Sinabung

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  • Indonesia
  • Sumatra
  • Stratovolcano
  • 2014 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 3.17°N
  • 98.392°E

  • 2460 m
    8069 ft

  • 261080
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

16 April-22 April 2014

Based on webcam images, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 April an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



 Available Weekly Reports


2014: January | February | March | April
2013: September | October | November | December
2010: August | September


16 April-22 April 2014

Based on webcam images, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 April an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 April-8 April 2014

PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 23 March-8 April based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose at most 1.2 km above the lava dome. Lava had traveled 2.5 km down the flanks as of 6 April and was incandescent at various locations. Incandescent material originating from the edges of the lava dome and flow traveled up to 2 km S and 500 m SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome decreased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied but were relatively insignificant. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km on the S and SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 March-1 April 2014

Based on webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 March an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. Meteorological cloud cover prevented satellite views. Gas emissions were noted on 30 March.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 March-25 March 2014

PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 15-22 March based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose 500 m above the lava dome daily, and as high as 1 km on 21 March. Lava had traveled 2.4 km down the flanks as of 20 March and was incandescent at various areas. Incandescent material originating from the edges of the lava dome and flow traveled up to 1.5 km S and 200 m SE. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3 km S on 17 March. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome decreased slightly. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied between 300 and 598 tons per day, indicating no new magma. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


12 March-18 March 2014

PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 8-15 March based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose from the lava dome daily, as high as 1 km on most days; plumes rose 2 km on 12 March. Incandescent material originating from various parts of the lava dome traveled up to 2 km S and SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome increased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied between 300 and 598 tons per day. Observations on 13 March showed that lava from the dome had flowed 2.4 km downslope. The report also noted that three people burned during a pyroclastic flow on 1 February later died in the hospital bringing the total number of casualties from that day to 17. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 March-11 March 2014

Based on wind data, satellite images, and webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-7 and 9-11 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4 km (12,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW. Ash plumes drifted 35-165 km SW and W during 6 and 9-11 March.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 February-4 March 2014

Based on wind data, webcam images, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25 February-1 March and 3-4 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4 km (10,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km E, NE, N, NW, W, and SW.

Sources: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 February-25 February 2014

On 19 February BNPB reported that villagers outside of the 5-km evacuation zone around Sinabung continued to return to their homes. Based on wind data and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19 and 21-22 February ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-35 km NE and SW. Ash plumes were visible in webcam images during 23-25 February; ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. on 25 February and drifted 45 km E. On 24 February BNPB noted that 16,361 people remained in 34 evacuation shelters. Dense white plumes rose 100-300 m above the dome and incandescent material as far as 2 km SE from the dome was observed.

Sources: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 February-18 February 2014

Based on webcam images, Indonesian Met office notices, wind data, and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-13 and 15-18 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-95 km N, NE, and E. On 16 February BNPB reported that villagers outside of the 5-km evacuation zone around Sinabung continued to return to their homes.

Sources: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 February-11 February 2014

Based on reports from PVMBG, BNPB reported on 8 and 9 February that seismicity at Sinabung continued to be dominated by hybrid earthquakes, indicating pressure below the crater and a growing lava dome. Earthquakes associated with avalanches increased. The 9 February report noted that the number of displaced people reached 32,351 (9,991 families) in 42 evacuation centers. Refugees from 17 villages outside the 5-km radius were allowed to return to their homes, starting with four villages during the first phase.

Source: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)


29 January-4 February 2014

PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 24-31 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. On 24 January dense white plumes rose as high as 1 km. During 25-26 and 28-31 January dense grayish-white plumes rose 0.1-1.5 km; on 27 January plumes rose 4 km. Each day pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km SE and S. Incandescent material was observed 0.2-1.5 km SE of the vent. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes continued to decrease. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.

Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported on 31 January that since activity at Sinabung had not increased residents from 16 villages outside of the 5-km radius were allowed to return to their homes. At 1030 on 1 February a large dome collapse generated pyroclastic flows that traveled 4.5 km S, killing 15 and injuring two people that had entered the 5-km exclusion zone without permission. On 4 February the number of displaced people reached 31,739 (9,915 families) in 42 evacuation centers, many from outside of the exclusion zone.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)


22 January-28 January 2014

Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that between 1200 and 1800 on 23 January pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5 km down Sinabung's S flank. The number of displaced people reached 28,715 (9,045 families) in 42 evacuation centers. Based on webcam views, satellite images, ground reports, and altitude and drift directions derived from wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-23 and 25-27 January ash plumes rose to an altitude 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-185 km N, NE, and E.

Sources: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 January-21 January 2014

PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 10-17 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Each day brownish white or gray and white ash plumes rose as high as 5 km, pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km E, SE, and S, and incandescent material was observed on the S and SE flanks as far as 3 km. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes continued to drop, however. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


8 January-14 January 2014

PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 3-10 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Each day ash plumes rose as high as 5 km, pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km E, SE, and S, and incandescent material was observed as far as 2 km SE and E. Roaring was periodically heard and burned trees on the S flank were noted on 4 January. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes dropped dramatically, however. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 7 km on the SE flank and 5 km elsewhere. Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that the number of hybrid earthquakes decreased on 11 January and volcanic earthquakes increased. Ash plumes rose 1-5 km and drifted W, and pyroclastic flows traveled 1-4.5 km SE and 1 km E. Several villages in the Namanteran district reported ashfall. The 11 January report noted that the number of displaced people reached 25,516 (7,898 families) in 38 evacuation centers.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)


1 January-7 January 2014

Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that during 30-31 December 2013 Sinabung continued to be very active. Ash plumes rose as high as 7 km above the lava dome, pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 3.5 km SE, and incandescent avalanches traveled 1.5 km SE. On 3 January the lava dome continued to grow and collapse. Pyroclastic flows occurred 172 times and traveled 2-4 km SE, and ash plumes rose 2-6 km. Two villages located 6.5 km SE, Jerawa and Desa Pintu Besi, were evacuated. On 4 January pyroclastic flows were larger and more frequent. They continued to travel up to 5 km SE as well as 3.5 km SSE. Ash plumes rose 2-4 km. On 5 January the number of hybrid earthquakes increased, indicating a growing lava dome, and pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5-4.5 km SE. During 4-5 January pyroclastic flows were recorded 426 times. On 7 January ash plumes rose 1-6 km and drifted SW, and pyroclastic flows continued to travel 1.5-4.5 km SE. The number of refugees reached 22,145.

Source: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)


25 December-31 December 2013

PVMBG reported that seismicity at Sinabung increased during 21-26 December and indicated rising magma and lava-dome growth. Observers in Ndokum Siroga, about 8.5 km away, noted dense white plumes rising 70-1,200 m above the crater. Roaring was also periodically heard. A lava dome in the North Crater, visible on 24 December, was 56 m high and 210 m wide. During 25-26 December plumes were white and gray, and rose 300-400 m above the crater. On 26 December the lava-dome volume was estimated to be over 1 million cubic meters, with a growth rate of 3.5 cubic meters per second. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.

On 30 December Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that the number of displaced people reached 19,126 (5, 979 families). They also noted that activity at Sinabung had increased. Collapsing parts of the lava dome generated block-and-ash flows as well as pyroclastic flows which traveled as far as 3.5 km down the SE flank. Explosions and pyroclastic flows generated ash plumes that rose at least 6 km above the crater.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)


18 December-24 December 2013

Based on webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km W. During 23-24 December ash plumes recorded by the webcam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


11 December-17 December 2013

PVMBG reported that observers in Ndokum Siroga, about 8.5 km away, noted gray plumes rising 1 km above Sinabung on 6 December. Grayish-white plumes rose as high as 400 m on 7 December, and dense white plumes also rose as high as 400 m the next day. Dense grayish-to-white plumes rose 70-200 m on 9 December. White plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater during 10-13 December. Tremor during 6-13 December was recorded continuously, with varying amplitude. The number of low-frequency earthquakes significantly increased on 7 December, and the number of hybrid earthquakes increased the next day. RSAM values had steadily increased since 28 November. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also know as CVGHM)


4 December-10 December 2013

Based on webcam data, wind data, satellite image analysis, and PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Later that day and during 5-6 December ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 10 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW. A few hours later an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 November-3 December 2013

Based on webcam data and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-31 November and 2 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted 150 km W during 30-31 November and 55 km Won 2 December. On 3 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. According to a news report on 2 December, landslides killed nine people in the Gundaling village, 12 km E.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Associated Press


20 November-26 November 2013

PVMBG reported three explosions from Sinabung on 17 November. The first explosion, at 2024, generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted SW, and a pyroclastic flow that traveled 500 m down the SE flank. At 2152 a dense ash plume from an explosion rose 500 m and drifted SW. Incandescent material was ejected 50 m away from the crater. At 2252 an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted SW. At 0704 on 18 November an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 8 km and drifted SW. A pyroclastic flow also traveled 800 m down the SE flank.

On 19 November at 2155 a dense ash plume rose 10 km, drifted SW, and exhibited lightning. Pyroclastic flows again traveled 500 m SE. Multiple explosions on 20 November (at 0240, 0405, 0529, 0619, and 0641) generated ash plumes that rose to heights between 1 and 3.5 km. An explosion at 1716 was detected by the seismic network but cloud cover prevented observations of possible plumes. White plumes rose 100 m on 21 and 23 November; misty conditions prevented visual observations on 22 November. On 23 November scoria fell in the Sigarang-garang and Desa Kuta villages in the NNE. Two explosions on 24 November, at 0043 and 0232, were detected but not visually observed. Ash plumes rose 8 km and drifted NNE at 0727, rose 1 km at 0812, and rose 3 km at 0855. Since Sinabung's activity continued to increase, PVMBG raised the Alert Level to 4 (on a scale of 1-4) on 24 November. PVMBG noted that residents and tourists were not to approach the crater within a 5-km radius, and that remaining residents in 17 villages around the volcano were to be evacuated. On 25 November Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that 17,713 people, out of the 20,270 residents living within 5 km, had been evacuated to 31 shelters.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also know as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)


13 November-19 November 2013

Based on webcam data and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 150 km NW and W. According to a news article, a pyroclastic flow traveled 1.2 km down the SE flank on 14 November, prompting more evacuations from villages near the base of the volcano. The article noted that more than 7,000 people had been evacuated from 10 villages.

An explosion observed with the webcam on 18 November produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. About 30 minutes later an ash plume also visible in satellite images rose to an altitude of 11.3 km (37,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km W. Four hours later satellite images showed ash plumes at an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. to the W of Sinabung and at an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. over the crater. On 19 November the webcam recorded an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. over the crater. A news article stated that later that night that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l.

A news article from 20 November noted that volcanologists updated the hazard map for Sinabung. The second-tier disaster-prone area, previously defined as a radius of 2-3 km from Sinabung’s crater, was expanded to 4-5 km.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Jakarta Post, Jakarta Post, Jakarta Post


6 November-12 November 2013

Based on information from the Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, webcam data, wind data, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The next day an ash plume rose to the same altitude but was not observed in satellite images due to meteorological cloud cover. According to webcam views an eruption on 8 November produced a low-level ash plume. The Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, the webcam, and satellite data detecting sulfur dioxide indicated two explosions on 10 November. The first one, at 0720, generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. The altitude of the second plume, from an explosion at 1600, was unknown. An ash plume on 11 November rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 20 km SW. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km NW.

According to a news article posted on 12 November, more than 5,000 people from seven villages had evacuated their homes in recent days. The article noted that the government had called for an evacuation of people living within a 3-km radius of Sinabung, but people outside of that zone had also been evacuating.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Agence France-Presse (AFP)


30 October-5 November 2013

An eruption began at 0126 on 3 November that generated ash plumes up to 7 km a.s.l. (~23,000 ft) and triggered evacuations from communities within 3 km of the volcano (approximately 1,681 residents); the ash plume drifted W. Rumbling sounds that lasted up to 10 minutes long were noted by staff at the Sinabung Observation Post (~8.5 km from the volcano). News agencies reported that this was the second largest eruption since the 24 October event that displaced more than 3,300 people.

The Alert Level was increased from Level II (Watch) to Level III (Alert) at 0300. A second eruption occurred in the afternoon. PVMBG reported that Sinabung had been erupting more frequently and with increasing energy.

PVMBG reported that elevated seismicity, including events of continuous tremor, was ongoing since 29 October. Relatively small ash explosions were also reported prior to the larger events on 3 November. During 29 October-2 November plumes rose to 200-2,000 m above the summit. Gas measurements conducted during 31 October and 1-2 November showed an SO2 flux of 226-426 tons per day; this was a general decrease in emissions. During 31 October ashfall was noted on the SE flank up to 1 km from the summit.

PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred at 1423 on 5 November. This event lasted for 20 minutes and generated an ash plume up to 3,000 m above the crater that drifted SW. Rumbling sounds were also noted by staff at the observation post. Pyroclastic flows were observed at 1431; the flows extended 1 km down the SE flank. No casualties were reported due to the event. The evacuated residents remained displaced on 5 November.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Associated Press


23 October-29 October 2013

PVMBG reported that after 29 September, the day the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4), seismicity at Sinabung declined but continued to fluctuate through 22 October. White plumes were seen rising 100-300 m from the crater. On 22 October plumes were also grayish and rose 250 m. Vents appeared on the N flank and produced dense white plumes that rose 70 m. On 23 October landslides at two locations were observed, and explosions occurred at 1619 and 1651. Plumes rose from the summit crater and from a fracture formed on 15 October near Lau Kawar. Fog prevented observations for a period after the explosions; once the fog cleared dense gray plumes were observed. A third explosion occurred at 2100. On 24 October an explosion at 0550 generated an ash plume that rose 3 km and caused ashfall in areas S. Another explosion was detected at 0612. According to a news article about 3,300 people that evacuated their homes were mostly from two villages within 3 km of Sinabung, in the Karo district.

Based on information from the Indonesian Meteorological Office, the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption at 1737 on 26 October generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. At 0700 and 1200 on 27 October a webcam showed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting over 35 km NE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also know as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Associated Press


18 September-24 September 2013

According to the Darwin VAAC, the webcam recording activity at Sinabung showed on 18 September that ash had dissipated. The VAAC also noted that PVMBG confirmed Sinabung was degassing and not emitting any ash. According to a news article, about 6,000 people that had evacuated after the 15 September eruption started to return home on 22 September. The article noted that the volcano was continuing to emit ash.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), The Jakarta Post


11 September-17 September 2013

CVGHM reported that seismicity at Sinabung fluctuated in 2012-2013, including during July-September 2013. During 1-14 September dense white plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater, and at 0255 on 14 September incandescence from the crater was observed. According to news articles an eruption at 0245 on 15 September produced an ash plume and ashfall in Sukameriah (50 km NE), Kutarayat, Kutagugung (16 km SW), and Berastagi (14 km E). About 3,000 people evacuated from areas within a 3-km radius of the volcano, and several flights at Medan's airport (55 km NW) were canceled. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

An eruption at 1203 on 17 September ejected tephra and a dense ash plume that rose higher than the plume from 15 September. According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km SE. On 18 September a low-level ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), United Press International, Agence France-Presse (AFP), The Jakarta Post


22 September-28 September 2010

CVGHM reported that on 22 September a white plume from Sinabung rose as high as 100 m above the crater. On 23 September the Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


15 September-21 September 2010

Based on information from CVGHM and views through a web camera, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-18 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. CVGHM reported a slow rate of inflation during 15-18 September followed by deflation during 19-21 September. Fog mostly prevented visual observations. On 20 September diffuse white plumes rose 30 m above the crater and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


8 September-14 September 2010

CVGHM reported that during 8-11 September Sinabung emitted white-to-gray plumes that rose 30-100 m above the crater and generally drifted E. Deformation measurements during 8-14 September showed a slow rate of inflation. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and the CVGHM web camera, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 and 14 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.6 km (14,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 September-7 September 2010

According to news articles, about 6,000 of the approximately 30,000 people that evacuated the area around Sinabung after the eruption during 29-30 August returned home within a few days because activity had decreased. The Darwin VAAC reported a large explosion on 3 September, based on information from CVGHM. News reports stated that the explosion vibrated homes and trees on the flanks, and generated a 3-km-high ash plume. CVGHM reported that another large explosion on 7 September produced an ash plume that rose 5 km above the crater and drifted SE. Strong vibrations caused by the explosion were detected as far away as 8 km SE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Associated Press, The Jakarta Post, CNN


25 August-31 August 2010

CVGHM reported that on 28 August Sinabung emitted diffuse white plumes that rose 20 m and showed no signs of increased activity. On 29 August rumbling was heard, prompting authorities to contact and move people living within a 6-km-radius of the volcano. Later that day, an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater, and the Alert Level was raised to 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Media footage of the eruption at one point showed two closely spaced ash plumes from vents near the summit; the ash plumes caused domestic flights to be diverted. The next day a second, more powerful, explosion generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater. The number of people media sources reported had evacuated ranged from 20,000 to 30,000. Ash fell in nearby areas and a strong sulfur odor was reported. Nighttime video showed incandescent material descending the flank of the volcano.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Associated Press, Daily Mail


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Sep 15 2014 Jan 16 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2010 Aug 27 2010 Sep 18 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1881 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Cameron N R, Aspden J A, Bridge D M, Djunuddin A, Ghazali S A, Harahap H, Hariwidjaja S, Johari, Kartawa W, Keats W, Ngabito H, Rock N M S, Whandoyo R, 1982. Geologic map of the Medan quadrangle, Sumatra. Geol Res Devel Centre Indonesia, 1:250,000 map and 26 p text.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical, 2460-m-high andesitic-to-dacitic volcano is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. An unconfirmed eruption was noted in 1881, and solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks of Sinabung in 1912. No confirmed historical eruptions were recorded prior to explosive eruptions during August-September 2010 that produced ash plumes to 5 km above the summit.