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There are no activity reports for Perbakti-Gagak.
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There are no Weekly Reports available for Perbakti-Gagak.
Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1939 Apr 6 (in or before)||Unknown||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations||Kawah Parabakti|
|1938 Dec||Unknown||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations||Kawah Parabakti|
|1936 Oct 26||1936 Oct 28||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations||Cipanas Parabakti|
|1935 May 31 ± 30 days||Unknown||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations||Kawah Cibodas|
|1929||Unknown||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations||Cibeureum West|
|1923 Jun||Unknown||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations||Kawah Cibodas|
|6450 BCE (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)||Kiaraberes|
The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.
Bronto S, 1995. . (pers. comm.).
Kaswanda O, Said H, Rahardja N, 1987. . (pers. comm.).
Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.
Stimac J, Sugiaman F, 2000. The Awi 1-2 core research program: Part 1, Geologic overview of the Awibengkok geothermal field. Proc World Geotherm Cong 2000, Kyushu-Tohoku, Japan, May 28 - June 10, 2000, p 2221-2226.
Zaennudin A, Sutawidjadja I S, Aswin D, 1993. Geological map of Salak volcano, West Java. Volc Surv Indonesia, 1:50,000 geol map.
The Perbakti-Gagak volcanic complex, also known as Kiaraberes-Gagak, is a cluster of deeply eroded stratovolcanoes situated immediately SW of Salak volcano. The 1699-m-high summit ridge of Gunung Perbakti is elongated in a NW-SE direction, and Gunung Endut volcano rises to 1474 m above a saddle SW of Perbakti. Gunung Gagak lies to the NW; it is capped by pumice and obsidian, and obsidian lava flows extend to the north and NE. Quaternary rhyolitic lava domes form a NNE-trending chain at the eastern side of the complex. Two 2-km-wide depressions on the northern and southern sides of Perbakti form the headwaters of the Kaluwung Herang and Pamatutan rivers, respectively. The volcanic complex is marked by vigorous geothermal activity. Fumaroles, mud pots and hot springs are located on the south and SE flanks of Perbakti and at the Kiaraberes area, which includes the commercial geothermal field of Awibengkok. Mild phreatic eruptions took place during the Holocene into historical time from flank fumarolic fields.