Papandayan

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  • Indonesia
  • Java
  • Stratovolcano(es)
  • 2002 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 7.32°S
  • 107.73°E

  • 2665 m
    8741 ft

  • 263100
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

5 June-11 June 2013

CVGHM reported that observers at the Papandayan observation post in Pakuwon Village reported no significant changes at Papandayan during May and the beginning of June. They noted that during May plumes rose less than 100 m above Baru and Emas craters, and during 1-5 June plumes rose 20 m at most.

The energy of volcanic earthquakes sharply increased during 2-4 May, and then decreased on 5 May. The average number of volcanic earthquakes declined from 35-49 events per day in early-to-mid May, to 14 events per day in mid-to-late May. The number of events continued to decline through the beginning of June. The number of local tectonic earthquakes also decreased significantly from an average of 67-71 events per day in early-to-mid May, to 2-17 events per day the latter half of May, to about 2 events per day in early June.

Based on the visual observations and decline in seismicity, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM



 Available Weekly Reports


2013: May | June
2012: February
2011: August
2008: January | April
2007: August
2005: June
2004: July
2003: January
2002: November | December


5 June-11 June 2013

CVGHM reported that observers at the Papandayan observation post in Pakuwon Village reported no significant changes at Papandayan during May and the beginning of June. They noted that during May plumes rose less than 100 m above Baru and Emas craters, and during 1-5 June plumes rose 20 m at most.

The energy of volcanic earthquakes sharply increased during 2-4 May, and then decreased on 5 May. The average number of volcanic earthquakes declined from 35-49 events per day in early-to-mid May, to 14 events per day in mid-to-late May. The number of events continued to decline through the beginning of June. The number of local tectonic earthquakes also decreased significantly from an average of 67-71 events per day in early-to-mid May, to 2-17 events per day the latter half of May, to about 2 events per day in early June.

Based on the visual observations and decline in seismicity, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


1 May-7 May 2013

CVGHM reported that during 1 April-5 May soil temperatures around Papandayan's crater fluctuated but increased overall. During 1-5 May seismicity increased, prompting CVGHM to raise the Alert level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 May. Tourists and residents were reminded not to venture within 2 km of the active crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


1 February-7 February 2012

CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Papandayan from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 31 January. No eruption details or reasons for the change were given in the report.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


24 August-30 August 2011

On 26 August CVGHM reported that Papandayan showed minor to no changes in recent seismicity, deformation, geochemistry, and visual observations; therefore the Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Seismicity remained high, but stable, and was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes. Deformation measurements showed no change, and water temperatures in multiple fumarolic areas and lakes remained relatively unchanged. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions decreased from 8 tons per day on 12 August to 6 tons per day on 23 August. Carbon dioxide in the soil at a 1 m depth in multiple areas did not increase. Visitors and residents were advised not to venture within 2 km of the active crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


10 August-16 August 2011

On 13 August CVGHM reported that based on seismicity, deformation, geochemistry, and visual observations, the Alert Level for Papandayan was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). During 1 June-12 August sulfur plumes rose 20-75 m above the vents. During the same period, seismicity increased with several hundreds of earthquakes detected per month. Temperature measurements in the Manuk thermal area indicated a relative increase from 29 June to 12 August and deformation measurements indicated inflation from 4 July to 10 August. Visitors and residents were not to venture within 2 km of the active crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


9 April-15 April 2008

CVGHM reported that the seismic network recorded one volcanic tremor signal from Papandayan on 15 April. On 16 April, measurements of summit fumaroles revealed an increase in temperature and changes in water chemistry since 7 April. White plumes continued to rise to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and did not change. CVGHM increased the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and reminded visitors and residents not to venture within 1 km of the active crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


9 January-15 January 2008

On 7 January, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level at Papandayan from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) due to a decrease in activity over approximately four months. Seismic events decreased in number after 2 August 2007, and earthquake tremor was not recorded since 14 November 2007. Data from deformation-monitoring instruments indicated deflation. White fumarolic plumes rose to an altitude of 2.9 km (9,500 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


1 August-7 August 2007

On 2 August, CVGHM raised the Alert Level at Papandayan from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) due to increased activity at the volcano. During 15 July-1 August, the number of volcanic earthquakes increased. By 31 July, the temperatures of fumaroles had increased 10 degrees C above normal levels in Mas crater. Temperatures were 3.5 degrees C above normal levels in Balagadama crater since 26 June. On 1 August, a diffuse white plume rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. Associated with the increase in Alert Level, villagers and tourists were not permitted within a 1 km radius of the active craters.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


15 June-21 June 2005

On 16 June, DVGHM raised the Alert Level at Papandayan from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) due to increased activity at the volcano. Beginning in early June 2005 the number of volcanic earthquakes increased in comparison to the previous months and the temperatures of fumaroles increased 3-9 degrees C above normal levels. People were not permitted to visit Mas and Baru craters.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


14 July-20 July 2004

DVGHM reported that seismic and volcanic activity were at heightened levels on 17 July at Papandayan. The number of volcanic earthquakes increased on 13 July from 1-3 per day to 7-9, then further increased to 57 earthquakes on 16 July. The temperature at Baru crater I increased from 84 to 88.5 °C, and the temperature of Baru crater II rose from 89 to 102 °C. The Alert Level was raised from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and visits to the crater were prohibited.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


22 January-28 January 2003

On 13 January VSI decreased the Alert Level at Papandayan from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Seismicity decreased during 13-19 January in comparison to the previous week, with ash emissions rising 25-100 m above the craters. Seismicity slightly increased during 20-26 January.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


24 December-30 December 2002

During 9-22 December, low-level ash plumes were continuously emitted from Papandayan's Baru crater. On 12 December at 1758 an explosion occurred, causing stepped landslides on the wall of Nangkak crater. Small lahars traveled down Cibeureum Gede and Ciparugpug rivers on 13 December at 1600 and on 14 December at 1700. On 21 December at 1154 stepped landslides occurred again. Papandayan remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


11 December-17 December 2002

During 2-8 December, ash plumes continually emitted from Papandayan's Baru crater rose 150-400 m above the rim and drifted NE. Explosions occurred on 4 December at 0700 and on 8 December at 1758. The number of shallow volcanic earthquakes decreased during the report week, while deep volcanic and tectonic earthquakes increased in comparison to the previous week. Papandayan remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


20 November-26 November 2002

During 22-25 November at Papandayan small-scale continuous ash-and-gas explosions occurred, sending plumes to 300-600 m above the volcano. Tremor, tectonic earthquakes, and shallow and deep-volcanic earthquakes were recorded. An eruption on the 20th produced a NE-directed blast that sent material as far as 2 km away from the crater, burning the crater-facing sides of trees as far as 400 m away. The eruption covered the area around the volcano in 4-8 cm of ash. Papandayan remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a 4-km-wide exclusion zone.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


13 November-19 November 2002

An eruption began at Papandayan on 11 November that led to the evacuation of thousands of residents near the volcano. Increased seismicity was first recorded in early October 2002 when deep volcanic earthquakes occurred. By mid-October, shallow volcanic earthquakes were recorded, which were indicative of earthquake migration towards the surface. These earthquakes continued until the day of the eruption. On 11 November felt earthquakes and tremor were recorded and at 1530 there was a phreatic eruption at Kawah Baru Crater. At 1650 landslides from the W wall of the old crater complex traveled to the river and became lahars. By the 14th the eruption had progressed into a phreatomagmatic or magmatic phase, and 17 eruptions had produced thick gray ash clouds 500-1,000 m above the volcano. Many people who did not live in the most dangerous areas were allowed to return to their homes on the 14th. A relatively large eruption on the 15th at 0630 generated an ash cloud that reached 5 km above the summit. At this point Papandayan was at Alert Level 4 (on a scale of 1-4). During 16-18 November, volcanism was dominated by ash emissions that rose to 700 m and seismicity was dominated by continuous emission and explosion earthquakes. On the 18th at 1200 the Alert Level at Papandayan was reduced to 3.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, The Jakarta Post, Reuters


6 November-12 November 2002

News agencies reported that an eruption began at Papandayan on 11 November. According to a police officer on duty in a nearby town, ash and lava emitted from one of the volcano's craters began flowing into the nearby Cibeureum River at 1600. Evacuations from towns near the volcano involved 1,000-2,000 residents. The Darwin VAAC reported that a small, low-level plume may have been visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Associated Press, Agence France-Presse (AFP)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2002 Nov 11 2002 Dec 19 ± 3 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kawah Baru, Kawah Nangklak
1942 Aug 15 1942 Aug 16 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1923 Mar 11 1925 Mar 9 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Baru, Kawah Nangklak
1772 Aug 12 1772 Aug 12 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Asmoro P, Wachyudin D, Mulyadi E, 1989. Geologic map of Papandayan volcano, Garut, West Java. Volc Surv Indonesia, geol map.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Mazot A, Bernard A, Fischer T, Inguaggiato S, Sutawidjaja I S, 2008. Chemical evolution of thermal waters and changes in the hydrothermal system of Papandayan volcano (West Java, Indonesia) after the November 2002 eruption. J Volc Geotherm Res, 178: 276-286.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Taverne N J M, 1926. Vulkanstudien op Java. Vulk Meded, 7: 1-132.

Papandayan is a complex stratovolcano with four large summit craters, the youngest of which was breached to the NE by collapse during a brief eruption in 1772 and contains active fumarole fields. The broad 1.1-km-wide, flat-floored Alun-Alun crater truncates the summit of Papandayan, and Gunung Puntang to the north gives the volcano a twin-peaked appearance. Several episodes of collapse have given the volcano an irregular profile and produced debris avalanches that have impacted lowland areas beyond the volcano. A sulfur-encrusted fumarole field occupies historically active Kawah Mas ("Golden Crater"). After its first historical eruption in 1772, in which collapse of the NE flank produced a catastrophic debris avalanche that destroyed 40 villages and killed nearly 3000 persons, only small phreatic eruptions had occurred prior to an explosive eruption that began in November 2002.