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  • Indonesia
  • Sumatra
  • Caldera
  • Unknown
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 2.58°N
  • 98.83°E

  • 2157 m
    7075 ft

  • 261090
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

There are no activity reports for Toba.

 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for Toba.

There are no Holocene eruptions known for Toba. If this volcano has had large eruptions prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Aldiss D T, Whandoyo R, Ghazali S A, Kusyono, 1983. Geologic map of the Sidikalang and (part of) Sinabang quadrangles, Sumatra. Geol Res Devel Centre Indonesia, 1:250,000 scale map and 41 p text.

Chesner C A, Rose W I, 1991. Stratigraphy of the Toba tuffs and the evolution of the Toba caldera complex, Sumatra, Indonesia. Bull Volc, 53: 343-356.

Clarke M C G, Ghazali S A, Harahap H, Kusyono, Stephenson B, 1982. Geologic map of the Pematangsiantar quadrangle, Sumatra. Geol Res Devel Centre Indonesia, 1:250,000 scale map and 26 p text.

Knight M D, Walker G P L, Ellwood B B, Diehl J F, 1986. Stratigraphy, paleomagnetism, and magnetic fabric of the Toba Tuffs: constraints on the sources and eruptive styles. J Geophys Res, 91: 10,355-10,382.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.

Rampino M R, Ambrose S H, 2000. Volcanic winter in the Garden of Eden: the Toba supereruption and the late Pleistocene human population crash. In: McCoy R W, Heiken G (eds), {Volcanic Hazards and Disasters in Human Antiquity}, Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap, 345: 71-82.

Rose W I, Chesner C A, 1990. Worldwide dispersal of ash and gases from earth's largest known eruption: Toba, Sumatra, 75 ka. Palaeogeog, Palaeoclimat, Palaeoecol, 89: 269-275.

The 35 x 100 km Toba caldera, the Earth's largest Quaternary caldera, was formed during four major Pleistocene ignimbrite-producing eruptions beginning at 1.2 million years ago. The latest of these produced the Young Toba Tuff (YTT) about 74,000 years ago. The YTT represents the world's largest known Quaternary eruption, ejecting about 2500-3000 cu km (dense rock equivalent) of ignimbrite and airfall ash from vents at the NW and SE ends of present-day Lake Toba. Resurgent doming forming the massive Samosir Island and Uluan Peninsula structural blocks postdated eruption of the YTT. Additional post-YTT eruptions include emplacement of a series of lava domes, growth of the solfatarically active Pusukbukit volcano on the south margin of the caldera, and formation of Tandukbenua volcano at the NW-most rim of the caldera. Lack of vegetation suggests that this volcano may be only a few hundred years old (Chesner and Rose, 1991).