Marapi

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  • Indonesia
  • Sumatra
  • Complex
  • 2012 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 0.381°S
  • 100.473°E

  • 2891 m
    9482 ft

  • 261140
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

26 February-4 March 2014

According to news articles, an explosion at Marapi on 26 February produced an ash plume that caused ashfall in areas as far as 10 km S. According to PVMBG the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, The Free Press Journal



 Available Weekly Reports


2014: February
2012: March | May | September
2011: July | August | October
2005: July
2004: August
2001: April | May


26 February-4 March 2014

According to news articles, an explosion at Marapi on 26 February produced an ash plume that caused ashfall in areas as far as 10 km S. According to PVMBG the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, The Free Press Journal


19 February-25 February 2014

According to a news article from 5 February four explosions from Marapi occurred in early February. One of the explosions was followed by ashfall in the Tarab River area and Batu Sangkar (17 km SE).

Source: Metro TV News


26 September-2 October 2012

According to news articles, an eruption from Marapi on 26 September produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater.

Source: Big Pond News


16 May-22 May 2012

According to a news article, an approximately 10-minute-long eruption from Marapi produced an ash plume that rose 600 m on 18 May. The article noted that the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: MI News 26


7 March-13 March 2012

According to a news article from 5 March, several eruptions from Marapi produced ash plumes during the previous week. An ash plume rose 1 km above the crater on 4 March and drifted 10 km S. A representative from CVGHM noted that the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: BNO News


12 October-18 October 2011

Based on information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 October an eruption from Marapi produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 October-11 October 2011

Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 October an ash plume from Marapi rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified in satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 August-16 August 2011

According to a news article, two eruptions from Marapi occurred on 9 August. The article also noted that the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Metro TV News


27 July-2 August 2011

CVGHM reported increased seismicity from Marapi during 21 June-3 August. Observers noted that during June and July white plumes rose 15-75 m above the summit craters. On 1 August white plumes rose 15 m above the main crater; fog prevented observations the next day. On 3 August dense gray plumes rose 300-1,000 m above the crater on eight occasions. That same day CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and residents were prohibited from going within a 3-km radius of the summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


20 July-26 July 2005

DVGHM raised the Alert Level at Marapi from 1 to 2 on 18 July after the number of earthquakes increased dramatically during 8-14 July. During this period, the volcano's seismic network recorded 112 deep volcanic earthquakes. Normally, an average of 7 deep volcanic earthquakes occur in 1 week. No significant activity changes were seen at the volcano; gas emissions rose ~50 m above the summit (9,650 ft a.s.l.) and fumarole temperatures were normal.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


4 August-10 August 2004

Increased volcanic activity at Marapi during early August led DVGHM to raise the Alert Level to 2 from 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 August. Ash explosions rose 500-1,000 m above the summit and no seismic data were available. Visitors and villagers in the Tanah Datar and Padang Panjang districts were advised not to climb the volcano.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


2 May-8 May 2001

VSI reported that volcanic activity continued at Marapi at a decreased level in comparison to the previous week. Thirty explosions were observed and an ash plume rose 3 km above the summit. Tephra fell up to 4 km in radius from the crater. Marapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


25 April-1 May 2001

VSI reported that the Marapi eruption at 0814 on 16 April produced a cauliflower-shaped black ash plume that rose 2 km above the summit. Ash, lapilli, and volcanic bombs were ejected during the eruption and fell within the crater. In addition, ash fell in many villages on the S and SW flanks of the volcano. Within 1-4 km from the summit the thickness of the ash deposits was between 2 and 3 cm. Until 18 April approximately 150 smaller explosions continuously occurred. The 16 April eruption was preceded by shallow volcanic earthquakes that began on 7 April and by continuous volcanic tremor recorded on 9 April. Small eruptions occurred at 1283 and 1600 on 13 April. VSI had increased the Alert Level at Marapi from 1 to 2 following the minor activity that began on 13 April.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


18 April-24 April 2001

Based on information from VSI, the Darwin VAAC reported that after increased volcanic activity occurred over the preceding two weeks VSI raised the Alert Level at Marapi from 1 to 2. The increased activity included an eruption on 16 April that sent an ash cloud up to 2 km above the summit. In addition, an eruption on about 23 April produced an ash cloud that rose up to ~6 km a.s.l. and drifted to the E.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2012 Sep 26 2012 Sep 26 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2012 Mar 1 ± 3 days 2012 May 18 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2011 Aug 3 2011 Oct 12 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2004 Aug 5 2004 Aug 5 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2001 Apr 13 2001 Jun 5 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Verbeek Crater
2000 Mar 11 2000 Apr 3 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1999 Apr (in or before) 1999 Sep (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1987 Jan 15 1994 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Verbeek Crater
1984 Nov 15 1984 Nov 15 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kepundan Tuo, Kepundan B
1983 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kepundan Tuo and Kepundan Verbeek
1982 Dec 1982 Dec Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1982 Mar 10 (in or before) 1982 May Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1980 Mar 29 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1975 Jan 1979 Sep 11 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Verbeek Crater, B and C Craters
1973 Jul 24 1973 Jul 24 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Verbeek Crater
1970 Jul 26 ± 5 days 1971 Aug 20 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bungo, Bongsu, Tuo, B and C Craters
[ 1968 Dec ] [ 1968 Dec ] Uncertain 1   Craters B and C
1967 Apr 1967 Jul Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Crater C, Bungsu Crater
1966 Mar 1966 Jun Confirmed 1 Historical Observations B and C Craters, Kebun Bungo
1958 Oct 17 1958 Oct 25 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1958 Jun 23 1958 Jun 23 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1954 Aug 1957 Dec (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kepundan Bongsu, B and C Craters
1950 Sep 27 1952 Jun 14 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kepundan Bongsu, Kuniang, Jinggo
1949 Oct 15 ± 5 days 1949 Oct 22 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1949 Apr 29 1949 Apr 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kepundan Bongsu
1943 ± 5 years Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations Kepundan Kuniang, Kepundan Jinggo
1932 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1930 Apr 9 (in or before) 1930 Dec 7 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1929 Jun 22 1929 Jun 22 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kepundan Bongsu
1927 Feb 5 1927 Aug 3 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kepundan Bongsu
1925 Apr (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations
1919 Feb 28 1919 Mar 1 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1918 Aug 15 ± 5 days 1918 Aug 15 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1918 Mar 8 1918 Mar 10 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1917 Jun 16 1917 Sep 16 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1916 May 5 1916 Jul 7 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1915 Dec Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1914 Jul 1 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1913 Jun 23 1913 Jul 31 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1911 Nov 2 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1910 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1907 Dec 17 1908 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1905 Nov 1 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1904 Apr 18 1904 Apr 18 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1889 Mar 27 1889 Apr 17 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1888 Feb 19 1888 Mar 19 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1886 Mar 31 1886 May 3 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1885 Nov 12 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1883 Dec 1883 Dec Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1883 Jun 25 1883 Aug 27 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1878 Dec ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1876 Aug 1877 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1876 Apr 4 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1871 Sep 24 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1871 Apr 24 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1863 May 23 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1861 Apr Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1855 Oct 2 1856 Jan Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1854 Aug 29 (in or after) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1845 Nov 16 1845 Nov 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1833 1834 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1822 Jul 23 1822 Jul 31 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1807 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1770 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

de Waard D, Klompe H F, 1952. The recent activity of G. Marapi in central Sumatra. Nat Tijd Ned-Indie, 108: 131-140.

Hantke G, 1955. Ubersicht uber die Vulkanische Tatigkeit 1951-1953. Bull Volc, 16: 71-114.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Westerveld J, 1952. Quaternary volcanism on Sumatra. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 63: 561-594.

Gunung Marapi, not to be confused with the better-known Merapi volcano on Java, is Sumatra's most active volcano. Marapi is a massive complex stratovolcano that rises 2000 m above the Bukittinggi plain in Sumatra's Padang Highlands. A broad summit contains multiple partially overlapping summit craters constructed within the small 1.4-km-wide Bancah caldera. The summit craters are located along an ENE-WSW line, with volcanism migrating to the west. More than 50 eruptions, typically consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been recorded since the end of the 18th century; no lava flows outside the summit craters have been reported in historical time.