Tangkubanparahu

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  • Indonesia
  • Java
  • Stratovolcano
  • 2013 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 6.77°S
  • 107.6°E

  • 2084 m
    6836 ft

  • 263090
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

23 October-29 October 2013

PVMBG reported a phreatic eruption from Tangkubanparahu at 0621 on 5 October. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also know as CVGHM)



 Available Weekly Reports


2013: February | March | October
2012: August | September
2005: April
2002: September | October


23 October-29 October 2013

PVMBG reported a phreatic eruption from Tangkubanparahu at 0621 on 5 October. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also know as CVGHM)


13 March-19 March 2013

CVGHM reported that phreatic eruptions from Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater occurred on 28 February and during 4-6 March, and generated ash plumes that rose up to 100 m above the crater. Sulfur dioxide emissions increased to a high level on 24 February and then decreased through 3 March. Sulfur dioxide emissions again increased during 5-9 March; CVGHM speculated that the increase was due to an enlargement of the eruptive vent, which had grown to a diameter of 20 m. Gas emissions decreased abruptly on 10 March and emission sounds stopped.

Seismicity had significantly increased on 22 February, marked by a growing number of daily events. A significant decrease was detected on 9 March. Deflation was detected from 24 February through early March, but was then stable during 7-14 March. On 18 March the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


6 March-12 March 2013

According to news articles, an eruption from Tangkubanparahu on 4 March produced an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater. An eight-minute-long eruption at 0559 on 7 March ejected ash 30 m above Ratu Crater.

Source: The Jakarta Post


20 February-26 February 2013

CVGHM reported that on 21 February tremor increased at Tangkubanparahu and diffuse ash emissions rose from Ratu Crater. Based on the seismicity, visual observations, and temperature increases of the land around the crater, the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and visitors were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


19 September-25 September 2012

CVGHM reported that during 23 August-21 September shallow volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded at Tangkubanparahu but were less frequent. Other types of seismic signals also decreased. Based on seismicity, visual observations, deformation data, gas measurements, and soil and crater lake water temperatures, the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 21 September.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 September-11 September 2012

CVGHM reported that seismicity at Tangkubanparahu had increased significantly on 13 August, then again on 23 August; seismicity fluctuated and remained elevated through 6 September. Earthquakes were located 0.5-4 km beneath Ratu Crater and in an area W at depths of 4-12 km. Soil temperatures at Ratu Crater showed an increasing trend on 31 August, but had gradually declined by 5 September. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were high in an area NW of the crater, causing CVGHM to remind visitors not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. Based on seismicity, visual observations, gas measurements, and crater lake water temperatures through 7 September, the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


22 August-28 August 2012

CVGHM reported that seismicity at Tangkubanparahu increased significantly on 13 August; earthquakes continued to be recorded through 23 August. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and residents were prohibited from going within a 1.5-km radius of the active crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


13 April-19 April 2005

At Tangkubanparahu "white thin smoke" was emitted from Upas Baru crater and Ratu crater on 14 April, and from Upas Baru crater on 15 April. On 14 and 15 April shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes were recorded. During this time visitors were banned from the volcano. On 19 April the Alert Level was reduced from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the volcano was opened to the public, but access was restricted around Ratu crater and not permitted at the other craters.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


6 April-12 April 2005

On 13 April at 0700 DVGHM raised the Alert Level at Tangkubanparahu to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) due to an increase in seismicity at the volcano. In addition to an increase in seismicity in comparison to the previous day, there was a strong scent of sulfur near Ratu crater. On the 13th at 1300 the Alert Level was raised to 3 due to a further increase in seismicity and the occurrence of tremor. No ash plume was observed. Visitors were banned from the summit and crater area.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


9 October-15 October 2002

During 9 September to 6 October, seismicity at Tangkubanparahu was dominated by volcanic events. Also, thin ash plumes rose 2.5 m above the volcano. Tangkubanparahu remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


11 September-17 September 2002

On 2 September VSI raised the Alert Level at Tangkubanparahu from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The number of daily earthquakes had been increasing for 2 weeks and the temperatures of Domas and Ratu craters were 2-4°C higher than normal. There were no surface changes at the volcano, but several animals from the forest near Ratu crater were found dead in the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Feb 21 2013 Mar 6 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Ratu Crater
[ 1985 Nov 15 ] [ 1985 Nov 15 ] Uncertain 1   Kawah Baru
1983 Sep 14 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Ratu
1969 Jul 20 1969 Oct 21 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Ecoma
1967 Jul 1967 Jul Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Ecoma
1965 Oct 1965 Oct Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1965 Feb 1965 Mar Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1961 Jul 16 1961 Aug 1 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1957 Jan 1957 Jan Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Baru
1952 Jul 4 (?) 1952 Jul 11 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Ecoma
1929 May 20 1929 May 20 Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Kawah Ecoma
1926 Mar 1 1926 Jul 9 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Ecoma
1910 Apr 7 1910 May Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kawah Ratu B
1896 May 22 1896 May 23 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kawah Baru
1846 May 27 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kawah Ratu B
1842 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1829 Apr 1 1829 Apr 4 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kawah Ratu and Kawah Domas
1826 Oct 11 1826 Oct 11 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
7500 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Tephra layer YT3
8020 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Tephra layer YT2

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Dvorak J, Matahelumual J, Okamura A T, Said H, Casadevall T J, Mulyadi D, 1990. Recent uplift and hydrothermal activity at Tangkuban Parahu volcano, west Java, Indonesia. Bull Volc, 53: 20-28.

Kartadinata M N, Okuno M, Nakamura T, Kobayashi T, 2002. Eruptive history of Tangkuban Perahu volcano, west Java, Indonesia: a preliminary report. J Geog (Japan), 113: 404-409.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.

Soetoyo, Hadisantono R D, 1992. Geologic map of Tangkubanparahu volcano (Sunda Complex volcano), West Java. Volc Surv Indonesia, 1:50,000 scale.

Taverne N J M, 1926. Vulkanstudien op Java. Vulk Meded, 7: 1-132.

van Bemmelen R W, 1941. Bulletin of the East Indian Volcanology Survey for the year 1941. East Indian Volc Surv Bull, 95-98: 1-110.

van Bemmelen R W, 1971. Four volcanic outbursts that influenced human history. Toba, Sunda, Merapi, and Thera. In: Kaloyeropoyloy A (ed) {Acta 1st Internatl Sci Cong on the Volcano of Thera}, Athens: Arch Serv Greece, p 5-50.

Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, 1984. Tangkubanparahu excursion. Unpublished manuscript, 14 p.

Tangkubanparahu (also known as Tangkuban Perahu) is a broad shield-like stratovolcano overlooking Indonesia's former capital city of Bandung. The volcano was constructed within the 6 x 8 km Pleistocene Sunda caldera, which formed about 190,000 years ago. The volcano's low profile is the subject of legends referring to the mountain of the "upturned boat." The rim of Sunda caldera forms a prominent ridge on the western side; elsewhere the caldera rim is largely buried by deposits of Tangkubanparahu volcano. The dominantly small phreatic historical eruptions recorded since the 19th century have originated from several nested craters within an elliptical 1 x 1.5 km summit depression.