Perbakti-Gagak

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  • Indonesia
  • Indonesia
  • Stratovolcano(es)
  • 1939 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 6.75°S
  • 106.7°E

  • 1699 m
    5573 ft

  • 263040
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Perbakti-Gagak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Perbakti-Gagak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Perbakti-Gagak.

The Perbakti-Gagak volcanic complex, also known as Kiaraberes-Gagak, is a cluster of deeply eroded stratovolcanoes situated immediately SW of Salak volcano. The 1699-m-high summit ridge of Gunung Perbakti is elongated in a NW-SE direction, and Gunung Endut volcano rises to 1474 m above a saddle SW of Perbakti. Gunung Gagak lies to the NW; it is capped by pumice and obsidian, and obsidian lava flows extend to the north and NE. Quaternary rhyolitic lava domes form a NNE-trending chain at the eastern side of the complex. Two 2-km-wide depressions on the northern and southern sides of Perbakti form the headwaters of the Kaluwung Herang and Pamatutan rivers, respectively. The volcanic complex is marked by vigorous geothermal activity. Fumaroles, mud pots and hot springs are located on the south and SE flanks of Perbakti and at the Kiaraberes area, which includes the commercial geothermal field of Awibengkok. Mild phreatic eruptions took place during the Holocene into historical time from flank fumarolic fields.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1939 Apr 6 (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Parabakti
1938 Dec Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Parabakti
1936 Oct 26 1936 Oct 28 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Cipanas Parabakti
1935 May 31 ± 30 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Cibodas
1929 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Cibeureum West
1923 Jun Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Cibodas
6450 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kiaraberes

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Endut, Gunung Stratovolcano 1474 m 6° 47' 0" S 106° 40' 0" E
Gagak, Gunung Stratovolcano 6° 46' 0" S 106° 39' 0" E
Perbakti, Gunung Stratovolcano 1699 m 6° 45' 0" S 106° 42' 0" E


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kiaraberes Crater


Thermal
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Awibengkok Thermal
Cibeureum
    Tjibeureum
Thermal
Cibeureum Palasari
    Tjibeureum Palasari
Thermal
Cibodas, Cipanas
    Tjibodas, Tjipanas
Thermal
Cibodas, Kawah
    Tjibodas, Kawah
Thermal
Cikaluwung, Cipanas
    Tjikaluwung, Tjipanas
Thermal
Cikaluwungherang, Kawah Thermal
Cipamatutan
    Tjipamatutan
Thermal
Cisekati, Cipanas
    Tjisekati, Tjipanas
Thermal
Ciseupan, Cipanas
    Tjiseupan, Tjipanas
Thermal
Old Crater Thermal
Parabakti, Cipanas
    Parabakti, Tjipanas
Thermal
Parabakti, Kawah Thermal
Sumber Panas Thermal
Taman, Kawah Thermal
Tjikaluwungherang, Kawah [Cikaluwungherang Thermal
Kiaraberes-Gagak, seen here from the west, is part of the Perbakti-Gagak volcanic field. The eroded stratovolcano has two summits and contains numerous fumarolic areas on its flanks. Pumice and obsidian caps the volcano, and obsidian lava flows extend to the north and NE. Mild phreatic eruptions took place in historical time from flank fumarolic fields at the Perbakti-Gagak complex.

Anonymous photo, 1989.
The deeply eroded Gunung Perbakti stratovolcano (center) rises above forests to its north, flanked by Gunung Endut (left) and Gunung Salak (right) volcanoes. Gunung Perbakti and Gunung Endut are part of the Perbatkti-Gagak volcanic complex. The summit ridge of Perbakti is elongated in a NW-SE direction, and Gunung Endut volcano rises to 1474 m above a saddle SW of Perbakti. Phreatic explosions have occurred during historical time at the Perbakti-Gagak complex, which is the site of vigorous geothermal activity.

Anonymous photo, 1989.

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Bronto S, 1995. . (pers. comm.).

Kaswanda O, Said H, Rahardja N, 1987. . (pers. comm.).

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Stimac J, Sugiaman F, 2000. The Awi 1-2 core research program: Part 1, Geologic overview of the Awibengkok geothermal field. Proc World Geotherm Cong 2000, Kyushu-Tohoku, Japan, May 28 - June 10, 2000, p 2221-2226.

Zaennudin A, Sutawidjadja I S, Aswin D, 1993. Geological map of Salak volcano, West Java. Volc Surv Indonesia, 1:50,000 geol map.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano(es)
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Rhyolite
Dacite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
1,490
28,784
2,333,456
36,630,568

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Perbakti-Gagak Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.