ashfall was heavy on Merapi's flanks, and was observed in surrounding areas including Selo (6 km NNW) and Magelang (26 km WNW). In Muntilan (18 km WSW) tephra and ash depths reached 4 cm. On 5 and 6 November, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes observed in satellite imagery rose to an altitude of 16.8 km (55,000 ft) a.s.l. News articles stated that three airlines cancelled flights to Jakarta due to the ash-induced aviation hazard.

On 7 November, the number of seismic signals indicating pyroclastic flows increased from the previous day. An explosion was heard and ash plumes rose 6 km and drifted W. Lightning was seen from Yogyakarta and ash fell within 10 km. Pyroclastic flows traveled 5 km and lava avalanches moved 600 m S and SW. High-altitude ash plumes drifted SW. According to the Darwin VAAC, during 7-8 November satellite imagery revealed ash plumes drifting 165-220 km W and SW at an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. On 8 November an SO2 cloud was seen over the Indian Ocean at altitudes of 12.2-15.2 km (40,000-50,000 ft) a.s.l. The airport in Yogyakarta closed. CVGHM reported that incandescent avalanches were sometimes seen through a closed-circuit television system. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

On 9 November CVGHM noted a reduction in intensity of activity from Merapi; one pyroclastic flow occurred in a 6-hour period. Rumbling sounds were accompanied by an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and lava-dome incandescence. Ashfall was reported in Selo and lava avalanches traveled 800 m SSE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), CNN, Daily Mail, Jakarta Globe


27 October-2 November 2010

According to the Darwin VAAC, ground-based reports indicated an eruption from Merapi on 28 October. Cloud cover prevented satellite observations. CVGHM reported that two pyroclastic flows occurred on 30 October. According to a news article, ash fell in Yogyakarta, 30 km SSW, causing low visibility. CVGHM noted four pyroclastic flows the next day.

On 1 November an eruption began mid-morning with a low-frequency earthquake and avalanches. About seven pyroclastic flows occurred during the next few hours, traveling SSE a maximum distance of 4 km. A gas-and-ash plume rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted E and N. CVGHM recommended that evacuees from several communities within a 10-km radius should continue to stay in shelters or safe areas. The Darwin VAAC reported that a possible eruption on 1 November produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l., according to ground-based reports, analyses of satellite imagery, and web camera views. On 2 November an ash plume was seen in satellite imagery drifting 75 km N at an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. News outlets noted diversions and cancellations of flights in and out of the Solo (40 km E) and Yogyakarta airports. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4).

CVGHM reported 26 pyroclastic flows on 2 November. A mid-day report on 3 November stated that 38 pyroclastic flows occurred during the first 12 hours of the day. An observer from the Kaliurang post saw 19 of those 38 flows travel 4 km S. Plumes from the pyroclastic flows rose 1.2 km, although dense fog made visual observations difficult. Ashfall was noted in some nearby areas.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), CNN, BBC News


20 October-26 October 2010

CVGHM reported that from the end of September to 20 October the rate of inflation at Merapi was 0.6 cm per day. On 21 October the rate increased to 10.5 cm per day, and incidents of incandescence from the lava dome increased. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The rate of inflation increased sharply on 24 October to a rate of 42 cm per day. The next day, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 4, and recommended immediate evacuation for several communities (news reports estimated 11,000-19,000 people) within a 10-km radius.

An eruption began at about 1700 on 26 October that was characterized by explosions along with pyroclastic flows that traveled WSW and SE. CVGHM reported that multiple pyroclastic flows occurred until 1854, when the pyroclastic flow activity started to subside. Most of the pyroclastic flows lasted 2 to 9 minutes, except for two that lasted 33 minutes each. Booming noises were heard, and incandescence from the crater was seen from the Selo observation post to the N. An ash plume was also observed rising 1.5 km above the crater.

According to news articles, officials noted that about 15,000 people had not yet evacuated, even though several minor eruptions had already occurred prior to 26 October. Reports on 27 October noted that about 25 people died and several were injured.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Associated Press, Associated Press, Jakarta Globe, BBC News


22 September-28 September 2010

CVGHM reported that a pattern of increasing seismicity from Merapi began in to emerge in early September. Observers at Babadan (7 km W) and Kaliurang (8 km S) heard an avalanche on 12 September. On 13 September white plumes rose 800 m above the crater. Inflation, detected since March, increased from background levels of 0.1 to 0.3 mm per day to a rate of 11 mm per day on 16 September. On 19 September earthquakes continued to be numerous, and the next day CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


14 May-20 May 2008

Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Merapi rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. on 19 May. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


8 August-14 August 2007

Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Merapi rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W on 9 August. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 May-29 May 2007

According to a news article, "hot clouds" and incandescent material from Merapi traveled a distance of 1 km SE down the Gendol River on 23 May. People in the nearby village of Muntilan, about 16 km W, reported "hot clouds" and ashfall.

Source: Antara News


14 March-20 March 2007

Based on pilot reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Merapi reached an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 19 March.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 August-8 August 2006

Based on pilot reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Merapi on 2 and 3 August reached altitudes of ~6.1 km (~20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. According to CVGHM, during 2-4 August rockfalls traveled 1 km SE toward the Gendol river and gas plumes reached a maximum of 400 m above the summit (10,900 ft a.s.l.). On 3 August, the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 July-1 August 2006

Incandescent rock avalanches from Merapi were observed almost daily during 26 July-1 August, advancing at a maximum distance of 2 km SE toward the Gendol River. On 29 July, gas plumes reached maximum heights of 430 m above the summit (11,000 ft a.s.l.). Pyroclastic flows were not observed during the reporting period. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


19 July-25 July 2006

During 19-25 July, gas plumes at Merapi reached maximum heights of 400 m above the summit (11,000 ft a.s.l.). Lava flows were observed daily, advancing at a maximum distance of 1.5 km SE toward the Gendol River. Pyroclastic flows were not observed during the reporting period. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


12 July-18 July 2006

During 12-18 July, lava flows at Merapi were observed and reached a maximum distance of 2 km SE along the Gendol River. Gas plumes were also observed daily and reached heights of 1 km above the crater (12,800 ft a.s.l.). On 17 July, CVGHM reported that the Alert Level was lowered one level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) in all remaining areas previously at Alert Level 4 (S slopes). Pyroclastic flows were not observed during the reporting period.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 July-11 July 2006

Gas plumes were observed during 5-11 July at Merapi and reached a maximum height of 1.2 km above the summit (3,600 ft a.s.l.) on 6 July. Due to a decrease in activity, on 10 July the Alert Level was lowered one level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) in all areas except the S slope.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Agence France-Presse (AFP)


28 June-4 July 2006

According to CVGHM, pyroclastic flows and rockfalls at Merapi decreased in frequency and intensity during 28 June-4 July. Pyroclastic flows were observed during 28-30 June and reached a maximum distance of 3 km SE along the Gendol River. Gas plumes were observed during 28 June-1 July and reached a maximum height of 1 km above the summit (12,800 ft a.s.l.) on 28 June.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


21 June-27 June 2006

During 21-25 June, seismic signals at Merapi indicated almost daily occurrence of rockfalls and pyroclastic flows. Due to inclement weather, pyroclastic flows were only observed on 24 June and reached a maximum distance of 4 km SE along the Gendol River and 2.5 km SW along the Krasak River. Gas plumes were observed during 22-25 June and reached a maximum height of 1.5 km above the summit (14,600 ft a.s.l.) on 24 June.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


14 June-20 June 2006

Gas plumes were emitted from Merapi on 14 and 15 June and reached a maximum height of 900 m above the summit (12,500 ft a.s.l.). On 14 June, a dome-collapse event, lasting approximately 3.5 hours, produced pyroclastic flows that reached a maximum distance of 7 km SE along the Gendol River. Two people assisting with evacuation efforts were trapped an underground shelter in Kaliadem village and died, the first fatalities of the current eruption. On 15 June, pyroclastic flows reached a maximum distance of 4.5 km SE along the Gendol River. According to news reports, pyroclastic flows continued during 16-19 June as a new dome grew. On 19 June, water shortages were reported. The Alert Level remained at 4, the highest level.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, The Jakarta Post, Reuters, Associated Press


7 June-13 June 2006

On 8 June, according to a CVGHM report, the lava-dome growth rate at Merapi was an estimated 100 thousand cubic meters per day and the estimated volume was approximately 4 million cubic meters. An estimated volume loss of 400 thousand cubic meters on 4 June was due to a partial dome collapse of the S part of the Geger Buaya crater wall (constructed from 1910 lava flows).

Gas plumes were observed almost daily during 7-13 June and reached a maximum height of 1.2 km above the summit (13,600 ft a.s.l.) on 10 June. During 8-10 June, the Darwin VAAC reported that small ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery and minor ashfall was reported to the S at the Merapi Volcano Observatory and in Yogyakarta, about 32 km (19.9 miles) away. On 8 June a pyroclastic flow, lasting 12 minutes, reached a maximum distance of 5 km SE toward the Gendol River, the predominate travel direction since the 27 May earthquake (M 6.2). According to a news report, the 8 June event prompted approximately 15,500 people to evacuate from the Sleman district to the S and the Magelang district to the W. On 13 June, the Alert Level was lowered from 4 to 3 but renewed pyroclastic-flow activity the next day again prompted a return to Alert Level 4, the highest level.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Associated Press, Reuters, AFX News


31 May-6 June 2006

The Alert Level at Merapi remained at 4, the highest level, during 31 May to 6 June. Sulfur-dioxide plumes were observed daily during this period and reached a height of 1.3 km above the summit (13,900 ft a.s.l.) on 1 June. According to the Darwin VAAC, low-level emissions were visible on satellite imagery on 1 and 6 June. Multiple pyroclastic flows reached a maximum distance of 4 km SE toward the Gendol River and 3.5 km SW toward the Krasak and Boyong Rivers. CVGHM reported on 31 May that lava avalanches moved towards the W for the first time during the recent eruption.

According to a volcanologist in Yogyakarta, lava-flow distances and lava-dome volume had both approximately doubled since the 27 May M 6.2 earthquake. The lava-dome volume was estimated at 4 million cubic meters. On 6 June, groups living near the base of the volcano began to move into temporary shelters. Activities remain restricted within a 7 km radius from the volcano's summit and within 300 m of the banks of Krasak/Bebeng, Bedog, and Boyong Rivers to the SW, and Gendol River to the SE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Associated Press, Agence France-Presse (AFP)


24 May-30 May 2006

The Alert Level at Merapi remained at 4, the highest level, during 24-30 May. On 24-25 May, lava flows were observed moving SW towards the Krasak River and SE towards the Gendol River. According to news reports, on 27 May an M 6.3 earthquake that killed about 5,400 resulted in a three-fold increase in activity at Merapi. According to CVGHM, an M 5.9 earthquake coincided with pyroclastic flows of unknown origin that extended 3.8 km SW toward the Krasak River. During 28-30 May, multiple pyroclastic flows reached a maximum of 3 km SE toward the Gendol River and 4 km SW toward the Krasak and Boyong Rivers. Gas plumes reached a height above the volcano of 500 m (11,300 ft a.s.l.) on 25 May, 1,200 m (13,600 ft a.s.l.) on 26 May, 100 m (10,000 ft a.s.l.) on 29 May, and 900 m (12,600 ft a.s.l.) on 30 May.

Residents remained evacuated from villages within a 7 km radius from the volcano's summit and within 300 m of the banks of Krasak/Bebeng, Bedog, and Boyong Rivers to the SW, and Gendol River to the SE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, The Canadian Press


17 May-23 May 2006

The Alert Level at Merapi remained at 4, the highest level, during 17-22 May. Incandescence and sulfur-dioxide plumes were observed. Pyroclastic flows to the SW and SE reached 4 km on 19 May and 3 km on 20 May. On 22 May, the lava dome volume was estimated at ~ 2.3 million cubic meters. The Darwin VAAC reported that low-level emissions continued during 18-19 and 23 May. CVGHM recommended that residents who live in valleys on the NNW flanks near Sat, Lamat, Senowo, Trising, and Apu Rivers and on the SE flank near Woro River be allowed to return to their homes. Residents remained evacuated from villages within a 7 km radius from the volcano's summit and within 300 m of the banks of the Krasak/Bebeng, Bedog, and Boyong Rivers to the SW, and the Gendol River to the SE.

According to news reports, an eruption producing a cloud of hot gas and ash was witnessed on 17 May. Witnesses said the size of the plume was smaller than ash-and-gas plumes on 15 May. On 18 May, a representative for Merapi from the Center for Volcanological Research and Technology Development (part of CVGHM), reported new ashfall.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Associated Press, Agence France-Presse (AFP), Reuters


10 May-16 May 2006

CVGHM reported that on 11 May, gas plumes rose to ~600 m above Merapi (or 11,600 ft a.s.l.). Avalanches of incandescent material extended 200 m SE towards the Gendol River, and 1.5 km SW towards the Krasak River. Several small incandescent avalanches of volcanic material were visible from observatory posts. The new lava dome at the volcano's summit had grown to fill the gap between the 2001 lava flows and the 1997 lava flows on the W side of the summit. The lava dome reached a height above that of the 1997 lava flows. Seismicity was dominated by multi-phase earthquakes and signals associated with avalanches. On 13 May at 0940, the Alert Level was raised from 3 to 4, the highest level.

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 May an ash plume was visible on satellite imagery below 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. An ash plume at an unknown height was visible on satellite imagery on 15 May.

According to news reports, after the Alert Level was raised to 4 on 13 May, about 4,500 people living near the volcano were evacuated. Intense activity occurred on 15 May, with pyroclastic flows traveling as far as 4 km to the W. By 16 May a total of about 22,000 people were evacuated; according to figures posted at the district disaster task force center about 16,870 people were evacuated from three districts in Central Java Province, and more than 5,600 others were evacuated from the Slemen district, a part of Yogyakarta Province. Activity decreased on 16 May. On 17 May pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 3 km. Local volcanologists reported that the lava dome continued to grow, but at a slower rate than during previous days.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Associated Press, Agence France-Presse (AFP), Reuters


3 May-9 May 2006

CVGHM reported that on 6 May, gas plumes rose to 800 m above Merapi (or 12,300 ft a.s.l.) and 18 incandescent avalanches of volcanic material were observed. On 7 May, 26 incandescent avalanches that extended about 100 m were seen during the morning. Incandescence was seen at the summit ten times. On 6 and 7 May, the lava dome continued to grow and seismicity was dominated by multi-phase earthquakes. Shallow volcanic earthquakes and signals from landslides and rockfalls were also recorded. On 8 May, the Darwin VAAC reported that CVGHM warned of a plume rising to ~3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. No ash was visible on satellite imagery. Merapi remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4), as it has since 12 April.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 April-2 May 2006

On 28 April, CVGHM observed a lava flow from Merapi traveling ~1.5 km SW to the Lamat River. On the 28th, seismicity was dominated by multiphase earthquakes. Signals from landslides, rockfalls, and low-frequency events were also recorded. According to news reports, around 27 April nearly 2,000 villagers were evacuated from Sidorejo and Tegalmulyo villages on the volcano's flanks. On the 27th, small amounts of ash fell in Gemer village about 5 km from Merapi's summit. Merapi remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Xinhua, Reuters


19 April-25 April 2006

During 21-25 April seismicity at Merapi remained at high levels, with several seismic signals recorded that were associated with rockfalls. The sulfur-dioxide flux from the volcano was 175 metric tons on 22 April. On 22 and 23 April, fumarolic emissions reached a maximum height of 400 m above the volcano (or 11,000 ft a.s.l.). On the 25th, two rockslides from lava-flow fronts were heard from nearby observatories. According to news reports, about 600 of the approximately 14,000 people living near the volcano had been evacuated by the 24th. Merapi remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Reuters, Associated Press


12 April-18 April 2006

According to CVGHM, volcanic activity began to increase at Merapi on 11 April, and on 12 April at 1500 they raised the Alert level from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). They reported that an eruption could occur at any time and no one was permitted within 8 km of the summit. According to news reports, authorities informed people living in villages near the volcano to be prepared for possible evacuations.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Associated Press, Reuters


5 April-11 April 2006

According to a news article, authorities banned mountain climbing on 10 April at Merapi due to increased activity. There were reports that the amount of tremor had increased and that lava was seen flowing near Pasar Bubar village, ~350 m from the volcano's crater.

Source: Deutsche Presse-Agentur


15 March-21 March 2006

Increased seismicity at Merapi led CVGHM to raise the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) around 20 March. According to a news articles, small earthquakes were recorded at the volcano on 19 March and more than 200 were recorded during the week. Around 10,000 residents near the volcano were warned to prepare for possible evacuations if activity escalates.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Agence France-Presse (AFP)


6 July-12 July 2005

An increase in the number of volcanic earthquakes at Merapi during 7-11 July led DVGHM to increase the Alert Level at the volcano to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 9 July.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


4 September-10 September 2002

During 26 August-1 September, observers saw incandescent lava avalanches travel predominately down Merapi's SW flank into the upstream portions of the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers. The avalanches reached a maximum run-out distance of ~2.5 km. Seismicity was dominated by 311 lava avalanches. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


28 August-3 September 2002

During 19-25 August, observers saw 16 incandescent lava avalanches travel predominately down Merapi's SW flank into the upstream portions of the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers. The avalanches reached a maximum run-out distance of ~2.5 km. Seismicity was dominated by 187 lava avalanches. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


21 August-27 August 2002

During 5-18 August, incandescent lava avalanches traveled predominately down Merapi's SW flank into the upstream portions of the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers. The avalanches reached a maximum run-out distance of ~2.5 km. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


31 July-6 August 2002

During 29 July-4 August, incandescent lava avalanches traveled predominately down Merapi's SW flank into the upstream portions of the Sat, Lamat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers. The avalanches reached a maximum run-out distance of ~2.6 km. A thin white plume rose ~400 m above the summit. Seismicity was dominated by signals from 237 lava avalanches. No pyroclastic flows were reported. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


24 July-30 July 2002

During 15-21 July, incandescent lava avalanches traveled predominately down Merapi's SW flank into the upstream portions of the Sat, Lamat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers. The avalanches reached a maximum run-out distance of ~2.5 km. Seismicity was dominated by signals from 201 lava avalanches. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


17 July-23 July 2002

During 8-14 July, incandescent lava avalanches traveled predominately down Merapi's SW flank into the upstream portions of Sat, Lamat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers. The avalanches reached a maximum run-out distance of ~2.5 km. Seismicity was dominated by signals from 180 lava avalanches. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


10 July-16 July 2002

During 1-7 July, observers noted 60 incandescent lava avalanches traveling predominately down Merapi's SW flank into the upstream portions of Sat, Lamat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers. The avalanches reached a maximum run-out distance of ~2.6 km. On 2 July two pyroclastic flows traveled toward the upstream portion of Sat River, reaching a maximum run-out distance of 0.5 km. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


3 July-9 July 2002

During 24-30 June, observers noted 68 incandescent lava avalanches flowing predominately down Merapi's SW flank into the upstream portions of the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers. The avalanches reached a maximum run-out distance of ~2.5 km. Seismicity appeared to decrease in comparison to the previous week and no low-frequency earthquakes were recorded. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 June-2 July 2002

During 17-23 June, observers noted 65 incandescent lava avalanches flowing predominately down Merapi's SW flank into the upstream portions of the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers. The avalanches reached a maximum run-out distance of ~2.5 km. Seismicity decreased in comparison to the previous week. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


19 June-25 June 2002

During 10-16 June, incandescent lava avalanches flowed predominately down Merapi's SW flank to the upstream portions of the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers to a maximum run-out distance of ~2.5 km. Seismicity decreased in comparison to the previous week. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


12 June-18 June 2002

VSI reported that activity at Merapi was generally decreasing. During 3-9 June, incandescent lava avalanches flowed predominately down Merapi's SW flank to the upstream portions of the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers to a maximum run-out distance of ~2.5 km. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 June-11 June 2002

During 27 May-2 June, seismicity generally decreased at Merapi in comparison to the previous week. Incandescent lava avalanches flowed predominately down Merapi's SW flank to the upstream portions of the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers to a maximum run-out distance of ~2.5 km. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


29 May-4 June 2002

During 22 April-26 May incandescent lava avalanches flowed down Merapi's flanks, predominately SW to the upstream portions of the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers. They reached a maximum run-out distance of ~2.75 km. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


24 April-30 April 2002

During 15-21 April, several incandescent lava avalanches were observed traveling down Merapi's flanks, predominately SW to the upstream portions of the Lamat, Sat, and Senowo rivers, reaching a maximum run-out distance of ~2.5 km. Two minor pyroclastic flows traveled up to 1.8 km on 14 April. Seismicity decreased in comparison to the previous week, SO2 emission rates were average, and the lava dome showed no signs of deformation. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


27 March-2 April 2002

During 18-24 March, several incandescent lava avalanches were observed traveling down Merapi's flanks, predominately SW to the upstream portions of the Lamat, Sat, and Senowo rivers and partly in a more southerly direction towards Bebeng River. The maximum run-out distance was ~2.5 km. No pyroclastic flows occurred during the report period. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


20 March-26 March 2002

During 11-17 March, 69 incandescent lava avalanches were observed traveling down Merapi's flanks, predominately SW to the upstream portions of the Lamat, Sat, and Senowo rivers and partly in a more southerly direction towards Bebeng River. The maximum run-out distance was ~2.5 km. No pyroclastic flows occurred during the report period. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


27 February-5 March 2002

During 25 February-3 March 88 incandescent lava avalanches were observed traveling down Merapi's flanks, predominately SW to the upstream portions of the Lamat, Sat, and Senowo rivers and partly in a more southerly direction towards Bebeng River. The maximum run-out distance was ~2.5 km. Four minor pyroclastic flows were observed during the report period; three occurred on 25 February and one on 3 March. The flows travelled SSW as far as 1 km to the upstream portion of the Bebeng River. Seismicity at the volcano was similar to the previous week. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


20 February-26 February 2002

During 18-24 February there were 67 incandescent lava avalanches observed traveling down Merapi's flanks, predominately WSW to the upstream portions of the Lamat and Senowo rivers and partly SW toward the Sat and Bebeng rivers. The maximum run-out distance was ~2.2 km. One minor pyroclastic flow was observed; it traveled 2.2 km down the Senowo River. Seismicity was dominated by avalanche earthquakes (607), which slightly increased in comparison to the previous week (600). Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


13 February-19 February 2002

During 11-17 February there were 65 incandescent lava avalanches observed traveling down Merapi's flanks, predominately WSW to the upstream portions of Lamat and Senowo rivers and partly SW toward the Sat and Bebeng rivers. The maximum run-out distance was ~2.5 km. During the report period, six minor pyroclastic flows travelled up to 2.5 km to the upstream portions of the Lamat and Senowo rivers. According to news reports, Volcanology Development and Investigation Agency staff stated that intense rain during the current rainy season could cause landslides around the volcano's crater. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, The Jakarta Post, The Jakarta Post


6 February-12 February 2002

During 28 January-3 February 194 lava avalanches were observed traveling down Merapi's flanks, predominately SW toward the upstream portions of the Sat and Bebeng rivers, and partly WSW to the Lamat and Senowo rivers. The maximum run-out distance was ~2.7 km. There were no major observed changes in seismicity; 855 lava avalanche signals dominated the seismicity. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


30 January-5 February 2002

During 21-27 January, 979 lava avalanches traveled down Merapi's flanks, predominately SW toward the upstream portions of the Sat and Bebeng rivers, and partly WSW to the Lamat and Senowo rivers. The maximum run-out distance was ~2.75 km. Several small pyroclastic flows travelled up to ~1.5 km to the upstream portions of the Sat and Bebeng rivers; two on the 23rd, one on the 24th, and two on the 25th. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


16 January-22 January 2002

During 14-20 January lava avalanches continued to travel down the flanks of Merapi, predominately SW toward the upstream portions of Sat and Bebeng rivers, and partly WSW to the Lamat and Senowo rivers. The maximum run-out distance was ~2.75 km. On 17 January, five small pyroclastic flows traveled 1.2 km to the upstream portions of the Sat and Bebeng rivers. Seismicity increased compared to the previous week and was dominated by 853 lava avalanches. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


9 January-15 January 2002

During 7-13 January lava avalanches continued to travel down the flanks of Merapi, predominately SW toward the upstream portions of the Sat and Bebeng rivers and partly WSW to the Lamat and Senowo rivers. The maximum run-out distance was about 2.5 km. On 7 January a small pyroclastic flow traveled ~2 km to the upstream portion of Bebeng River. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 December-1 January 2002

Visual observations during 17-20 December revealed that 109 lava avalanches travelled predominately toward the upstream portion of the Sat River, and to a lesser extent to the Lamat and Senowo rivers. The maximum run-out distance was ~2.5 km. A pyroclastic flow on 18 December travelled ~1 km to the upstream portion of the Bebeng River. During the report period, seismicity was dominated by avalanche earthquakes that were similar in frequency and magnitude to those of previous weeks. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


28 November-4 December 2001

During 19 November- 2 December VSI personnel observed 90 incandescent lava avalanches traveling SW, predominately to the upstream portion of the Sat River, and to a lesser extent to the Lamat and Senowo rivers. The maximum run-out distance was 2.5 km. During the report period, seismicity was dominated by avalanche earthquakes that were similar in frequency and magnitude to those of the previous week. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


14 November-20 November 2001

During 5-18 November VSI personnel observed 192 incandescent lava avalanches traveling SW, predominately to the upstream portion of the Sat River, and to a lesser extent to the Lamat and Senowo rivers. The maximum run-out distance was 3 km. During the report period, seismicity was dominated by avalanche earthquakes. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


31 October-6 November 2001

During 22-28 October, VSI personnel observed 121 incandescent lava avalanches traveling SW predominately to the upstream portion of the Sat River, and to a lesser extent to the Lamat and Senow rivers. The maximum run-out distance was 2.75 km. On 24 October four minor pyroclastic flows were observed travelling a maximum distance of 2 km to the upstream portions of the Sat and Senowo rivers. Seismicity was dominated by avalanche earthquakes similar in magnitude and frequency to earthquakes the previous week. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


24 October-30 October 2001

During 15-21 October, VSI personnel observed 103 incandescent lava avalanches traveling SW predominately to the upstream portion of the Sat River, and to a lesser extent to the Lamat and Senow rivers. The maximum run-out distance was 2.75 km. Seismic activity was dominated by avalanche earthquakes similar in magnitude and frequency to earthquakes the previous week. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


17 October-23 October 2001

During 8-14 October, VSI personnel observed 53 incandescent lava avalanches traveling SW predominately to the upstream portion of the Sat River, and to a lesser extent to the Lamat and Senow rivers to a maximum run-out distance of ~2 km. On 8 October at 1729 a minor pyroclastic flow traveled ~2 km down the Sat River. Seismicity was dominated by 692 lava avalanche events. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


3 October-9 October 2001

During 1-7 October 59 incandescent lava avalanches were observed travelling SW. The avalanches predominately traveled to the upstream portions of the Sat River, and to a lesser extent down the Lamat and Senowo rivers to a maximum run-out distance of 2.5 km. Seismicity was dominated by approximately the same number and intensity of avalanche earthquakes as the previous week. An average of 80 tons per day of SO2 was measured. The Alert Level remained at 2.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 September-2 October 2001

During 17-30 September incandescent lava avalanches traveled SW primarily down the Lamat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers to a maximum run-out distance of 2.5 km. During 17-23 September 51 lava avalanches were observed. Temperatures at Gendol Crater increased from 590-595 ºC the previous week to 602-617 ºC during 17-23 September and to 598-618 ºC during 24-30 September. Avalanche earthquakes, which dominated the seismicity, increased in comparison to the previous week.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


19 September-25 September 2001

According to VSI, during 10-16 September volcanic activity at Merapi decreased in comparison to the previous week. Incandescent lava avalanches continued to travel SW as far as 2.5 km to reach the upstream portions of the Lamat and Senowo rivers. Seismographs recorded 588 lava-avalanche events during the report period. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


29 August-4 September 2001

During 13-26 August approximately 380 lava avalanches were observed travelling SW, extending a maximum distance of 2.8 km mainly down the Sat and Lamat rivers, and to a lesser extent towards the Senowo and Bebeng rivers. Seismic activity consisted primarily of avalanche earthquakes, as it had for the previous 2 weeks. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


22 August-28 August 2001

During 30 July-12 August lava avalanches traveled towards the SW, extending a maximum distance of 2.8 km down the Sat, Senowo, Lamat, and Bebeng Rivers. Seismic activity was dominated by avalanche earthquakes. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


18 July-24 July 2001

During 9-15 July volcanic activity at Merapi was similar to the previous week. A total of 52 lava avalanches traveled SW to a maximum distance of 2.5 km down the Sat, Senowo, and Lamat rivers. Emissions from low-pressure fumaroles rose to 755 m above the summit. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


11 July-17 July 2001

During 2-8 July low-pressure emissions from fumaroles rose 700 m above the volcano. During the same interval lava avalanches traveled SW to a maximum distance of 2.5 km into the upper reaches of the Sat, Senowo, and Lamat rivers. The volcano was at Alert Level 2.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


2 May-8 May 2001

Activity at Merapi increased during 23-29 April, with reports of several medium-sized pyroclastic flows. Four pyroclastic flows were observed traveling into the upper reaches of the Sat, Senowo, Lamat, and Bebeng rivers, with a maximum runout distance of 1.8 km in the Sat River. Lava avalanches traveled up to 2.5 km down the Sat River. Superficial earthquakes continued to dominate the seismicity. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


25 April-1 May 2001

During 16-23 April lava avalanches continued to flow down the Sat, Senowo, Lamat, and Bebeng rivers, with a maximum runout distance of 2 km. Fumaroles emitted gas that rose up to 500 m above the summit. Seismic activity continued to be dominated by avalanche earthquakes. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


18 April-24 April 2001

VSI reported that during 9-15 April lava avalanches continued to fill the upstream areas of the Sat, Senowo, Lamat, and Bebeng rivers, with a maximum runout distance of 2 km in the Sat River. In addition, eleven pyroclastic flows entered the Sat and Lamat rivers, reaching as far as 3 km. Avalanche earthquakes continued to dominate the seismicity, but their amplitude and frequency decreased in comparison to the previous week. An observer reported that on 13 April a small amount of ash fell around the Babadan Post Observatory ~7 km W of the volcano. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


11 April-17 April 2001

Visual and instrumental monitoring by VSI personnel during 2-9 April revealed that volcanic activity continued at Merapi. Lava avalanches continued to enter upstream areas of the Sat, Senowo, Lamat, and Bebeng rivers, with a maximum runout distance of 2.5 km in the Sat River. An observer reported that ten pyroclastic flows traveled down the Sat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers, reaching as far as 2.3 km in the Sat River. Fumaroles emitted steam and gas up to 950 m above the volcano's summit. Both the number and amplitude of earthquakes was high, but less than previously recorded. Seismic activity was dominated by avalanche earthquakes. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


21 March-27 March 2001

Visual and instrumental monitoring by VSI personnel through 18 March revealed that volcanic activity continued at Merapi. Hot lava avalanches continued to enter the Sat, Senowo, Bebeng, and Lamat rivers, with a maximum runout distance of 3 km in the Sat River. Pyroclastic flows traveled up to 1 km down the Sat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers. Superficial earthquakes dominated the seismicity, though the number and amplitude decreased from the previous week. Observations during a summit visit on 17 March revealed that high-pressure fumaroles remained on most of the dome's surface. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


14 March-20 March 2001

Visual and instrumental monitoring by VSI personnel revealed that volcanic activity continued at Merapi. Hot lava avalanches continued to enter the Sat, Senowo, Bebeng, and Lamat rivers, with a maximum runout distance of 2.5 km in the Sat River. Pyroclastic flows traveled up to 2.75 km down the Sat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers. Superficial earthquakes dominated the seismicity, though fewer occurred than in the previous week. Observations on 10 March revealed that high-pressure fumaroles appeared on most of the dome's surface. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


7 March-13 March 2001

Visual and instrumental monitoring conducted by VSI personnel revealed that volcanic activity at Merapi had decreased; therefore on 7 March the Alert Level was reduced from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). During 27 February- 5 March, volcanic activity was dominated by an average of 100 lava avalanches per day. The avalanche material traveled to the SW, entering the Sat and Senowo rivers with runout distances of 2.3-2.5 km. On 6 March a pyroclastic flow deposited material up to 1.5 km down the Sat River.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


28 February-6 March 2001

Based on reports from the VSI, the Darwin VAAC stated that the Alert Level at Merapi was downgraded on 25 February from 4, the highest level, to 3.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 February-27 February 2001

Based on reports from the VSI, the Darwin VAAC stated that during 15-21 February volcanic activity decreased at Merapi. According to the Meteorological and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia, during 11-18 February daily ash emissions rose up to ~150 m above the summit. The volcano remained at Alert Level 4, the highest level.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


14 February-20 February 2001

VSI reported that after the large 10 February eruption volcanic activity decreased in intensity. Lava avalanches and pyroclastic flows continued, but were smaller than they were the previous week. During 10 to 13 February pyroclastic flows entered the Sat, Lamat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers to a maximum runout distance of 2-3 km, in comparison to ~4.5 km the previous week. After 13 February lava avalanches and pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5-2.5 km to the WSW and lasted 1-2 hours. According to the VSI, high temperatures around Merapi indicate that magma is near the surface. The W and S sides of "lava dome 2001" grew and covered "lava dome 1997" to the S. Several fumaroles appeared to mark a fracture along the area where the 10 February eruption occurred. Fractures formed in a similar matter prior to the November 1994 eruption. The volcano remained at Alert Level 4, the highest level.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 February-13 February 2001

Intense and dangerous volcanic activity continued at Merapi with hot lava avalanches, near-continuous pyroclastic flows, and an eruption on 10 February that deposited ash on many cities out to 60 km E of the volcano. During 30 January to 5 February, continuous hot lava avalanches and pyroclastic flows traveled down the SW flank of the volcano along the Sat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers to a maximum runout distance of ~4.5 km. Lava avalanches also traveled down the Lamat River, a drainage that avalanches had not previously traveled down during the current period of volcanic activity. Approximately 25 pyroclastic flows occurred daily. Ash associated with the pyroclastic flows fell around Merapi. During 0430 to 0630 on 3 February heavy rain mixed with ash and produced minor lahars. On 6 February the dome was reported as being 1 million cubic meters in volume and growing at 45 cubic meters per day.

Pyroclastic-flow activity began at 2100 on 9 February and lasted up to 1 hour. At 0200 on 10 February, a medium-sized pyroclastic flow lasted for ~30 minutes. At 0330 the same day "lava dome 1998," which was under the new lava dome ("lava dome 2001"), partially collapsed. The collapse triggered a large and continuous pyroclastic flow that lasted as long as 2.5 hours. The pyroclastic flow traveled up to 7 km SW of the summit towards the Sat River, and 4.5 WSW to the Lamat River. The resultant ash cloud rose up to 5-8 km above the summit, spread ~60 km towards the E, and deposited ash on the towns of Klaten, Solo, Sukoharjo, and Boyolali. The greatest ash thickness was ~1 cm, reported within a 5 km radius around the volcano. At 0530 the Alert Level at the volcano was raised from 3 to 4, the highest level. News articles reported that ~12,000 residents near the volcano were evacuated on 10 February, though many people returned to their property the next day despite the evacuation order. By 11 February, lava dome 2001 was estimated to be 1.4 million cubic meters in volume and unstable, especially after the 10 February collapse of "lava dome 1998."

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), ABC News - Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Associated Press


31 January-6 February 2001

The VSI reported that activity continued to increase during 23 January-1 February. At 0000 on 27 January an eruption produced continuous pyroclastic flows and molten lava avalanches that lasted as long as 2 hours. The eruption also produced a thick ash plume that rose 2 km above the volcano's summit and was accompanied by a strong sulfurous smell. On 28 January, "lava dome 2001" partially collapsed, resulting in pyroclastic flows and molten lava avalanches that occurred at 2-5 minute intervals. The avalanche and pyroclastic-flow material traveled down the Sat and Bebeng rivers to the SW, and Senowo River to the W. The maximum runout distance of 4.5 km occurred in the Sat River. Ash fell in 5 districts within a 15-20 km radius around the volcano; Dukun, Srumbung, Salam, Ngluwar, and Muntilan. On 31 January, pyroclastic flows continuously entered the Sat River, and to a lesser extent the Senowo and Bebeng rivers. The maximum runout distance was ~3.5 km. Again, ash fell on the towns within a ~15 km radius around the volcano. Visual observations and photographic analysis revealed that the dome became higher and larger than it was during the previous report period, and that there was a new active point at the summit that may have been a fumarole or a hot spot. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Associated Press, Agence France-Presse (AFP)


24 January-30 January 2001

An Associated Press article from 25 January reported that ash mixed with rain fell on the village of Deres on the flanks of the volcano. Activity reportedly increased slightly on 25 January.

Source: Associated Press


17 January-23 January 2001

The VSI reported that during 16-22 January visual and instrumental monitoring revealed a continued increase of volcanic activity at Merapi. Activity consisted of several pyroclastic flows, small ash eruptions, glowing lava flows, lava avalanches, and an increase in seismicity, especially in avalanche and multi-phase earthquakes. More than 20 pyroclastic flows per day traveled continuously to the Sat (upstream of River Putih), Senowo, and Bebeng rivers. The number of glowing lava avalanches also increased since last reported, with more than 150 events per day observed. The avalanches traveled down to the Sat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers extending as far as 3,500 m. The new lava dome, "lava dome 2001," grew at the volcano's summit over the preexisting "lava dome 1998." The Darwin VAAC reported that an ash cloud that was not visible on satellite imagery reached 500 m above the summit on 19 January. The VSI reported that during the report period ash fell in the towns of Babadan, Ngepos, and Kaliurang. An average of 95 tons/day of SO2 was measured. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Associated Press


10 January-16 January 2001

The VSI report for 9-15 January noted that activity increased at Merapi, prompting the hazard status to be raised to Alert Level 3 at 0600 on 10 January. Observers frequently noted a weak white plume that rose 500 m above the summit. Glowing lava avalanches continued into the upstream areas of the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers to a runout distance of 2,000 m. On 14 January there were 29 pyroclastic-flow events, which filled the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers out to a maximum distance of ~4,000 m. During this week there were continuous glowing lava avalanches and pyroclastic flows at intervals of 30-60 minutes. The Associated Press reported on 11 January that authorities had ordered people living around the mountain to be on high alert and prepare to leave at short notice.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Associated Press


29 November-5 December 2000

During 21-27 November small explosions occurred at Merapi, with the largest producing an ash plume that rose up to 800 m above the summit. Seismicity was high and dominated by multi-phase earthquakes. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (ranging from 1 to 4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


15 November-21 November 2000

The VSI reported that during the week small explosions produced ash plumes that rose up to 430 m above Merapi's summit. High rains during 7 to 13 November caused landslides to occur in the upstream portion of Boyong river, Kaliurang. The river is on the S flank of Merapi and extends ~28 km map distance from the summit. The landslides killed one person and more landslides or lahars are expected during the current rainy season. The volcano is at Alert Level 2 (ranging from 1 to 4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Nov 18 2013 Nov 18 Confirmed   Historical Observations
2010 Oct 26 2012 Jul 15 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
[ 2008 May 19 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
2006 Mar 2007 Aug 9 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1992 Jan 20 2002 Oct 19 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NW of 1984 lava dome
1986 Oct 10 1990 Aug (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1972 Oct 6 1985 Mar Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1971 Jan ] [ 1971 Jul 26 ] Uncertain 1  
1967 Jan 12 1970 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Upper Batang breach (2600 m)
1961 Apr 11 1961 Nov 28 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1953 Mar 2 1958 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1948 Sep 29 1948 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1942 May 30 1945 May Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1939 Dec 13 1940 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1933 Oct 1 1935 Apr Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1932 Nov Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1930 Nov 25 1931 Sep Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1924 Sep 10 1924 Sep 12 ± 1 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1923 Sep ] [ 1923 Nov ] Uncertain    
1922 Feb 18 1922 Aug 8 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1920 Jul 25 1921 Feb Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1918 Jan Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1915 Mar 28 1915 May 15 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1909 Feb 1 1913 May Confirmed 1 Historical Observations West dome
1908 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1906 Jan 26 ± 5 days 1907 Feb 17 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and upper east flank (2600 m)
1905 Jan 1905 Jun 1 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1902 Dec 1904 Jun 20 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1902 Feb 3 1902 Feb 3 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1897 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1894 Oct Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1894 Jan 27 1894 Feb 2 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1893 Oct Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1891 Aug 25 1892 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1889 Jul Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1888 Aug 18 1888 Dec 20 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1885 Feb 24 ± 4 days 1887 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1883 Jan (?) 1884 Nov Confirmed 1 Historical Observations East dome
1878 1879 Jun 20 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1872 Nov 3 1873 Jan (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1872 Apr 15 1872 Apr 21 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1865 Oct 24 1871 Aug (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1862 May 26 1864 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1861 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1854 Sep ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1849 Sep 14 1849 Sep 24 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1849 Apr 26 1849 Apr 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1848 Jan 8 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1846 Sep 2 1847 Oct Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and upper SE flank (2600 m)
1846 Apr 6 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1840 Jan 4 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1837 Aug 10 1838 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1832 Dec 25 1836 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1828 Dec 18 1828 Dec 19 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1822 Dec 27 1823 Apr 6 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1812 1822 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1810 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1807 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1797 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1791 (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1786 Jul 17 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1768 Aug 19 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1755 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1752 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1745 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1678 Aug 19 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1677 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1672 Aug 4 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1663 Dec 31 ± 365 days Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1658 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1587 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
[ 1586 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1584 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1560 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1554 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1548 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1480 ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Sambisari Ash
1440 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
1380 ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Sambisari Ash
1300 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
1230 ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Deles Tephra
1190 ± 30 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
1140 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
1090 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
1010 ± 25 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
[ 1006 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
0940 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Selo Tephra
0870 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
0680 ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
0630 ± 30 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
0540 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
0480 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
0410 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Plalangan Tephra
0280 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
0190 ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
0120 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
0020 ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tegalsruni tephra
0340 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ngrangkah Tephra
0700 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
1010 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
1180 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Bakalan tephra
1410 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
1770 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
1890 BCE ± 55 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
2910 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
4690 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
7310 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
8780 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Old Merapi

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Adreastuti S D, Alloway B V, Smith I E M, 2000. A detailed tephrostratigraphic framework at Merapi volcano, central Java, Indonesia: implications for eruption predictions and hazard assessment. J Volc Geotherm Res, 100: 51-67.

Bourdier J-L, Abdurachman E K, 2001. Decoupling of small-volume pyroclastic flows and related hazards at Merapi volcano, Indonesia. Bull Volc, 63: 309-325.

Camus G, Gourgaud A, Mossand-Berthommier P-C, Vincent P-M, 2000. Merapi (central Java, Indonesia): an outline of the structural and magmatological evolution, with a special emphasis to the major pyroclastic events. J Volc Geotherm Res, 100: 139-163.

Charbonnier S J, Gertisser R, 2008. Field observations and surface characteristics of pristine block-and-ash flow deposits from the 2006 eruption of Merapi volcano, Java, Indonesia. J Volc Geotherm Res, 177: 971-982.

Gertisser R, Keller J, 2003. Temporal variations in magma composition at Merapi volcano (Central Java, Indonesia): magmatic cycles during the past 2000 years of explosive activity. J Volc Geotherm Res, 123: 1-23.

Green J, Short N M, 1971. Volcanic Landforms and Surface Features: a Photographic Atlas and Glossary. New York: Springer-Verlag, 519 p.

Hantke G, 1951. Ubersicht uber die Vulkanische Tatigkeit 1941-1947. Bull Volc, 11: 161-208.

Hartmann M, 1934. The volcanic activity of Merapi volcano (central Java) in its eastern summit area between 1902 and 1908. Ing Ned-Indie, 1: 61-73.

Lavigne F, Thouret J C, Voight B, Suwa H, Sumaryono A, 2000. Lahars at Merapi volcano, central Java: an overview. J Volc Geotherm Res, 100: 423-456.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Newhall C G, Bronto S, Alloway B, Banks N G, Bahar I, del Marmol M A, Hadisantono R D, Holcomb R T, McGeehin J, Miksic J N, Rubin M, Sayudi S D, Sukhyar R, Andreastuti S, Tilling R I, Torley R, Trimble D, Wirakusumah A D, 2000. 10,000 years of explosive eruptions of Merapi volcano, central Java: archaeological and modern implications. J Volc Geotherm Res, 100: 9-50.

Purbo-Hadiwidjoyo M M, Suryo I, 1980. Distribution pattern of the Merapi volcanic debris, south central Java with special reference to the period since 1900. Seminar Volcanic Debris Flow, Yogjakarta, 13-14 March 1980, p 276-291.

Schwarzkopf L M, Schmincke H-U, Cronin S J, 2005. A conceptual model for block-and-ash flow basal avalanche transport and deposition, based on deposit architecture of 1998 and 1994 Merapi flows. J Volc Geotherm Res, 139: 117-134.

Siswowidjoyo S, Suryo I, Yokoyama I, 1995. Magma eruption rates of Merapi volcano, Central Java, Indonesia during one century (1890-1992). Bull Volc, 57: 111-116.

Taverne N J M, 1926. Vulkanstudien op Java. Vulk Meded, 7: 1-132.

Thouret J-C, Lavigne F, Kelfoun K, Bronto S, 2000. Toward a revised hazard assessment at Merapi volcano, central Java. J Volc Geotherm Res, 100: 479-502.

van Bemmelen R W, 1949b. The Geology of Indonesia. The Hague: Government Printing Office, v 1, 732 p.

Voight B, Constantine E K, Siswowidjoyo S, Torley R, 2000. Historical eruptions of Merapi volcano, central Java, Indonesia, 1768-1998. J Volc Geotherm Res, 100: 69-138.

Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, 1986b. Annual report of the Volcanological Survey 1984-1985. Bull Volc Surv Indonesia, no 113.

Wirakusumah A D, Juwarna H, Loebis H, 1989. Geologic map of Merapi volcano, Central Java. Volc Surv Indonesia, 1:50,000 geol map.

Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. Merapi is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi volcano beginning during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time. The volcano is the object of extensive monitoring efforts by the Merapi Volcano Observatory.