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  • Indonesia
  • Indonesia
  • Stratovolcano(es)
  • 1881 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 3.23°N
  • 98.52°E

  • 2212 m
    7255 ft

  • 261070
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Sibayak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Sibayak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Sibayak.

Sibayak and Pinto are twin volcanoes within a compound caldera open to the north. The 900-m-wide crater of Sibayak is partially filled on the north by Pinto volcano. A lava flow traveled through a gap in the western crater wall from the summit lava dome of Sibayak. Area residents record legends of eruptions. Neumann van Padang (1983) cited a report by Hoekstra of ash clouds that were emitted from the volcano in 1881.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1881 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.




Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Baros Cone 3° 12' 0" N 98° 34' 0" E
Barus, Bukit Cone 3° 12' 0" N 98° 34' 0" E
Pinto, Mount Twin volcano 2212 m 3° 15' 0" N 98° 30' 0" E
Simacak, Uruk Stratovolcano 3° 15' 0" N 98° 26' 0" E
Sibayak volcano in NE Sumatra and its twin volcano Mt. Pinto are constructed within a compound caldera. The slightly higher Mt. Pinto partially overtops the 900-m-wide crater of Sibayak on the north. The summit contains a lava dome and an area of hydrothermal alteration visible in this photo. An ash eruption from Sibayak was recorded in 1881, and area residents note legends of eruptions.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Steam rises from an area of hydrothermal alteration near the summit of Sibayak volcano. Sibayak is seen here from a village in the flat-floored caldera moat south of the summit.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The skyline ridge is part of the wall of a compound caldera in which Sibayak and Pinto volcanoes were constructed. The lower slope of Sibayak volcano rises at the extreme right above the caldera moat, which is occupied by villages and agricultural land.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Climbers tread a path near the summit of Sibayak volcano. The horizontal forested ridge in the center background, forming part of the southern caldera wall of Sibayak volcano, is viewed from an area of hydrothermally altered rock near the volcano's summit.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
A dramatic 300-m-wide explosion crater near the summit of Sibayak volcano contains a small turquoise-colored crater lake and areas of extensive hydrothermal alteration and sulfur deposition. Steam rises above active fumaroles at several locations along the far crater wall.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
A small crater lake near the summit of Sibayak volcano shows active fumaroles and areas of sulfur deposition. An active fumarole is visible at the upper left. The lake is popular destination for weekend climbers from villages and towns surrounding the volcano.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
An explosion crater containing a small turquoise-colored lake and sulfur-encrusted active fumaroles cuts the summit lava dome of Sibayak volcano. The volcano is considered to be the abode of Nini Kertah Ernala ("Grandmother of the Gleaming Sulfur"), the mountain's spirit.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Gunung Sibayak, seen here from the south, is the southernmost of two twin volcanoes constructed within a compound caldera. Several villages occupy the flat-bottomed caldera moat. Steam rises from fumaroles on the flank of a lava dome in the summit crater.

Anonymous photo, 1990.

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Cameron N R, Aspden J A, Bridge D M, Djunuddin A, Ghazali S A, Harahap H, Hariwidjaja S, Johari, Kartawa W, Keats W, Ngabito H, Rock N M S, Whandoyo R, 1982. Geologic map of the Medan quadrangle, Sumatra. Geol Res Devel Centre Indonesia, 1:250,000 map and 26 p text.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Neumann van Padang M, 1983. History of volcanology in the former Netherlands East Indies. Scripta Geol, 71: 1-76.

Volcano Types

Lava dome

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Sibayak Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.