Kuwae

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 16.829°S
  • 168.536°E

  • -2 m
    -7 ft

  • 257070
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

There are no activity reports for Kuwae.



 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for Kuwae.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1980 Aug 20 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 0   Karua
[ 1979 Sep ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 0   Karua
[ 1977 Feb 1 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 0   Karua
1974 Feb 4 ± 4 days 1974 Sep (?) Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Karua
[ 1973 May 5 ± 4 days ] [ 1973 Oct ] Uncertain 0   Karua
[ 1972 Mar 5 ± 5 days ] [ 1972 May 15 ± 5 days ] Uncertain 0   Karua
1971 Feb 22 1971 Feb 22 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Karua
[ 1970 Sep 12 ] [ 1970 Sep 20 ] Uncertain 0   Karua
1959 Sep 18 (?) 1959 Sep 20 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Karua
1958 Oct 7 (?) 1958 Dec 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Karua
1953 Feb 12 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Karua
1952 Oct 3 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Karua
1949 Oct 1949 Dec Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Karua
1949 Apr Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Karua
1948 Sep 22 1948 Sep 29 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Karua
1923 1925 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Karua
1897 May 25 (?) 1901 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Karua
1430 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Crawford A J, Greene H G, Exon N F, 1988. Geology, petrology and geochemistry of submarine volcanoes around Epi Island, New Hebrides island arc. In: Greene H G and Wong F L (eds) {Geology and Offshore Resources of Pacific Island Arcs--Vanuatu Region}, Circum-Pacific Council Energy Min Resour Earth Sci Ser, 8: 301-327.

Eissen J-P, Blot C, Louat R, 1991. Chronologie de l'activite volcanique historique de l'arc insulaire des Nouvelles-Hebrides de 1595 a 1991. ORSTOM Rapports Sci Tech Sci Terre Geol-Geophys, 2: 1-69.

Fisher N H, 1957. Melanesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 5: 1-105.

Monzier M, Robin C, Eissen J-P, 1994. Kuwae (~1425 A.D.): the forgotten caldera. J Volc Geotherm Res, 59: 207-218.

Nemeth K, Cronin S J, White J D L, 2007. Kuwae caldera and climate confusion. Open Geol J, 1: 7-11.

Robin C, Monzier M, Crawford A J, Eggins S M, 1993. The geology, volcanology, petrology-geochemistry, and tectonic evolution of the New Hebrides island arc, Vanuatu. IAVCEI Canberra 1993 excursion guide, Aust Geol Surv Org, Rec 1993/59, 86 p.

Warden A J, 1967b. The geology of the Central Islands. New Hebrides Condominium Geol Surv Reg Rpt, 5: 1-108.

Williams C E F, Warden A J, 1964. Progress Report of the Geological Survey for the Period 1959-1962. New Hebrides: British Service, 75 p.

Witter J B, Self S, 2007. The Kuwae (Vanuatu) eruption of AD 1452: potential magnitude and volatile release. Bull Volc, 69: 301-318.

The largely submarine Kuwae caldera occupies the area between Epi and Tongoa islands. The 6 x 12 km caldera contains two basins that cut the NW end of Tongoa Island and the flank of the late-Pleistocene or Holocene Tavani Ruru volcano on the SE tip of Epi Island. Native legends and radiocarbon dates from pyroclastic-flow deposits have been correlated with a 1452 CE ice-core peak thought to be associated with collapse of Kuwae caldera; however, others considered the deposits to be of smaller-scale eruptions and the ice-core peak to be associated with another unknown major South Pacific eruption. The submarine volcano Karua lies near the northern rim of Kuwae caldera and is one of the most active volcanoes of Vanuatu. It has formed several ephemeral islands since it was first observed in eruption during 1897.