Dieng Volcanic Complex

Photo of this volcano
Google Earth icon
Google Earth Placemark
  • Indonesia
  • Java
  • Complex
  • 2009 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 7.2°S
  • 109.92°E

  • 2565 m
    8413 ft

  • 263200
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

8 May-14 May 2013

CVGHM reported that on 28 March gas emissions continued to be elevated at Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Plumes containing carbon dioxide drifted 2 km towards the S valley of Kali Sat, prompting a road closure until the early evening when the gas concentration decreased. On 30 March carbon dioxide gas emissions were not detected; however, "smoke" rose at most 100 m above the crater. Hydrogen sulfide odors were very potent in areas 1 km W and weak in areas 1.5 km S. On 19 April sulfur dioxide odors were reported.

On 24 March Sileri Crater lake water changed from dark gray to brown. On 7 April white plumes rose 50 m and the water color returned to normal. Diffuse white plumes rose 15 m on 20 April. Other craters had not exhibited any changes by 28 April.

Based on gas concentrations, seismicity, and visual observations, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 May and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 500-m radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM



 Available Weekly Reports


2013: March | May
2011: May | June
2009: January | September
2005: May
2003: July
2002: April


8 May-14 May 2013

CVGHM reported that on 28 March gas emissions continued to be elevated at Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Plumes containing carbon dioxide drifted 2 km towards the S valley of Kali Sat, prompting a road closure until the early evening when the gas concentration decreased. On 30 March carbon dioxide gas emissions were not detected; however, "smoke" rose at most 100 m above the crater. Hydrogen sulfide odors were very potent in areas 1 km W and weak in areas 1.5 km S. On 19 April sulfur dioxide odors were reported.

On 24 March Sileri Crater lake water changed from dark gray to brown. On 7 April white plumes rose 50 m and the water color returned to normal. Diffuse white plumes rose 15 m on 20 April. Other craters had not exhibited any changes by 28 April.

Based on gas concentrations, seismicity, and visual observations, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 May and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 500-m radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


27 March-2 April 2013

CVGHM reported that during 10-26 March gas emissions continued to be elevated at Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Plumes containing carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide drifted 2 km, and were toxic at a distance of 550 m. Seismicity increased during 13-26 March and then significantly increased on 27 March. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 27 March and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 1 km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


6 March-12 March 2013

CVGHM reported that during 7-11 March instruments monitoring the Dieng Volcanic Complex detected carbon dioxide plumes from Timbang Crater drifting 50-200 m S; the concentration increased during 9-10 March. A strong sulfur odor was also reported, along with dead animals near the crater on 7 March. Observers noted white plumes rising from the crater that were diffuse during 7-8 March and dense during 9-10 March. Because of the increase of carbon dioxide emissions, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 11 March and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 500 m radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


8 June-14 June 2011

CVGHM reported that during 31 May-10 June carbon dioxide gas emissions declined from Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Seismicity decreased during 5-7 June and was not detected during 8-10 June. White plumes were not observed. On 10 June the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


1 June-7 June 2011

CVGHM reported that during 29 May-5 June carbon dioxide gas emissions from Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex, remained elevated. Seismicity for Dieng also remained high. During 4-5 June white plumes from Sileri crater rose 20-60 m high and white plumes from Timbang rose only 2 m and drifted 300 m S. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


25 May-31 May 2011

CVGHM reported that on 29 May gas plumes rose 50 m above Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. The gas plumes drifted S through the valley. Observers who visited the cone noted damaged vegetation and dead birds. Seismicity and carbon dioxide gas emissions remained elevated. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). According to news articles, about 1,200 people were evacuated from the flanks.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Xinhua


18 May-24 May 2011

CVGHM reported that during 18-22 May seismicity at Dieng Volcanic Complex increased. On 22 May diffuse white plumes rose 20 m from the Timbang cone; plumes from the cone had not been previously observed. The next day carbon dioxide gas emissions increased. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


23 September-29 September 2009

CVGHM reported that on 26 September a "thunderous" noise from Dieng was heard from 2 km away. The next day, a phreatic eruption from an unspecified crater ejected mud as far away as 140 m S. The deposits were as thick as 10 cm near the vent and 1 cm near the farthest point. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


21 January-27 January 2009

CVGHM reported on 22 January that field observations of Dieng's Sibanteng crater revealed that deposits from a 15 January landslide (of an estimated total volume of 40,000 cubic meters) had covered the vent and triggered a phreatic eruption. The landslide deposits near the vent were covered by tephra from the 15 January eruption.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


14 January-20 January 2009

CVGHM reported that on 15 January two minor phreatic eruptions from Dieng's Sibanteng crater ejected material that fell within a 50 m radius. The ejecta and a landslide dammed up an area of the Kali Putih River. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) due to increased activity from Dieng and the potential for flash flooding from a dam breach.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


11 May-17 May 2005

A pilot reported a plume from Dieng at 1029 on 13 May to about 3 km altitude (10,000 feet). Ash was not identified in satellite imagery a little more than an hour later.

[Following the original posting of this report, the Darwin VAAC provided the additional information that Indonesian aviation authorities and the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (DVGHM) quickly confirmed on that day that the plume was not due to an eruption, but due to pipe maintenance at the geothermal energy site at Dieng. The original posting also incorrectly identified the Indonesian DVGHM as the source of the report, when it was actually a Volcanic Ash Advisory from the Darwin VAAC. The prompt follow-up by local authorities and correction of the original report is greatly appreciated.]

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 July-5 August 2003

Mud flowed from Dieng's Sileri crater during the night of 20 July, traveling as far as 25 m S of the crater rim. The temperature of the crater on 21 July was 74° C, which had not increased much since last measured. On 22 July the Alert Level at Dieng was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). On 24 July at 0730 mud flowed as far as 50 m from the crater towards the N and E. Mud bubbled up to 1 m high in the center of the crater. No heightened seismicity was recorded during either mud-flow event. According to news reports, the crater was closed to tourists.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, The Jakarta Post


24 April-30 April 2002

During 19-24 April, there was an increase in the number of deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes at Dieng in comparison to previous weeks. A small steam cloud rose 20-25 m above Sileri crater and temperatures taken at several crater lakes on the 20th and 21st had not increased. The volcano was at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2009 Sep 27 2009 Sep 27 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sileri crater
2009 Jan 15 2009 Jan 15 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sibanteng crater
2003 Jul 2003 Jul Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sileri crater
1996 Dec 31 1996 Dec 31 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Near Padangsari crater
1993 Jan 23 1993 Jan 23 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Near Pandawa Lima temples
1986 Aug 6 1986 Aug 6 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sileri
1981 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sikidang
1979 Feb 20 1979 Feb 20 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sinila and Sigluduk
1964 Dec 13 1964 Dec 13 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sileri
1956 Jun 2 1956 Jun 2 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sileri
1954 Dec 6 1954 Dec 6 Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Candradimuka area
1953 Mar 24 1953 Mar 25 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1952 Jul ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
1944 Dec 4 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Sileri
1943 Nov 3 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sileri
1939 Oct 13 1939 Oct 15 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Butak Petarangan
1928 May 13 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Butak Petarangan (Timbang)
1883 Dec 26 ± 5 days 1884 Mar 18 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Sikidang
1847 Dec 4 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Pakuwaja
1826 Oct 11 1826 Oct 15 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Pakuwaja
1825 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Pakuwaja
1786 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Butak Petarangan (Butak)
[ 1776 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1766 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1375 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Pakuwaja
1180 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0050 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0500 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Sikidang-Siterus (Telaga Lumut)
6590 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Sikunang

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Le Guern F, Tazieff H, Faivre Pierret R, 1982. An example of health hazard: people killed by gas during a phreatic eruption: Dieng Plateau (Java Indonesia), Feb 20th 1979. Bull Volc, 45: 153-156.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.

Sukhyar R, 1989. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of arc rocks from Dieng, Sundoro and Sumbing volcanic complexes, central Java, Indonesia. Unpublished PhD thesis, Monash University, 319 p.

Sukhyar R, Sumartadipura N S, Effendi W, 1986. Geologic map of Dieng volcano complex, central Java. Volc Surv Indonesia, geol map.

Van Bergen M J, Bernard A, Sumarti S, Sriwana T, Sitorus K, 2000. Crater lakes of Java: Dieng, Kelud, Ijen. IAVCEI General Assembly, Bali 2000 Excursion Guide, 42 p.

Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, 1986b. Annual report of the Volcanological Survey 1984-1985. Bull Volc Surv Indonesia, no 113.

The Dieng plateau in the highlands of central Java is renowned both for the variety of its volcanic scenery and as a sacred area housing Java's oldest Hindu temples, dating back to the 9th century CE. The Dieng volcanic complex consists of two or more stratovolcanoes and more than 20 small craters and cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age over a 6 x 14 km area. Prahu stratovolcano was truncated by a large Pleistocene caldera, which was subsequently filled by a series of dissected to youthful cones, lava domes, and craters, many containing lakes. Lava flows cover much of the plateau, but have not occurred in historical time, when activity has been restricted to minor phreatic eruptions. Toxic volcanic gas emission has caused fatalities and is a hazard at several craters. The abundant thermal features that dot the plateau and high heat flow make Dieng a major geothermal prospect.