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Billy Mitchell, a small pyroclastic shield immediately NE of Bagana volcano, has produced some of the largest Holocene eruptions of Papua New Guinea. Andesitic-to-dacitic Billy Mitchell volcano is truncated by a 2-km-wide caldera containing a shallow lake with a small island near its southern shore. Two major explosive eruptions, one about 900 years ago and the other about 370 years ago, produced dacitic pyroclastic-fall deposits that cover most of the northern half of Bougainville Island. The younger eruption may have been responsible for formation of the nearly vertical, steep-walled summit caldera. Pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits from Billy Mitchell extend 25 km to the eastern coast of Bougainville Island.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1580 ± 20 years||Unknown||Confirmed||6||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)|
|1030 ± 25 years||Unknown||Confirmed||5||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|Reini||Stratovolcano||1694 m||6° 8' 0" S||155° 14' 0" E|
|The beautiful caldera lake of Billy Mitchell provides a dramatic setting for unvegetated Bagana volcano, one of the most active in Papua New Guinea. The Solomon Sea can be seen in the distance to the SW. Two major explosive eruptions from Billy Mitchell, one about 900 and the other about 370 years ago, produced pyroclastic-fall deposits that cover most of the northern half of Bougainville Island and pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits that extend 25 km to the eastern coast. The younger eruption may have been responsible for formation of the summit caldera.
Photo by Wally Johnson, 1988 (Australia Bureau of Mineral Resources).
|Billy Mitchell is a small pyroclastic shield truncated by a small 2-km-wide caldera containing a beautiful caldera lake. It is seen here from the north, with the eroded forested Reini volcano on the center horizon and neighboring Bagana volcano at the upper right. Billy Mitchell has been the source of some of the largest Holocene eruptions of Papua New Guinea. Two major explosive eruptions, one about 900 years ago and the other about 370 years ago, produced pyroclastic-fall deposits that cover most of the northern half of Bougainville Island.
Photo by Wally Johnson, 1989 (Australia Bureau of Mineral Resources).
|Much of the left side of this NASA image with north to the upper left is covered by volcanic products from Tore volcano in the Emperor Range on NW Bougainville Island. The Tore massif lies to the left of the light-colored area at the center of the image, Balbi volcano. Two Pleistocene ignimbrites from Tore formed a broad fan that extends the coastline to the west (lower left). The dark-colored caldera lake of Billy Mitchell volcano is at the right, above an ash plume originating from Bagana volcano.
NASA Space Shuttle image ISS001-358-32, 2001 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Blake D H, Miezitis Y, 1967. Geology of Bougainville and Buka Islands, New Guinea. Aust Bur Min Resour Geol Geophys Bull, 93: 1-56.
Johnson R W, 1992. . (pers. comm.).
McKee C O, Johnson R W, Rogerson R, 1990. Explosive volcanism on Bougainville Island: ignimbrites, calderas, and volcanic hazards. Proc Pacific Rim Cong 1990, 2: 237-245.
McKee C O, Patia H, Johnson R W, 1988. Contrasting eruptive styles at the adjacent volcanoes Bagana and Billy Mitchell on Bouganville Island, Papua New Guinea. Proc Kagoshima Internatl Conf Volc, p 131-134.
Rogerson R J, Hilyard D B, Finlayson E J, Johnson R W, Mckee C O, 1989. The geology and mineral resources of Bougainville and Buka Islands, Papua New Guinea. Geol Surv Papua New Guinea Mem, no 16.