Dieng Volcanic Complex

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  • 7.2°S
  • 109.92°E

  • 2565 m
    8413 ft

  • 263200
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Most Recent Weekly Report: 6 August-12 August 2014


PVMBG noted that due to decreased activity and no observable flow of gas in high concentrations from the crater the Alert Level for Dieng was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 11 August. Residents and visitors were advised to not enter the crater and to be vigilant if excavating to depths greater than 1 m around the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: August 2013 (BGVN 38:08)


Alert Level raised due to gas emissions; moderate earthquake felt

The Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) reported that during 7-11 March 2013 instruments monitoring the Dieng Volcanic Complex detected carbon dioxide (CO2) plumes from Timbang Crater, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex (see figure 2 in BGVN 36:06), drifting 50-200 m S. A strong sulfur odor was also reported, along with dead animals near the crater on 7 March. Observers noted white plumes rising from the crater that were diffuse during 7-8 March and dense during 9-10 March; the concentration increased during 9-10 March 2013. Because of the increase of CO2 emissions, CVGHM raised the Alert Status, which spans a scale of 1 to 4, from 1 (aktif - normal) to 2 (waspada - alert) on 13 March, and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 500 m radius. The last eruption reported from Dieng was 27 September 2009 at Sileri crater (BGVN 34:08; see figure 2 in BGVN 36:06). Table 4 shows the most recent Alert Levels for Dieng.

Table 4. Most recent Alert Levels reported for Dieng. Courtesy of CVGHM.

Date level began Alert Level
1 September 2011 1
11 March 2013 2
27 March 2013 3
8 May 2013 2

During 10-26 March 2013 gas emissions continued to be elevated at Timbang crater. Plumes containing CO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) drifted 2 km, and were at toxic levels at a distance of 550 m. Seismicity increased during 13-26 March 2013 and then significantly increased on 27 March. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (siaga - standby) on 27 March 2013 and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 1 km radius.

On 28 March 2013 gas emissions continued to raise at Timbang. Plumes containing carbon dioxide (CO2) drifted 2 km towards the S valley of Kali Sat, prompting a road closure until the early evening when the gas concentration decreased. On 30 March 2013 CO2 gas emissions were not detected; however, 'smoke' rose at most 100 m above the crater, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) odors were very potent in areas 1 km W and weak in areas 1.5 km S.

On 24 March 2013 Sileri Crater lake water changed from dark gray to brown, and on 7 April white plumes rose 50 m and the water color returned to normal. Diffuse white plumes rose 15 m on 20 April. Other craters had not exhibited any changes by 28 April 2013.

On 19 April sulfur dioxide (SO2) odors were reported. According to CVGHM, an M 4.8 earthquake occurred ~14 km SSW of Dieng and ~8 km NNW of Wonosobo at 1900 local time on 19 April 2013. It had a hypocentral depth of 10 km, was of a tectonic nature, but with possible influence on Dieng volcano. Eighty-six weaker quakes followed the main shock within 25 minutes. No buildings collapsed due to the earthquake, but at least 311 houses were damaged, 34 of them severely and 27 of them moderately. Two people were injured. As a precaution associated with a potential eruption, approximately 1,000 people were evacuated; they were returning to their villages by 21 April due to a decrease in volcanic activity of the Dieng volcano complex.

Based on gas concentrations, seismicity, and visual observations, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level to 2 on 8 May 2013.

Residents living in the vicinity of Dieng (close to Mt. Sundoro and Mt. Sumbing) on Java (see figure 1 in BGVN 33:11), were the subject of a study of people's perceptions and reactions to volcanic hazards (Lavigne and others, 2008).

Reference: Lavigne, F., De Coster, B., Juvin, N., Flohic, F., Gaillard, J-C., Texier, P., Morin, J., and Sartohadi, J., 2008, People's behaviour in the face of volcanic hazards: Perspectives from Javanese communities, Indonesia, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v.172, issue 3-4, p. 273-287.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) (Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG)), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/).

Index of Weekly Reports


2014: August
2013: March | May
2011: May | June
2009: January | September
2005: May
2003: July
2002: April

Weekly Reports


6 August-12 August 2014

PVMBG noted that due to decreased activity and no observable flow of gas in high concentrations from the crater the Alert Level for Dieng was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 11 August. Residents and visitors were advised to not enter the crater and to be vigilant if excavating to depths greater than 1 m around the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


8 May-14 May 2013

CVGHM reported that on 28 March gas emissions continued to be elevated at Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Plumes containing carbon dioxide drifted 2 km towards the S valley of Kali Sat, prompting a road closure until the early evening when the gas concentration decreased. On 30 March carbon dioxide gas emissions were not detected; however, "smoke" rose at most 100 m above the crater. Hydrogen sulfide odors were very potent in areas 1 km W and weak in areas 1.5 km S. On 19 April sulfur dioxide odors were reported.

On 24 March Sileri Crater lake water changed from dark gray to brown. On 7 April white plumes rose 50 m and the water color returned to normal. Diffuse white plumes rose 15 m on 20 April. Other craters had not exhibited any changes by 28 April.

Based on gas concentrations, seismicity, and visual observations, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 May and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 500-m radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


27 March-2 April 2013

CVGHM reported that during 10-26 March gas emissions continued to be elevated at Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Plumes containing carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide drifted 2 km, and were toxic at a distance of 550 m. Seismicity increased during 13-26 March and then significantly increased on 27 March. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 27 March and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 1 km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


6 March-12 March 2013

CVGHM reported that during 7-11 March instruments monitoring the Dieng Volcanic Complex detected carbon dioxide plumes from Timbang Crater drifting 50-200 m S; the concentration increased during 9-10 March. A strong sulfur odor was also reported, along with dead animals near the crater on 7 March. Observers noted white plumes rising from the crater that were diffuse during 7-8 March and dense during 9-10 March. Because of the increase of carbon dioxide emissions, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 11 March and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 500 m radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


8 June-14 June 2011

CVGHM reported that during 31 May-10 June carbon dioxide gas emissions declined from Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Seismicity decreased during 5-7 June and was not detected during 8-10 June. White plumes were not observed. On 10 June the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


1 June-7 June 2011

CVGHM reported that during 29 May-5 June carbon dioxide gas emissions from Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex, remained elevated. Seismicity for Dieng also remained high. During 4-5 June white plumes from Sileri crater rose 20-60 m high and white plumes from Timbang rose only 2 m and drifted 300 m S. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


25 May-31 May 2011

CVGHM reported that on 29 May gas plumes rose 50 m above Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. The gas plumes drifted S through the valley. Observers who visited the cone noted damaged vegetation and dead birds. Seismicity and carbon dioxide gas emissions remained elevated. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). According to news articles, about 1,200 people were evacuated from the flanks.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Xinhua


18 May-24 May 2011

CVGHM reported that during 18-22 May seismicity at Dieng Volcanic Complex increased. On 22 May diffuse white plumes rose 20 m from the Timbang cone; plumes from the cone had not been previously observed. The next day carbon dioxide gas emissions increased. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


23 September-29 September 2009

CVGHM reported that on 26 September a "thunderous" noise from Dieng was heard from 2 km away. The next day, a phreatic eruption from an unspecified crater ejected mud as far away as 140 m S. The deposits were as thick as 10 cm near the vent and 1 cm near the farthest point. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


21 January-27 January 2009

CVGHM reported on 22 January that field observations of Dieng's Sibanteng crater revealed that deposits from a 15 January landslide (of an estimated total volume of 40,000 cubic meters) had covered the vent and triggered a phreatic eruption. The landslide deposits near the vent were covered by tephra from the 15 January eruption.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


14 January-20 January 2009

CVGHM reported that on 15 January two minor phreatic eruptions from Dieng's Sibanteng crater ejected material that fell within a 50 m radius. The ejecta and a landslide dammed up an area of the Kali Putih River. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) due to increased activity from Dieng and the potential for flash flooding from a dam breach.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


11 May-17 May 2005

A pilot reported a plume from Dieng at 1029 on 13 May to about 3 km altitude (10,000 feet). Ash was not identified in satellite imagery a little more than an hour later.

[Following the original posting of this report, the Darwin VAAC provided the additional information that Indonesian aviation authorities and the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (DVGHM) quickly confirmed on that day that the plume was not due to an eruption, but due to pipe maintenance at the geothermal energy site at Dieng. The original posting also incorrectly identified the Indonesian DVGHM as the source of the report, when it was actually a Volcanic Ash Advisory from the Darwin VAAC. The prompt follow-up by local authorities and correction of the original report is greatly appreciated.]

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 July-5 August 2003

Mud flowed from Dieng's Sileri crater during the night of 20 July, traveling as far as 25 m S of the crater rim. The temperature of the crater on 21 July was 74° C, which had not increased much since last measured. On 22 July the Alert Level at Dieng was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). On 24 July at 0730 mud flowed as far as 50 m from the crater towards the N and E. Mud bubbled up to 1 m high in the center of the crater. No heightened seismicity was recorded during either mud-flow event. According to news reports, the crater was closed to tourists.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); The Jakarta Post


24 April-30 April 2002

During 19-24 April, there was an increase in the number of deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes at Dieng in comparison to previous weeks. A small steam cloud rose 20-25 m above Sileri crater and temperatures taken at several crater lakes on the 20th and 21st had not increased. The volcano was at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

02/1979 (SEAN 04:02) Gas emission kills nearly 200

03/1979 (SEAN 04:03) 149 killed by poisonous gas during 20 February eruption

12/1981 (SEAN 06:12) Earthquake swarm, but little change in thermal activity

04/1986 (SEAN 11:04) Earthquakes and tremor but no change in thermal activity

08/1986 (BVE 26) Phreatic explosions on August 6

04/1992 (BGVN 17:04) Sudden gas emission kills one person and hospitalizes two others

01/1993 (BGVN 18:01) Hot mud fountains and steam emissions; poisonous gas

08/1998 (BGVN 23:08) Plumes and earthquakes in early July

05/2002 (BGVN 27:05) Increase in seismicity and plume emission beginning in April 2002

06/2003 (BGVN 28:06) Plume emissions and modest seismicity through early July 2002

07/2003 (BGVN 28:07) Mud bubbling and outflows at Sileri crater that reached 50 m beyond crater rim

09/2003 (BGVN 28:09) One shallow volcanic earthquake and a gas plume in early August

04/2009 (BGVN 34:04) Landslide triggers sudden, small, phreatic eruption on 15 January 2009

08/2009 (BGVN 34:08) Seismicity before a 26 September 2009 phreatic eruption

06/2011 (BGVN 36:06) Seismicity and dangerous gas emissions; 1,200 evacuate in May-June 2011

08/2013 (BGVN 38:08) Alert Level raised due to gas emissions; moderate earthquake felt




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


02/1979 (SEAN 04:02) Gas emission kills nearly 200

Gas containing CO2 and H2S was ejected from Sinila Crater at 0330 on 20 February, killing (at latest report) 182 persons and injuring about 1,000, over 100 of whom had to be hospitalized [but see 4:3]. A police colonel said that 17,000 people had been evacuated from six villages near Sinila. A number of livestock were also killed by the gas, and ponds near the crater were covered with dead fish.

An AP wirephoto showed bodies of some of the victims, who did not appear to be burned, nor were they covered with ash. Nearby vegetation also appeared burned. Many of the fatalities occurred in the village of Bandjarnegara, located in a valley on Dieng's SW flank.

The gas emission from Sinila was preceded by seven felt earthquakes and followed by ejection of "smoke." UPI reported that "lava continued to pour over the slopes of the Dieng Plateau" on 20 February. Sikidang Crater is located in the summit caldera, 27 km NE of Bandjarnegara, and is said to be 11 km from Sinila Crater.

Information Contacts: AFP; Jakarta DRS; Antara News Agency, Jakarta; AP; UPI; Reuters; S. Russell, USGS.

03/1979 (SEAN 04:03) 149 killed by poisonous gas during 20 February eruption

The following information is compiled largely from interviews with Subroto Modjo, Chief of the Geothermal Section, Indonesian Directorate of Volcanology.

Poisonous gas emission, accompanying a phreatic eruption from the SW portion of the Dieng volcanic complex, killed 149 persons early on 20 February. Nearby residents felt earthquakes at 0155, 0240, and 0400, after which an explosion at 0504 ejected a dark gray cloud from Sinila Crater (figure 1), a small, water filled pre-existing vent. Less than 1 hour later, after the ejection of a second dark gray cloud, a hot lahar from Sinila flowed down a gully, cutting a road. At 0650, a new crater, named Sigluduk, opened 250 m W of Sinila and began emitting vapor. Sinila produced a second, larger lahar a few minutes later. The total volume of Sinila's two lahars was about 15,000 m3.

Figure 1. Hazard zonation map showing the SW portion of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Entry is prohibited to the first danger zone (dotted pattern); entry is permitted to the second danger zone (diagonal lines) only on sunny, windy days. Known gas vents are represented by circles; fatalities are marked by x's. Courtesy of Adjat Sudradjat, VSI.

Residents of Koputjukan village fled the activity in several directions. Many of those who headed W towards Batur were killed by gas containing CO2 and H2S, emitted from many small vents and fissures S and W of the two craters, ponded in a low-lying area beside the road. Others were killed near an elementary school, to which they had retreated after observing the deaths along the Koputjukan-Batur road. Both areas had been known to emit poisonous gases in the past. Four rescue workers were also killed. About 15,000 were evacuated from six nearby villages, and two danger zones were delineated around the gas vents (figure 1); entry into the inner zone was completely prohibited, and use of the outer zone was limited to daylight hours.

Activity from the two explosion craters declined after ejection of a dark gray cloud from Sigluduk at 1100 on 20 February. By dawn the next day, Sinila was emitting dense white vapor, but only a little white vapor was escaping from Sigluduk. VSI personnel visited the craters early on the 22nd. Sinila's vapor emission had ended, although the bottom of the crater, 60-70 m across and 40 m deep, was filled with bubbling mud. Sigluduk, 25 m in diameter and 10 m deep, contained an active solfatara with a temperature of 71°C.

Further Reference. Le Guern, F., Tazieff, H., and Faivre Pierret, R., 1982, An example of health hazard: people killed by gas during a phreatic eruption: Dieng Plateau, Java, Indonesia: BV, v. 45, p. 153-156.

Information Contacts: S. Modjo, VSI; M. Krafft, Cernay; Kompas and Sinar Harapan, Jakarta.

12/1981 (SEAN 06:12) Earthquake swarm, but little change in thermal activity

On 17 November an area of the Dieng volcanic complex with a history of poisonous gas emission experienced an MM 2-3 felt earthquake. A tripartite electromagnetic seismometer located the shocks in a zone of fractures and gas emission 1-2 km E of Batur. Newspapers and radio broadcasts reported that 3-12 seismic events were recorded during each of the 10 days ending 6 December. However, the number of events began to decrease in early December, and seismicity was continuing to decline as of the 17th.

There were no indications of volcanic activity. The poisonous gas content of vapor sampled at several known emission sites had not changed more than 15% from previous measurements. The temperature of the pool of boiling mud at Sileri cone and the thermal feature Sikidang, a few kilometers E of the zone, remained unchanged at 90°C. Government officials issued an alert, but removed it after receiving a VSI report.

Information Contacts: A. Sudradjat, VSI; Jakarta DRS.

04/1986 (SEAN 11:04) Earthquakes and tremor but no change in thermal activity

"A widely-felt earthquake occurred near Dieng on 13 April at 0747. Tremor was recorded for up to 10 minutes 14-15 April. Additional small earthquakes were recorded in the following two weeks. No changes were noted in thermal activity."

Information Contacts: Olas, Suratman, Suparto, Kaswanda, and A. Sudradjat, VSI.

08/1986 (BVE 26) Phreatic explosions on August 6

[Phreatic eruptions took place on 6 August 1986 from the Sileri crater lake. The height of mud ejection was not observed, but the crater was covered by thick white smoke that rose ~300 m high. After a few hours the spout was ~6-7 m high and was gradually decreasing.]

Information Contacts: S. Siswowidjoyo and W. Modjo, VSI (as reported in BVE, no. 26, March 1989).

04/1992 (BGVN 17:04) Sudden gas emission kills one person and hospitalizes two others

A sudden gas emission occurred at about 1600 on 18 March from a fractured and altered zone in a river valley 200 m W of Sikidang Crater. After the gas emission, one person was found dead in the stream, and two others were hospitalized after trying to rescue him. Surface gas measurements the next day indicated high concentrations of CO2 and O2 (40 and 15 weight %, respectively), and lesser concentrations of H2S and HCN (200 and 197 ppm, respectively).

Steam emission continued from Sileri Crater (~3 km NNW of Sikidang), rising 40-60 m in mid-April. An average of one A-type and seven B-type volcanic earthquakes were recorded daily during mid-April, an increase from earlier in the month.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI; T. Casadevall, USGS.

01/1993 (BGVN 18:01) Hot mud fountains and steam emissions; poisonous gas

Hot mud began fountaining from a new vent (near the Pandawa Lima Temples) area at 0001 on 23 January. The fountaining was heard by residents of a nearby village (Bale Kambang). The hot mud, which emerged from a 5-m-diameter hole, had a temperature of 93°C and reached heights of 2-15 m. Hot mud and steam emissions were continuing on 8 February, with fountaining to 1 m height. The area within 25 m of the hole has been covered with mud. Gas measurements taken on 8 February detected 15 ppm HCN and 12 ppm H2S. Shallow volcanic earthquakes were recorded in January at rates of 3-20/day, but were decreasing prior to the 23 January activity. Seismicity has continued since then.

Information Contacts: W. Tjetjep, VSI.

08/1998 (BGVN 23:08) Plumes and earthquakes in early July

Seismicity increased in late June and early July. Earthquakes of M ~2 were felt locally three times on 2 July, and once on 4 July. An emission plume of white, moderately thick steam without ash issued from Sileri crater under low pressure to a height of 50 m. There was a moderate smell of sulfur. The crater lake water was clear to gray in color with temperatures varying between 54 and 94°C.

Information Contacts: R. Sukhyar, Director, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Bandung, Indonesia (Email: sukhyar@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).

05/2002 (BGVN 27:05) Increase in seismicity and plume emission beginning in April 2002

The last reported activity at Dieng occurred during late June and early July 1998, when three M ~2 earthquakes were felt and a white steam plume was emitted from Sileri crater to a height of 50 m (BGVN 23:08). During April 2002, the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) reported that activity at Dieng increased. Beginning on 19 April the number of deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes increased (table 1), and a white plume of variable thickness rose 25-50 m above Sileri crater. The temperatures of fumaroles in various craters were 50-95°C (table 2). Dieng remained at Alert Level 2 through at least 26 May 2002.

Table 1. Earthquakes recorded at Dieng during 15 April through 19 May 2002. Courtesy VSI.

    Date (2002)     Deep volcanic   Shallow volcanic     Far       Local
                      (A-type)          (B-type)       Tectonic   Tectonic

    15 Apr-21 Apr        14                10             1          0
    22 Apr-28 Apr        75               121             1          1
    29 Apr-05 May        18                64             0          0
    06 May-12 May         6                82             0          0
    13 May-19 May         2                24             1          0

Table 2. Temperatures of various craters of Dieng during 15 April through 12 May 2002. "NR" indicates that the information was not reported. Courtesy VSI.

    Date (2002)     Sikidang    Sibateng    Sileri      Condrodimuko

    15 Apr-21 Apr   90-94°C     91-94°C     68°C        90-93°C
    22 Apr-28 Apr   91-95°C     92-94°C     69°C          NR
    29 Apr-05 May     NR          NR         NR         90-93°C
    06 May-12 May     NR          NR        69°C          NR

    Date (2002)     Sinila      Siglagah    Bitingan    Pagerkandang

    15 Apr-21 Apr   70-74°C     90-94°C       NR          NR
    22 Apr-28 Apr   76-75°C       NR        50-57°C     90-94°C
    29 Apr-05 May   74-75°C       NR          NR          NR
    06 May-12 May     NR          NR        50-56°C       NR

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).

06/2003 (BGVN 28:06) Plume emissions and modest seismicity through early July 2002

Seismicity and plume frequency increased at Dieng beginning in April 2002 (BGVN 27:05). During 27 May-7 July 2002, the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) reported higher-than-normal activity. Deep and shallow earthquakes were recorded, along with tectonic events (table 3). During 27 May-9 June, VSI reported a white plume from Sileri crater up to 50 m high. Observations in mid-June revealed a mud ejection from Sikidang crater. Dieng remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4). No further reports were issued through at least May 2003.

Table 3. Earthquakes recorded at Dieng during 27 May-7 July 2002. Courtesy VSI.

    Date (2002)       Deep     Shallow    Distant
                    volcanic   volcanic   tectonic

    27 May-02 Jun       1         25          1
    03 Jun-09 Jun       1         38          1
    10 Jun-16 Jun      13         14          1
    17 Jun-23 Jun      --         18          3
    24 Jun-30 Jun      --          7          2
    01 Jul-07 Jul      --          3         --

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).

07/2003 (BGVN 28:07) Mud bubbling and outflows at Sileri crater that reached 50 m beyond crater rim

According to the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), on 20 July 2003 mud poured from Sileri crater. The crater contains a lake and boiling mud pots, and has been the site of small-to-moderate historical eruptions. The incident of 20 July occurred at night and sent mud as far as 25 m S of the crater rim. On 21 July, a temperature measurement of the crater recorded 74°C, no striking increase from earlier measurements.

On the morning of 24 July, another mud outpouring from the crater covered an area up to 50 m N and E of the crater rim. Activity then continued with small areas of mud bubbling and ejecta thrown 1 m high at the middle of the crater. Neither of the mud-outpouring events were recorded on the seismometer 1.1 km S of the crater. The volcano's hazard status was raised to level 2 on 22 July.

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).

09/2003 (BGVN 28:09) One shallow volcanic earthquake and a gas plume in early August

The Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) activity report for the week of 4-10 August 2003 noted, for the Sileri crater in the Dieng volcano complex, one shallow volcanic earthquake, a white gas plume rising 25-60 m, and water temperature of 83°C. The hazard status was set at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad and Nia Haerani, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).

04/2009 (BGVN 34:04) Landslide triggers sudden, small, phreatic eruption on 15 January 2009

This report discusses a small phreatic eruption at Dieng from Sibanteng crater in January 2009. The Dieng complex covers more than 80 km2 in Central Java NW of Yogyakarta. The volcanic field trends E and contains two or more stratovolcanoes, more than 20 craters and cones, several crater lakes, a caldera, and active thermal features (van Bergen and others, 2000). Phreatic eruptions are those that eject both magmatic gasses and steam, and contain fragments of pre-existing solid rock from the volcanic conduit or vent, but without primary erupted magma. Many of these eruptions are attributed to subsurface interaction between magma and groundwater (Germanovich and Lowell, 1995). Some are precursors to phreatomagmatic and magmatic eruptions.

Recent reports discussed mud ejected from the active Sileri crater in July 2003 associated with a modest increase in seismicity and steam plumes during April-July 2002 and August 2003 (BGVN 27:05, 28:06, 28:07, and 28:09). A May 2005 pilot report of a steam plume turned out to be caused by pipe maintenance at Dieng's geothermal site.

January 2009 landslide and eruption. This event began when, after three days of heavy rain, one or more landslides broke loose in steep volcanic terrain at about the 1900- to 2000-m elevation at 0800 on 15 January 2009. Landslide debris covered the floor of Sibanteng crater, sealing the vent there. At 0830 a sudden and short-lived phreatic eruption took place. The alert level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1 to 4).

Much of these and other details were learned by an emergency response team from the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), who conducted a field investigation between 16-21 January. The team's findings are discussed below (as extracted from the CVGHM report dated 22 January 2009 ("Tanggap Darurat G. Dieng Kab. Wonosobo, Prov. Jawa Tengah, tanggal 16-21 Januari 2009").

The eruption left an explosion crater about 50 m in diameter and deposited the bulk of the erupted material in a ~ 50 m radius. The erupted deposits consisted of material from the landslide and vent area. This relationship indicated that the landslide preceded the phreatic eruption. The landslides covered an area 100 x 200 m, with an estimated 40,000 m3 of debris. In places, the landslide debris created temporary dams. One blocked the Kali Putih River, and downstream, the Kali Tulis River.

On 17 January, four additional seismic stations were installed. Three were in the vicinity of the Sibanteng and Sikidang craters and one was near the thermally active colored lake Telaga Warna. Earthquakes and tremor were both absent on the seismographic record at Timbang crater during 17-20 January following the phreatic eruption.

The team reported that witnesses in the field had heard two explosions. The first came from the landslide; the second, the phreatic eruption. During their visit, the eruption vent emitted a white plume 5 m high. The vent was largely covered by landslide debris from Sibanteng crater's upper wall. In Sibanteng and other craters temperature ranges were 93.2-93.6° C, values similar to previous data.

The concentrations of gases, including hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) were reported for eight locations. The CO and CO2 concentrations were below ~ 1 ppm. H2S concentrations were under ~ 7 ppm, with the highest value seen near a thermal feature at Skikdang, but a 6 ppm value near a bulletin board in a tourist area. The eight SO2 concentrations were under 18 ppm. CH4 concentrations ranged between 5 and 17 ppm. (More detailed data are available in the 22 January CVGHM report.)

The investigation indicated that the phreatic eruption was preceded by one or more landslides that covered the floor of Sibanteng crater. The team suggested that the sealing action and pressure buildup due to the landslide caused the phreatic eruption. They concluded that the phreatic eruption posed no danger to the public because the Sibanteng crater is not close to an inhabited area. However, they noted that landslide debris was still unstable and could be easily dislodged and transported by rainwater.

Reference. Germanovich, L.N., and Lowell, R.P., 1995, The mechanism of phreatic eruptions: J. Geophys. Res., v. 100 (B5), p. 8417-8434.

van Bergen, M.J., Bernard, A., Sumarti, S., Sriwana, T., and Sitorus, K., 2000, Crater lakes of Java: Dieng, Kelud and Ijen, Excursion Guidebook, IAVCEI General Assembly, Bali 2000 (URL: www.ulb.ac.be/sciences/cvl/DKIPART1.pdf).

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/).

08/2009 (BGVN 34:08) Seismicity before a 26 September 2009 phreatic eruption

This report describes a phreatic eruption at Dieng on 26 September, an event preceded by increased seismicity. Previously, a phreatic eruption on 15 January 2009 followed the burial and sealing of the floor of the Sibanteng crater by landslides (BGVN 34:04). In the past, a large number of eruptions from the Dieng complex have been minor phreatic events (Germanovich and Lowell, 1995; van Bergen and others, 2000). Monitoring is carried out by the Center for Volcanology and Mitigation of Geologic Disasters (CVGHM) from the village of Karang Tengah.

Seismic activity within the complex began in early September 2009. Four deep volcanic and two shallow volcanic earthquakes preceded a phreatic eruption on 26 September. On that day CVGHM reported a thunderous noise from Dieng heard up to 2 km away. The next day, a phreatic eruption from an unspecified crater ejected mud as far away as 140 m S. The deposits were as thick as 10 cm near the vent and 1 cm near the farthest point of deposition. Scientists did not observe an increase in the concentration of poisonous gases at either the vent or in the surrounding area.

Reference. Germanovich, L.N., and Lowell, R.P., 1995, The mechanism of phreatic eruptions: J. Geophys. Res., v. 100 (B5), p. 8417-8434.

van Bergen, M.J., Bernard, A., Sumarti, S., Sriwana, T., and Sitorus, K., 2000, Crater lakes of Java: Dieng, Kelud and Ijen, Excursion Guidebook, IAVCEI General Assembly, Bali 2000 (URL: www.ulb.ac.be/sciences/cvl/DKIPART1.pdf).

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/).

06/2011 (BGVN 36:06) Seismicity and dangerous gas emissions; 1,200 evacuate in May-June 2011

This report on Dieng volcanic complex (figure 2) notes both toxic gas emissions and episodes of high seismicity during 1 October 2009-July 2011. A late May 2011 visit, after increased gas emissions were noted the previous week, revealed dead birds and damaged vegetation at Timbang crater. Gas measurements at several sites confirmed the presence of hazardous gases; however, there were no human fatalities or injuries noted. According to news reports, 1,200 people were evacuated. Our previous report on Dieng discussed a phreatic eruption on 26 September 2009, preceded by a series of volcanic earthquakes (BGVN 34:08).

Figure 2. A sketch map for Dieng Volcanic Complex, which lies in Central Java associated with the ~2-km-high plateau of the same name. The Dieng plateau is E-trending and roughly 14 by 6 km. Taken from Van Bergen and others (2000).

During January 2010, landslides took place near Dieng, followed by others at distance. One landslide crossed the highway between Dieng and Wonosobo (the regional capital, 18 km S of Dieng). The second landslide struck a village called Wonoaji, and according to a Jakarta Post article (by Suherdjoko, 21 January 2010), "Two people [there] have died and three are still missing, while five others were injured. . . ."

Although little was reported regarding Dieng during October 2009-2010, Relief Web posted a graphic describing heavy rains and regional flooding during February 2010 in the portion of Central Java hundreds of kilometers E of Dieng near Bandung. This episode triggered a landslide in Ciwidey village taking 17 lives.

The latest reported activity at Dieng began in mid-2011. According to the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), seismicity at Dieng increased during 18-22 May 2011. On 22 May, diffuse white plumes rose from the Timbang cone; plumes from the cone had not been previously observed. The next day carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions increased. On 23 May, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

CVGHM reported that on 29 May 2011, gas plumes rose 50 m above Timbang cone. The gas plumes drifted S through the valley. Observers who visited the cone noted the previously mentioned damaged vegetation and dead birds. Seismicity and CO2 emissions remained elevated, thus prompting CVGHM to raise the Alert Level to 3.

During 4-5 June white plumes from Sileri crater rose 20-60 m and white plumes from Timbang rose only 2 m and drifted 300 m S. Seismicity and carbon dioxide remained high through 5 June

According to CVGHM, carbon-dioxide emissions from Timbang declined during 31 May-10 June, while seismicity decreased during 5-7 June and was not detected during 8-10 June. White plumes were not observed. On 10 June the Alert Level was lowered to 2.

Stated gas concentrations. In early June, low levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S, 0.002-0.05% by volume) were recorded at Sikendang, Sikidang, Sibanteng, and Sileri craters. Carbon monoxide gas (CO) was only detected along the steam vents of Sikendang crater, at a concentration of 0.004% by volume. CO2 was measured at a concentration of 5.0% by volume. On 5 June, the CO2 from Timbang was at its highest level at, 1.54% by volume. The scientists added that weather patterns had brought low atmospheric pressure, which had enhanced gas escape at the vent.

John Seach presents modest-resolution photos from 2010 showing the Sikidang vent mentioned above, and Telega Warna crater lake (see Information Contacts).

Figure 3 shows one approach to communicating gas-hazards warnings.

Figure 3. A sign written in Indonesian warning people crossing a part of the Dieng complex susceptible to dangerous gas emissions. The sign states, "Caution—Contaminated Area—Poisonous Gases." This photo appeared in an article published 5 June 2011 in the news source ANTARA/Anis Efizudin.

Dieng plateau. In the modern record, Dieng has a history of lethal gas emissions, phreatic explosions, and other hazards. The complex contains rocks ranging from andesite to rhyodacite, extrusives filling and sitting upon a large older (Pleistocene) caldera. It contains several stratovolcanoes, and many cones, craters, domes, and thermal features (see subsections below).

Van Bergen and others (2000) described the plateau and associated volcanic complex, portions of which follow.

"The Dieng Volcanic Complex in Central Java is situated on a highland plateau at about 2000 m above sea level, approximately 25 km N of the city of Wonosobo. It belongs to a series of Quaternary volcanoes, which includes the historically active Sumbing and Sundoro volcanoes. The plateau is a rich agricultural area for potatoes, cabbages, tomatoes and other vegetables. There are numerous surface manifestations of hydrothermal activity, including lakes, fumaroles/solfatara and hotsprings. The area is also known for the development of geothermal resources and lethal outbursts of gas. Scattered temples are the witnesses of the ancient Hindu culture that once reigned.

"In terms of chemical composition, Telaga Warna is the most interesting crater lake in the Dieng area. The original shape of the crater has been modified by a lava flow. The water occupies less than 1 km2. Gas bubbles can be seen rising to the lake surface, and the air has a sulfurous odor. Its colorful appearance (warna stands for color(s) in Indonesian) makes the lake an interesting tourist attraction. The water has a pH of about 3, which may fluctuate depending on seasonal variations. Sulfate and chloride contents are moderately high. . . . Strong emissions of CO2-rich gas on-shore have occasionally killed animals, so that a path on the N side used to be closed to avoid risks for local villagers."

The same report presents some composition data from 1994. Some of the 'dry' gas from several vents in the complex were up to 90% CO2.

Geothermal energy. According to Geo Dip Energi, the Dieng #1 project is currently in operation and producing 60 MegaWatts (MW) of energy. Two more projects, each of 60 MW are underway. The Dieng area is thought to have more potential and could produce 300 MW.

Reference. Van Bergen, M., Bernard, A., Sumarti, S., Sriwana, T., and Sitorus, K., 2000. Crater Lakes of Java: Dieng, Kelud, and Ijen. Excursion Guidebook, IAVCEI General Assembly, Bali 2000, 9 pp. URL: http://www.ulb.ac.be/sciences/cvl/DKIPART1.pdf).

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/); Geo Dipa Energi, Recapital Building 8th Floor, Jl. Aditiawarman Kav. 55 Jakarta Selatan 12160 Indonesia (URL: http://www.geodipa.co.id); John Seach, Volcano Live (URL: http://volcanolive.com); Xinhua News (URL: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english2010/); Jakarta Globe (URL: http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/home/).

08/2013 (BGVN 38:08) Alert Level raised due to gas emissions; moderate earthquake felt

The Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) reported that during 7-11 March 2013 instruments monitoring the Dieng Volcanic Complex detected carbon dioxide (CO2) plumes from Timbang Crater, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex (see figure 2 in BGVN 36:06), drifting 50-200 m S. A strong sulfur odor was also reported, along with dead animals near the crater on 7 March. Observers noted white plumes rising from the crater that were diffuse during 7-8 March and dense during 9-10 March; the concentration increased during 9-10 March 2013. Because of the increase of CO2 emissions, CVGHM raised the Alert Status, which spans a scale of 1 to 4, from 1 (aktif - normal) to 2 (waspada - alert) on 13 March, and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 500 m radius. The last eruption reported from Dieng was 27 September 2009 at Sileri crater (BGVN 34:08; see figure 2 in BGVN 36:06). Table 4 shows the most recent Alert Levels for Dieng.

Table 4. Most recent Alert Levels reported for Dieng. Courtesy of CVGHM.

Date level began Alert Level
1 September 2011 1
11 March 2013 2
27 March 2013 3
8 May 2013 2

During 10-26 March 2013 gas emissions continued to be elevated at Timbang crater. Plumes containing CO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) drifted 2 km, and were at toxic levels at a distance of 550 m. Seismicity increased during 13-26 March 2013 and then significantly increased on 27 March. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (siaga - standby) on 27 March 2013 and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 1 km radius.

On 28 March 2013 gas emissions continued to raise at Timbang. Plumes containing carbon dioxide (CO2) drifted 2 km towards the S valley of Kali Sat, prompting a road closure until the early evening when the gas concentration decreased. On 30 March 2013 CO2 gas emissions were not detected; however, 'smoke' rose at most 100 m above the crater, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) odors were very potent in areas 1 km W and weak in areas 1.5 km S.

On 24 March 2013 Sileri Crater lake water changed from dark gray to brown, and on 7 April white plumes rose 50 m and the water color returned to normal. Diffuse white plumes rose 15 m on 20 April. Other craters had not exhibited any changes by 28 April 2013.

On 19 April sulfur dioxide (SO2) odors were reported. According to CVGHM, an M 4.8 earthquake occurred ~14 km SSW of Dieng and ~8 km NNW of Wonosobo at 1900 local time on 19 April 2013. It had a hypocentral depth of 10 km, was of a tectonic nature, but with possible influence on Dieng volcano. Eighty-six weaker quakes followed the main shock within 25 minutes. No buildings collapsed due to the earthquake, but at least 311 houses were damaged, 34 of them severely and 27 of them moderately. Two people were injured. As a precaution associated with a potential eruption, approximately 1,000 people were evacuated; they were returning to their villages by 21 April due to a decrease in volcanic activity of the Dieng volcano complex.

Based on gas concentrations, seismicity, and visual observations, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level to 2 on 8 May 2013.

Residents living in the vicinity of Dieng (close to Mt. Sundoro and Mt. Sumbing) on Java (see figure 1 in BGVN 33:11), were the subject of a study of people's perceptions and reactions to volcanic hazards (Lavigne and others, 2008).

Reference: Lavigne, F., De Coster, B., Juvin, N., Flohic, F., Gaillard, J-C., Texier, P., Morin, J., and Sartohadi, J., 2008, People's behaviour in the face of volcanic hazards: Perspectives from Javanese communities, Indonesia, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v.172, issue 3-4, p. 273-287.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) (Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG)), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/).

The Dieng plateau in the highlands of central Java is renowned both for the variety of its volcanic scenery and as a sacred area housing Java's oldest Hindu temples, dating back to the 9th century CE. The Dieng volcanic complex consists of two or more stratovolcanoes and more than 20 small craters and cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age over a 6 x 14 km area. Prahu stratovolcano was truncated by a large Pleistocene caldera, which was subsequently filled by a series of dissected to youthful cones, lava domes, and craters, many containing lakes. Lava flows cover much of the plateau, but have not occurred in historical time, when activity has been restricted to minor phreatic eruptions. Toxic volcanic gas emission has caused fatalities and is a hazard at several craters. The abundant thermal features that dot the plateau and high heat flow make Dieng a major geothermal prospect.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2009 Sep 27 2009 Sep 27 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sileri crater
2009 Jan 15 2009 Jan 15 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sibanteng crater
2003 Jul 2003 Jul Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sileri crater
1996 Dec 31 1996 Dec 31 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Near Padangsari crater
1993 Jan 23 1993 Jan 23 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Near Pandawa Lima temples
1986 Aug 6 1986 Aug 6 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sileri
1981 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sikidang
1979 Feb 20 1979 Feb 20 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sinila and Sigluduk
1964 Dec 13 1964 Dec 13 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sileri
1956 Jun 2 1956 Jun 2 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sileri
1954 Dec 6 1954 Dec 6 Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Candradimuka area
1953 Mar 24 1953 Mar 25 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1952 Jul ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
1944 Dec 4 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Sileri
1943 Nov 3 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sileri
1939 Oct 13 1939 Oct 15 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Butak Petarangan
1928 May 13 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Butak Petarangan (Timbang)
1883 Dec 26 ± 5 days 1884 Mar 18 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sikidang
1847 Dec 4 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Pakuwaja
1826 Oct 11 1826 Oct 15 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Pakuwaja
1825 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Pakuwaja
1786 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Butak Petarangan (Butak)
[ 1776 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1766 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1375 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Pakuwaja
1180 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0050 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0500 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Sikidang-Siterus (Telaga Lumut)
6590 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Sikunang

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Pegunungan Dieng

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Alang Stratovolcano 2300 m 7° 10' 0" S 111° 51' 0" E
Binem
    Igir Binem
Cone 2134 m
Bisma
    Bismo
Cone 2365 m 7° 15' 0" S 111° 53' 0" E
Bucu, Gunung Cone
Butak
    Boetak
Cone 2222 m 7° 11' 0" S 111° 50' 0" E
Butak Petarangan
    Boetak Petarangan
Cone 2135 m 7° 10' 30" S 109° 49' 30" E
Jimat Cone 2100 m 7° 11' 0" S 111° 52' 0" E
Kemulan Stratovolcano 1900 m 7° 8' 0" S 111° 50' 0" E
Merdada
    Merdodo
Cone 2100 m 7° 13' 0" S 111° 53' 0" E
Ngesong Stratovolcano 2210 m 7° 10' 0" S 111° 52' 0" E
Pagerkandang Cone 2075 m
Pakuwaja
    Pakuwojo
    Pakuwodjo
Cone 2398 m 7° 14' 0" S 111° 55' 0" E
Pangonan Cone 2308 m
Prahu Stratovolcano 2565 m 7° 11' 0" S 111° 55' 0" E
Prambanan Cone 2300 m 7° 14' 0" S 111° 55' 0" E
Sigluduk Cone
Sikunang Cone 7° 14' 0" S 111° 55' 0" E
Sileri Cone 2241 m 7° 12' 0" S 111° 53' 0" E
Sinila Cone 7° 12' 0" S 111° 52' 0" E
Sroja
    Srodjo
Cone 2300 m 7° 15' 0" S 111° 56' 0" E
Timbang Cone

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Bitingan, Kawah Crater
Dringo Crater 2063 m 7° 11' 0" S 111° 50' 0" E
Menjer Crater 1400 m 7° 16' 0" S 111° 56' 0" E
Sumur Crater
Telogopasir Crater 7° 41' 0" S 111° 12' 0" E

Domes

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kendil Dome 7° 13' 0" S 111° 55' 0" E
Kunir
    Kunii
Dome 7° 14' 0" S 111° 55' 0" E
Prambanan Dome
Watusumbul Dome

Thermal

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Condrodimuko
    Tjondrodimuko
Thermal
Kumbang Thermal 2085 m
Pagerkandang, Kawah Thermal 2075 m
Sibanteng Thermal 2075 m
Sigajah
    Sigadjah
Thermal 2050 m
Siglagah Thermal 1950 m
Sikidang Thermal 2050 m
Sipandu Thermal 2065 m
Telogoterus Thermal 2050 m
Upas
    Oepas, Gunung
Thermal 2000 m
A stone monument is inscribed with a list of eruptions from the Dieng volcanic complex in central Java. The second column from the right lists fatalities (most recently 149 in 1979), which have occurred many times as a result of phreatic explosions and toxic gas emissions. The designers of the monument have somewhat ominously left abundant space to record future events.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1986 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Hydrothermally altered ground marks the site of Kawah Pakuwaja (also spelled Pakuwojo), one of the many craters dotting the Dieng Plateau. The crater cuts the summit of Gunung Pakuwaja, one of the larger cones of the Dieng volcanic complex, located NE of Gunung Bisma. Kawah Pakuwaja is one of the most active craters of Dieng volcano and has produced several phreatic explosions during historical time.

Photo by Sumarma Hamidi, 1973 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Scientists from the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia monitor the steaming Candradimuka crater in the Dieng volcanic complex of central Java. The Dieng plateau is dotted with phreatic explosion craters, many of which have erupted during historical times, sometimes with fatal consequences. The only known eruption in the Kawah Candradimuka area took place in December 1954, when a brief eruption was observed that ejected thick black smoke for half an hour.

Photo by Sumarma Hamidi, 1973 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Steam rises from the Kawah Sikidang thermal area, one of the most visited in the Dieng volcanic complex. Gunung Bisma rises in the background to the SW. Kawah Sikidang is one of several craters at Dieng that have produced phreatic eruptions during historical time.

Photo by Sumarma Hamidi, 1973 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Kawah Sileri is one of many craters in the Dieng volcanic complex that have erupted in historical time. This 1973 photo shows the steaming crater where a brief 2-3 minute explosive eruption on December 13, 1964, killed 114 persons. Kawah Sileri, located NE of the village of Dieng, is one of the northernmost craters in the Dieng complex.

Photo by Sumarma Hamidi, 1973 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Gunung Bisma (center), seen here from the east, is a small andesitic stratovolcano cut by a large erosional valley on the SE side. The 2365-m-high Gunung Bisma is one of the more prominent features on the southern side of the Dieng volcanic complex. The ribbed cone to the right of Bisma is Gunung Seroja.

Photo by Sumarma Hamidi, 1973 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The volcanic terrain of the Dieng plateau, the "Abode of the Gods," contains the oldest temples in Java. The Dieng volcanic complex, seen here from the SE, consists of two or more stratovolcanoes and numerous small craters and cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age over an area of 6 x 14 km. Minor phreatic eruptions have occurred in historical time, sometimes associated with toxic gas emissions.

Photo by Sumarma Hamidi, 1973 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
A steam cloud rises above Kawah Sileri crater in the Dieng volcanic complex. The slopes of Gunung Prahu lie behind Kawah Sileri to the NE. Kawah Sileri is one of many Dieng craters to have erupted in historical time and was the site of a relatively small but devastating eruption in 1964 that killed 114 persons.

Anonymous photo, 1985.
An aerial view from the SE looks across the summit crater complex of Sundoro volcano to the Dieng volcanic complex. Several historically active craters and fissure vents cut the summit of symmetrical Gunung Sundoro. The forested peak at the top center is Gunung Prahu, the largest stratovolcano of the Dieng complex; to its left in the clouds is the Dieng Plateau, the location of many maars and phreatic explosion craters.

Photo published in Taverne, 1926 "Vulkaanstudien op Java," (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Le Guern F, Tazieff H, Faivre Pierret R, 1982. An example of health hazard: people killed by gas during a phreatic eruption: Dieng Plateau (Java Indonesia), Feb 20th 1979. Bull Volc, 45: 153-156.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.

Sukhyar R, 1989. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of arc rocks from Dieng, Sundoro and Sumbing volcanic complexes, central Java, Indonesia. Unpublished PhD thesis, Monash University, 319 p.

Sukhyar R, Sumartadipura N S, Effendi W, 1986. Geologic map of Dieng volcano complex, central Java. Volc Surv Indonesia, geol map.

Van Bergen M J, Bernard A, Sumarti S, Sriwana T, Sitorus K, 2000. Crater lakes of Java: Dieng, Kelud, Ijen. IAVCEI General Assembly, Bali 2000 Excursion Guide, 42 p.

Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, 1986b. Annual report of the Volcanological Survey 1984-1985. Bull Volc Surv Indonesia, no 113.

Volcano Types

Complex

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
1,092,929
1,092,929
1,886,942
24,381,814

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Dieng Volcanic Complex Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.