Marapi

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  • 0.381°S
  • 100.473°E

  • 2891 m
    9482 ft

  • 261140
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Most Recent Weekly Report: 26 February-4 March 2014


According to news articles, an explosion at Marapi on 26 February produced an ash plume that caused ashfall in areas as far as 10 km S. According to PVMBG the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), The Free Press Journal


Most Recent Bulletin Report: July 2011 (BGVN 36:07)


Increased seismicity in 2004; small ash-bearing eruptions in 2011

This report first describes a 2005 increase in seismicity at Marapi, then presents a 2010 field map of Marapi's active crater area, and notes several plumes seen in 2011 to 1 km above the vent, some bearing ash. As previously noted, Marapi had generated explosions in 2000 and 2001, and a small ash-bearing eruption in 2004 (BGVN 25:11, 27:01, and 30:01).

Activity during 2005. During the week 8-14 July 2005, the number of earthquakes at Marapi increased dramatically. The seismic network recorded 112 deep volcanic earthquakes, compared to a normal average of 7 per week. Other changes were absent at the volcano, for example, fumarole temperatures were normal and gas emissions typically rose ~ 50 m above the summit. As a result of the increased seismicity, the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) raised the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Activity during 2010. During a 4-day visit to Marapi in July 2010, volcanologist Mary-Ann del Marmol created a sketch map of the area (figure 3). More detailed mapping and rock observations of the old crater side of the volcano were thwarted by dense vegetation there.

Figure 3. A sketch map of Marapi's active crater and vicinity prepared in the course of fieldwork during July 2010. The labels "S.A. Bonjol" and "S.A. Sabu" identify drainages. Courtesy of Mary-Ann del Marmol (University of Ghent, Belgium).

Activity during 2011. According to CVGHM, seismicity increased during 21 June-3 August 2011. Observers noted that during June, July, and the first day of August white plumes rose 15-75 m above the summit craters. On 3 August dense gray plumes rose 300-1,000 m above the crater on eight occasions. That same day CVGHM raised the Alert Level again to 2. Visitors and residents were prohibited from going within a 3 km radius of the summit.

According to a news article, two eruptions from Marapi occurred on 9 August 2011.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/); Mary-Ann del Marmol, Geology and Soil Science Department, University of Ghent, Krijgslaan, 281 S8/A.326, B-9000 Gent, Belgium (URL: http://www.volcanology.ugent.be/delmarmol.htm); Metro TV News (URL: http://www.metrotvnews.com/).

Index of Weekly Reports


2014: February
2012: March | May | September
2011: July | August | October
2005: July
2004: August
2001: April | May

Weekly Reports


26 February-4 March 2014

According to news articles, an explosion at Marapi on 26 February produced an ash plume that caused ashfall in areas as far as 10 km S. According to PVMBG the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); The Free Press Journal


19 February-25 February 2014

According to a news article from 5 February four explosions from Marapi occurred in early February. One of the explosions was followed by ashfall in the Tarab River area and Batu Sangkar (17 km SE).

Source: Metro TV News


26 September-2 October 2012

According to news articles, an eruption from Marapi on 26 September produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater.

Source: Big Pond News


16 May-22 May 2012

According to a news article, an approximately 10-minute-long eruption from Marapi produced an ash plume that rose 600 m on 18 May. The article noted that the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: MI News 26


7 March-13 March 2012

According to a news article from 5 March, several eruptions from Marapi produced ash plumes during the previous week. An ash plume rose 1 km above the crater on 4 March and drifted 10 km S. A representative from CVGHM noted that the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: BNO News


12 October-18 October 2011

Based on information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 October an eruption from Marapi produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 October-11 October 2011

Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 October an ash plume from Marapi rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified in satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 August-16 August 2011

According to a news article, two eruptions from Marapi occurred on 9 August. The article also noted that the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Metro TV News


27 July-2 August 2011

CVGHM reported increased seismicity from Marapi during 21 June-3 August. Observers noted that during June and July white plumes rose 15-75 m above the summit craters. On 1 August white plumes rose 15 m above the main crater; fog prevented observations the next day. On 3 August dense gray plumes rose 300-1,000 m above the crater on eight occasions. That same day CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and residents were prohibited from going within a 3-km radius of the summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


20 July-26 July 2005

DVGHM raised the Alert Level at Marapi from 1 to 2 on 18 July after the number of earthquakes increased dramatically during 8-14 July. During this period, the volcano's seismic network recorded 112 deep volcanic earthquakes. Normally, an average of 7 deep volcanic earthquakes occur in 1 week. No significant activity changes were seen at the volcano; gas emissions rose ~50 m above the summit (9,650 ft a.s.l.) and fumarole temperatures were normal.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


4 August-10 August 2004

Increased volcanic activity at Marapi during early August led DVGHM to raise the Alert Level to 2 from 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 August. Ash explosions rose 500-1,000 m above the summit and no seismic data were available. Visitors and villagers in the Tanah Datar and Padang Panjang districts were advised not to climb the volcano.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


2 May-8 May 2001

VSI reported that volcanic activity continued at Marapi at a decreased level in comparison to the previous week. Thirty explosions were observed and an ash plume rose 3 km above the summit. Tephra fell up to 4 km in radius from the crater. Marapi remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


25 April-1 May 2001

VSI reported that the Marapi eruption at 0814 on 16 April produced a cauliflower-shaped black ash plume that rose 2 km above the summit. Ash, lapilli, and volcanic bombs were ejected during the eruption and fell within the crater. In addition, ash fell in many villages on the S and SW flanks of the volcano. Within 1-4 km from the summit the thickness of the ash deposits was between 2 and 3 cm. Until 18 April approximately 150 smaller explosions continuously occurred. The 16 April eruption was preceded by shallow volcanic earthquakes that began on 7 April and by continuous volcanic tremor recorded on 9 April. Small eruptions occurred at 1283 and 1600 on 13 April. VSI had increased the Alert Level at Marapi from 1 to 2 following the minor activity that began on 13 April.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


18 April-24 April 2001

Based on information from VSI, the Darwin VAAC reported that after increased volcanic activity occurred over the preceding two weeks VSI raised the Alert Level at Marapi from 1 to 2. The increased activity included an eruption on 16 April that sent an ash cloud up to 2 km above the summit. In addition, an eruption on about 23 April produced an ash cloud that rose up to ~6 km a.s.l. and drifted to the E.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

10/1978 (SEAN 03:10) Ash emission from summit area

04/1979 (SEAN 04:04) 60 killed by air fall of coarse tephra

05/1979 (SEAN 04:05) Landslide, not eruption, caused fatalities on 30 April

09/1979 (SEAN 04:09) Small ash eruption

03/1980 (SEAN 05:03) Two small plumes

07/1982 (SEAN 07:03) 30-minute ash ejection

11/1984 (SEAN 09:11) Small plumes

06/1987 (SEAN 12:06) Small explosions; ashfall on two cities

12/1987 (SEAN 12:12) Many small explosions; light ashfall over W part of island

01/1988 (SEAN 13:01) Eruption with ashfall

02/1988 (SEAN 13:02) More explosions

03/1988 (SEAN 13:03) Explosion and light ashfall

06/1988 (SEAN 13:06) Two ash explosions

07/1988 (SEAN 13:07) Intermittent ash ejections continue

06/1992 (BGVN 17:06) Explosion kills one person and injures five others

07/1994 (BGVN 19:07) Eruption sends ash column to ~6 km above sea level; summary of 1993 activity

05/1999 (BGVN 24:05) Declining activity and weak ash emissions

08/1999 (BGVN 24:08) Strong explosions within moderate background activity during June-September

11/2000 (BGVN 25:11) Large explosions in March 2000 eject ash

01/2002 (BGVN 27:01) Explosions during 2001; April ash plume reaches 2.0 km above the summit

01/2005 (BGVN 30:01) Small eruptions and seismicity during August to October 2004

07/2011 (BGVN 36:07) Increased seismicity in 2004; small ash-bearing eruptions in 2011




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


10/1978 (SEAN 03:10) Ash emission from summit area

At 1830 on 8 September Marapi ejected a thick blackish-gray cauliflower-shaped cloud to 1500 m above the crater, accompanied by glow and a roaring noise. Andesitic ash and lapilli fell on a 30 km2 area. This explosion was preceded by a number of smaller ones that produced 300-500-m-high clouds. Fumarolic emissions, rising as much as 700 m and containing some ash, were continuing as of 18 September. No seismicity was felt in villages around the volcano. The activity originated from the lateral extension of a small, pre-existing, summit area crater (figure 1), ~300 m E of the central crater. When visited on 13 September the active crater was an elongate feature 95 m long, 50 m wide, and ~50 m deep.

Figure 1. Sketch map showing Marapi's summit area and the 1978 eruption crater. Courtesy of VSI.

Information Contacts: F. Suparban Mitrohartono, VSI.
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04/1979 (SEAN 04:04) 60 killed by air fall of coarse tephra

According to press reports, 60 persons were killed by an eruption of Marapi during the morning of 30 April [but see below], and rescue workers searched for 19 others believed trapped by "landslides." The volcano was said to have ejected "stones" and "mud" or "lava," causing damage in at least five villages. The deaths were apparently caused by large airfall tephra.

Information Contacts: AFP; Kompas, Jakarta.
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05/1979 (SEAN 04:05) Landslide, not eruption, caused fatalities on 30 April

Press reports describing a tephra eruption of Marapi on 30 April were incorrect. About 300 mm of rainfall remobilized an old lahar and other volcanic material on Marapi's N and E flanks, producing several landslides. The largest began at 2,400 m altitude on 30 April, and traveled as much as 20 km downslope to ~70 m altitude, leaving a deposit 20-150 m wide and 1-3 m thick. Eighty people were killed, five villages were damaged, and several acres of farmland were destroyed.

A VSI team inspected Marapi's crater on 8 May. Fumaroles emitted thin white vapor columns that had a slight sulfur odor and a temperature of 90-104°C.

Information Contacts: F. Suparban Mitrohartono and A. Sudradjat, VSI.
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09/1979 (SEAN 04:09) Small ash eruption

A small eruption of Marapi occurred on 11 September. The eruption column rose 700 m and deposited ash to ~3 km W of the volcano. An inspection revealed that three summit-area craters (Verbeek, C, and Tuo) had been active. No activity has been reported since then.

Information Contacts: A. Sudradjat, VSI.
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03/1980 (SEAN 05:03) Two small plumes

Plumes rose 700 m from Marapi at 0627 and 0755 on 29 March, then were blown S by the wind. No further activity had occurred as of 2 April.

Information Contacts: A. Sudradjat and L. Pardyanto, VSI.
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07/1982 (SEAN 07:03) 30-minute ash ejection

Indonesian newspapers reported that Marapi ejected a black eruption column for about 30 minutes beginning at 0700 on 10 March. The governor of West Sumatra noted that there have been two previous small eruptions in 1982. Camps have been prepared to receive evacuees if a large eruption occurs.

Information Contacts: M. Krafft, Cernay, France.
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11/1984 (SEAN 09:11) Small plumes

On 15 November at 0500 Marapi emitted a white to brownish plume. A small, possibly phreatic, eruption occurred at 0830, ejecting a blackish plume to about 400 m height. No additional activity was reported. No residents were evacuated.

Information Contacts: A. Sudradjat, VSI.
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06/1987 (SEAN 12:06) Small explosions; ashfall on two cities

Small explosions occurred on 25 and 30 May, and 1, 5, 7, 9, 10, and 11 June, with column heights reaching 1 km above the summit. A light dusting of ash fell on Bukittinggi, [15] km NW [of the summit], and Padang, [65] km [SSW]. The previous activity at Marapi occurred 15 January.

Information Contacts: VSI.
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12/1987 (SEAN 12:12) Many small explosions; light ashfall over W part of island

At least 17 small explosions were recorded during December. One of the largest, on 7 December at 0648, sent a plume from the summit area's Verbeek Crater to ~900 m height. Additional larger explosions occurred on 24 December at 0625 (plume to 1,000 m) and on 27 December at 0007 (plume not visible). Other plumes from December explosions reached 700-1,000 m above the crater. Light ashfall was reported from a wide area of W Sumatra.

Information Contacts: VSI.
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01/1988 (SEAN 13:01) Eruption with ashfall

Ash from an eruption around midnight on 28-29 January was carried S toward Padang city. Three millimeters of ash fell in Padangpanjang, [12] km [SW] of [the summit].

Information Contacts: VSI.
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02/1988 (SEAN 13:02) More explosions

Marapi erupted again on 19, 20, and 24 February, and 1 March. Fresh, unaltered rock has been found in the tephra from the 1988 explosions.

Information Contacts: VSI.
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03/1988 (SEAN 13:03) Explosion and light ashfall

On 1 March at 1311, a single explosion occurred from the summit crater, depositing as much as 1 mm of ash to 9 km of the summit.

Information Contacts: VSI.
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06/1988 (SEAN 13:06) Two ash explosions

Single explosions ejected ash-laden eruption columns to 1 km above the vent on 7 and 8 July [see also 13:7].

Information Contacts: VSI.
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07/1988 (SEAN 13:07) Intermittent ash ejections continue

Small explosions occurred 1 July at 1420 and 8 July at 1900, depositing 0.5 mm of ash in Bukittinggi.

Information Contacts: VSI.
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06/1992 (BGVN 17:06) Explosion kills one person and injures five others

An explosion on 5 July killed one person and injured five others. Marapi has been erupting since 1987, with explosions typically occurring about once every 1-7 days. Material ejected by the smaller explosions rises 100-800 m, whereas ejecta from larger explosions reach 800-2,000 m above the summit. The recent explosions, which produce ash and lapilli, have originated from Verbeek Crater in the summit complex. Ashfalls have been frequent NW of the volcano in Bukittinggi (roughly 15 km NW of the summit), Sungai Puar (30 km NW), and the Agam district (>30 km NW), depending on wind direction. Fluctuations in Marapi's explosions seem to parallel shallow volcanic earthquakes (figure 2), suggesting that the activity is primarily caused by degassing from a relatively shallow source through an open vent.

Figure 2. Number of explosion, A-, and B-type earthquakes at Marapi, January 1991-June 1992. Courtesy of VSI.

Activity in June began with an explosion on the 1st. Continuous tremor followed, and on 6 June at 0227 another explosion occurred. Repeated explosions then deposited ~0.5 mm of ash on Bukittinggi. On 25 June, witnesses 2 km from the volcano (at the Batu Palano Volcano Observatory) heard a detonation and saw glow. A brownish-black cauliflower-shaped plume rose 1,800 m above the summit. During June, 45 deep and 312 shallow volcanic earthquakes, 108 volcanic tremor episodes, and 2,104 explosion earthquakes were recorded.

The strongest explosion occurred on 5 July at 0912. Bukittinggi and vicinity were covered by 0.5-1.5 mm of ash several hours later, with ash in some areas reaching 2 mm thickness. Ash also extended to Padang, ~10 km SW of the crater. Bombs killed one person, seriously injured three, and caused minor injuries to two others. The victims had climbed to the summit without consultation with the Mt. Marapi Volcano Observatory or local authorities, although a hazard warning had been in effect since 1987.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.
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07/1994 (BGVN 19:07) Eruption sends ash column to ~6 km above sea level; summary of 1993 activity

An eruption at 0016 on 12 August 1994 sent an ash column to ~6 km altitude, a height of 3,200 m above the summit. Another explosion at 0046 ejected ash 280 m high. From the observatory ~7 km from the crater, observers noted incandescent projections as high as 300 m above the crater rim, accompanied by explosion sounds and vibrations. Ashfall in and around the city of Bukittinggi . . . ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm thick. Shallow volcanic earthquakes were recorded after the explosions, but gradually decreased.

Eruptions during the first half of 1993 (VSI, 1993a) produced lapilli and ash that were deposited in a radius of 1.5-3 km from the active crater. A dark gray column rose as high as 1,200 m above the summit . . . , but was usually in the 400-500 m range. Explosion earthquakes from January to July 1993 fluctuated between 1 and 77 events/day. The frequency of explosions increased in July 1993, but then decreased from August through December (VSI, 1993b). These explosions during Jul-Dec 1993 deposited lapilli and ash within a 750-m-radius of the active crater. Incandescent material fell within a few tens of meters of the crater rim. Average plume height in the second half of 1993 was 400-800 m, reaching a maximum of 3,200 m above the summit. Throughout 1993, deep volcanic earthquakes (A-type) were detected at a rate of 6-41/month. Between 42 and 338 shallow (B-type) events were recorded each month.

Information Contacts: VSI.
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05/1999 (BGVN 24:05) Declining activity and weak ash emissions

Activity of Marapi volcano was subdued during the period from late April to late May. From 27 April-3 May, only the emissions events increased (from 21 to 30) from the previous week; volcanic type-A, type-B, and tectonic events, along with eruptions, all decreased. During 4-17 May observed activity was limited to thin white-gray ash emissions that rose 100-400 m above the summit.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).
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08/1999 (BGVN 24:08) Strong explosions within moderate background activity during June-September

Moderate eruptive activity at Marapi during June-September was interrupted by a few isolated powerful explosions. On 1 June a loud detonation was heard and earthquakes were felt in Bukittinggi village near the volcano. These phenomena were followed by an outpouring of thick dark ash from the crater forming a billowing cloud reaching 3,200 m above the summit. Events soon returned to more typical emissions of white or gray ash rising a few hundred meters and not accompanied by detonations. During 3-9 August white and sometimes black ash plumes reached 200-1,200 m above the peak. There were also increases in the number of volcanic and small explosive seismic events recorded that week.

J. Bardintzeff reported that at 0720 on 5 August a violent explosion sent an ash column, at first black but later gray in color, ~1,000 m above the summit. Fine ash fell at distances of up to 1 km E of the volcano at 0745. Two groups of people were standing near the crater at the time of the explosion. A group near the west side was safe, but three people of another group standing at the eastern crater rim were injured. Witnessed said that they were knocked down by the force of the explosion in which several 10-cm-diameter bombs were ejected. The injuries included cuts from debris and burns about the face, head, arms, and hands. Several people have been killed or injured at Marapi during the past ten years.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Jacques-Marie Bardintzeff, Laboratoire de Petrographie-Volcanologie, bat 504, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405, Orsay, France (Email: bardizef@geol.u-psud.fr).
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11/2000 (BGVN 25:11) Large explosions in March 2000 eject ash

At 0553 on 11 March 2000, a significant explosion ejected thick black ash that rose 1,400 m above the summit. Explosions and ash emissions continued and increased in magnitude. At 0944 on the following day, a large explosion was heard more than 25 km away in the community of Bukittinggi. The explosion sent thick, black ash to a height of 3,000 m. Ashfall was reported ~350 km N of Marapi on the Lima Kaun District of Tanah Datar. Both major explosions were immediately preceded by shallow volcanic (B-type) earthquakes, while heightened seismicity, especially A- and B-type earthquakes, occurred up to a week before the explosions.

By 14 March explosions and ash emissions were continuing with decreased intensity. The gray-black plume rose 200 m above the crater rim. The following week seismicity increased notably with all earthquakes types increasing in number. During the [week of 28 March-3 April], black ash emissions continued to rise 100-200 m. Seismicity increased slightly compared to the previous week, but remained much lower than when the explosions initiated.

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).
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01/2002 (BGVN 27:01) Explosions during 2001; April ash plume reaches 2.0 km above the summit

On 11 March 2000, an explosion at Marapi ejected thick black ash that rose 1.4 km above the summit (BGVN 25:11). Explosive activity occurred again in 2001, peaking during 13-18 April, when a total of 150 explosions occurred that sent ash plumes to 2 km above the summit.

From January to February 2001, monthly A-type earthquakes had decreased from 15 to 8, and B-type earthquakes had decreased from 24 to 14. Gas-and-steam emissions, however, had increased from 11 events during January to 41 times during February. B-type earthquakes were registered on 7 April and continuous volcanic tremor occurred on 9 April.

On 14 April at 1600 a thick dark ash plume was visible from Bukittinggi, 15 km NW of Marapi's summit. On 16 April at 0600 an explosion sent a thick black ash plume to 700 m above the summit. At 0814 the same day a loud explosion was heard 8 km from the volcano, and a black mushroom-shaped ash plume rose to 2 km above the summit. Ejected incandescent fragments were seen clearly from Bukittinggi and then fell back to the crater rim. Ash fell over the villages of Sungai Puah, Air Angeh, and Andala, and in District X Koto, District Batipuh, District V Koto, Tanah Datar Regency, and Padang Panjang City in the zone S and SW of the summit. Ash deposits 1-4 km from the summit were 2-3 cm thick.

The Marapi Volcano Observatory increased the Alert Level from 1 to 2 following the activity that began on 13 April and a recommendation was issued by the local government to prevent people from traveling to the summit area.

Volcanic activity at Marapi continued through at least June 2001 (table 4). On 8 May at 2240, an explosion was accompanied by a moderate booming sound heard from the Tandikat observatory. Ash from the explosion spread to the NW, to Kota Bary, Padangpanjang, Lo Koto, and around the Tandikat observatory.

Table 4. Earthquakes and plumes reported at Marapi during 23 April-10 June 2001. Courtesy of VSI.

    Date            Deep volcanic   Shallow volcanic   Explosion   Tectonic
                      (A-type)         (B-type)
        Observation (plume heights are above summit)

    23 Apr-29 Apr        58               --               30         --
        Gray-black plume to 3.0 km; volcanic materials fell 4.0 km from
        volcano. Five explosion earthquakes were accompanied by loud noise.

    30 Apr-06 May        27               22                4         --
        Gray plume to 1.2 km above summit.

    07 May-13 May        16               46               14          1
        Whitish-gray thick plume to 1.5 km above summit.

    04 Jun-10 Jun         2               --                2          2
        Explosion earthquakes had 33.6 mm maximum amplitudes.

An explosion that began at 0445 on 5 June sent ash to the SSW. The ash was 0.5-2 mm thick in places. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2 through at least 10 June 2001.

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) (see Karangetang).
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01/2005 (BGVN 30:01) Small eruptions and seismicity during August to October 2004

The most recent previous explosive activity at Marapi peaked during 13-18 April 2001, when a total of 150 explosions occurred that sent ash plumes to 2 km above the summit (BGVN 27:01). This report covers the interval 5 August to 10 October 2004. On 5 August 2004 Marapi generated a small eruption with a gray to black ash cloud that rose to 500-1,000 m above the summit. Its hazard status was raised to Alert Level II (yellow), where it remained throughout this period.

Total numbers of seismic events from 2 August through 10 October 2004 are listed in table 5. During some weeks in August the number of earthquakes increased markedly. A thin white plume rose to 50 m above the summit on 10 August. During 16-29 August a thin white-gray plume rose to ~ 75-100 m. Similar plumes rose to ~ 50 m during 27 September-3 October and to ~ 300 m during 4-10 October. Seismic signals inferred to be related to emissions were elevated during several weeks of the reporting interval, particularly in August (table 5).

Table 5. A summary of volcanic seismicity at Marapi during 2 August to 10 October 2004. Courtesy of DVGHM.

    Date             Volc A    Volc B    Tremor    Emission

    02 Aug-08 Aug       1        11        --         --
    09 Aug-15 Aug       2         6        --         20
    16 Aug-22 Aug      --         3        --         21
    23 Aug-29 Aug      --         3         2         14

    20 Sep-26 Sep      --        --        --         --
    27 Sep-03 Oct       1        --        --         --
    04 Oct-10 Oct       3        --        --          8

There were no MODIS-MODVOLC alerts at Marapi during 2004.

Information Contacts: Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (DVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/advisories.shtml, Email: Darwin.vaac@bom.gov.au).
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07/2011 (BGVN 36:07) Increased seismicity in 2004; small ash-bearing eruptions in 2011

This report first describes a 2005 increase in seismicity at Marapi, then presents a 2010 field map of Marapi's active crater area, and notes several plumes seen in 2011 to 1 km above the vent, some bearing ash. As previously noted, Marapi had generated explosions in 2000 and 2001, and a small ash-bearing eruption in 2004 (BGVN 25:11, 27:01, and 30:01).

Activity during 2005. During the week 8-14 July 2005, the number of earthquakes at Marapi increased dramatically. The seismic network recorded 112 deep volcanic earthquakes, compared to a normal average of 7 per week. Other changes were absent at the volcano, for example, fumarole temperatures were normal and gas emissions typically rose ~ 50 m above the summit. As a result of the increased seismicity, the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) raised the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Activity during 2010. During a 4-day visit to Marapi in July 2010, volcanologist Mary-Ann del Marmol created a sketch map of the area (figure 3). More detailed mapping and rock observations of the old crater side of the volcano were thwarted by dense vegetation there.

Figure 3. A sketch map of Marapi's active crater and vicinity prepared in the course of fieldwork during July 2010. The labels "S.A. Bonjol" and "S.A. Sabu" identify drainages. Courtesy of Mary-Ann del Marmol (University of Ghent, Belgium).

Activity during 2011. According to CVGHM, seismicity increased during 21 June-3 August 2011. Observers noted that during June, July, and the first day of August white plumes rose 15-75 m above the summit craters. On 3 August dense gray plumes rose 300-1,000 m above the crater on eight occasions. That same day CVGHM raised the Alert Level again to 2. Visitors and residents were prohibited from going within a 3 km radius of the summit.

According to a news article, two eruptions from Marapi occurred on 9 August 2011.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/); Mary-Ann del Marmol, Geology and Soil Science Department, University of Ghent, Krijgslaan, 281 S8/A.326, B-9000 Gent, Belgium (URL: http://www.volcanology.ugent.be/delmarmol.htm); Metro TV News (URL: http://www.metrotvnews.com/).
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Gunung Marapi, not to be confused with the better-known Merapi volcano on Java, is Sumatra's most active volcano. This massive complex stratovolcano rises 2000 m above the Bukittinggi plain in the Padang Highlands. A broad summit contains multiple partially overlapping summit craters constructed within the small 1.4-km-wide Bancah caldera. The summit craters are located along an ENE-WSW line, with volcanism migrating to the west. More than 50 eruptions, typically consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been recorded since the end of the 18th century; no lava flows outside the summit craters have been reported in historical time.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2014 Feb 3 ± 2 days 2014 Feb 26 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2012 Sep 26 2012 Sep 26 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2012 Mar 1 ± 3 days 2012 May 18 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2011 Aug 3 2011 Oct 12 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2004 Aug 5 2004 Aug 5 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2001 Apr 13 2001 Jun 5 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Verbeek Crater
2000 Mar 11 2000 Apr 3 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1999 Apr (in or before) 1999 Sep (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1987 Jan 15 1994 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Verbeek Crater
1984 Nov 15 1984 Nov 15 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kepundan Tuo, Kepundan B
1983 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kepundan Tuo and Kepundan Verbeek
1982 Dec 1982 Dec Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1982 Mar 10 (in or before) 1982 May Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1980 Mar 29 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1975 Jan 1979 Sep 11 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Verbeek Crater, B and C Craters
1973 Jul 24 1973 Jul 24 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Verbeek Crater
1970 Jul 26 ± 5 days 1971 Aug 20 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bungo, Bongsu, Tuo, B and C Craters
[ 1968 Dec ] [ 1968 Dec ] Uncertain 1   Craters B and C
1967 Apr 1967 Jul Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Crater C, Bungsu Crater
1966 Mar 1966 Jun Confirmed 1 Historical Observations B and C Craters, Kebun Bungo
1958 Oct 17 1958 Oct 25 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1958 Jun 23 1958 Jun 23 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1954 Aug 1957 Dec (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kepundan Bongsu, B and C Craters
1950 Sep 27 1952 Jun 14 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kepundan Bongsu, Kuniang, Jinggo
1949 Oct 15 ± 5 days 1949 Oct 22 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1949 Apr 29 1949 Apr 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kepundan Bongsu
1943 ± 5 years Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations Kepundan Kuniang, Kepundan Jinggo
1932 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1930 Apr 9 (in or before) 1930 Dec 7 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1929 Jun 22 1929 Jun 22 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kepundan Bongsu
1927 Feb 5 1927 Aug 3 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Kepundan Bongsu
1925 Apr (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations
1919 Feb 28 1919 Mar 1 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1918 Aug 15 ± 5 days 1918 Aug 15 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1918 Mar 8 1918 Mar 10 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1917 Jun 16 1917 Sep 16 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1916 May 5 1916 Jul 7 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1915 Dec Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1914 Jul 1 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1913 Jun 23 1913 Jul 31 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1911 Nov 2 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1910 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1907 Dec 17 1908 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1905 Nov 1 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1904 Apr 18 1904 Apr 18 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1889 Mar 27 1889 Apr 17 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1888 Feb 19 1888 Mar 19 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1886 Mar 31 1886 May 3 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1885 Nov 12 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1883 Dec 1883 Dec Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1883 Jun 25 1883 Aug 27 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1878 Dec ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1876 Aug 1877 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1876 Apr 4 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1871 Sep 24 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1871 Apr 24 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1863 May 23 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1861 Apr Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1855 Oct 2 1856 Jan Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1854 Aug 29 (in or after) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1845 Nov 16 1845 Nov 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1833 1834 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1822 Jul 23 1822 Jul 31 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1807 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1770 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Merapi | Berapi | Fort De Kock

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Bancah Caldera
    Bantjah Caldera
Caldera
Bongsu, Kepundan
    Bungsu, Kapundan
Crater 2733 m
Jinggo, Kepundan
    Djinggo, Kapundan
Crater
Kebun Bungo
    Kabun Bungo
Crater
Kuniang, Kepundan
    Kuniang, Kapundan
Crater
Tuo, Kepundan
    Tuo, Kapundan
Crater 2744 m
Verbeek, Kawah
    Tenga, Kepundan
Crater
Steam issues from two small craters near the center of Marapi's broad E-W-trending summit. The background ridge in the shadow is the eastern rim of a larger crater, Kebun Bungo.

Photo by J. Mataheumual, 1978 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Marapi, seen here from the west, has an elongated profile as a result of migration of summit craters along an E-W line. Marapi is Sumatra's most active volcano, with more than 50 small-to-moderate explosive eruptions since the end of the 18th century. Gunung Marapi, not to be confused with the more well-known Merapi volcano on Java, is a complex stratovolcano with multiple summit craters that rises 2000 m above the Padang Highlands in central Sumatra.

Photo by J. Matahelumual, 1978 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The composite volcano Marapi rises 2000 m above the Padang Highlands of central Sumatra in this view from Padankuda. Sumatra's most active volcano, Marapi has produced more than 50 historical eruptions, all of which have originated from an broad E-W-trending line of summit craters.

Photo by Agus Solihin, 1991 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Steaming Kawah Verbeek is named after the renowned 19th-century Dutch geologist best known for his monograph on the 1883 eruption of Krakatau volcano. Kawah Verbeek, also known as Kapundan Tenga or Kepundan Tenga, is located at the western end of a chain of several historically active craters along an E-W line at the summit of Sumatra's Marapi volcano.

Photo by Gede Suantika, 1992 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The 325-m-wide Kepundan Bongsu, one of several historically active craters at the summit of Sumatra's Marapi volcano, is the largest and westernmost of a chain of craters covering a 1.2-km-long E-W line. Marapi is Sumatra's most active volcano, producing more than 50 small-to-moderate explosive eruptions since the end of the 18th century.

Photo by Gede Suantika, 1992 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Three small craters, Kepundan A, B, and C, seen here right-to-left, respectively, from the east, are oriented transverse to the elongated E-W-trending summit of Marapi volcano in Sumatra. A steam plume rises from Kepundan C. The craters are among the many vents at Marapi that have been active during historical time.

Photo by Gede Suantika, 1992 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
An ash-rich eruption column rises above a town at the western foot of Sumatra's Marapi volcano on May 10, 1992. The activity was part of an ongoing eruption that began in January 1987 from Verbeek crater. The explosions frequently produced light ashfall in surrounding areas, but did not cause damage. The eruption included growth of a lava dome in the summit crater.

Photo by Gede Suantika, 1992 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The small craters Kepundan B and C in the foreground, seen here from the north, are two of many historically active craters along the elongated summit of Marapi volcano on Sumatra. A thick steam plume in the background rises above the westernmost summit crater, Kawah Bongsu.

Photo by Gede Suantika, 1993 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Marapi, rising above ricefields below its western flank between Bukittinggi and Kotabaru, is Sumatra's most active volcano. More than 50 small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred since the end of the 18th century. Marapi, not to be confused with the more well-known Merapi volcano on Java, is a complex elongated stratovolcano with multiple summit craters that rises 2000 m above the Padang Highlands in central Sumatra.

Photo by M. A. Syarif, 1987 (Volcanological Society of Indonesia).
An ash plume rises from the summit crater of Marapi volcano in this undated photo, perhaps from the late 1980s or early 1990s. Marapi is Sumatra's most active volcano, and frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 18th century.

Photo by Igan Sutawidjaja (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Forested Marapi, rising above ricefields, is Sumatra's most active volcano. More than 50 small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred since the end of the 18th century. Marapi, not to be confused with the more well-known Merapi volcano on Java, is a complex elongated stratovolcano with multiple summit craters that rises 2000 m above the Padang Highlands in central Sumatra.

Photo by Amin, 2003 (Centre of Volcanology & Geological Hazard Mitigation, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

de Waard D, Klompe H F, 1952. The recent activity of G. Marapi in central Sumatra. Nat Tijd Ned-Indie, 108: 131-140.

Hantke G, 1955. Ubersicht uber die Vulkanische Tatigkeit 1951-1953. Bull Volc, 16: 71-114.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Westerveld J, 1952. Quaternary volcanism on Sumatra. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 63: 561-594.

Volcano Types

Complex

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
706
57,453
818,039
4,059,773

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Marapi Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.