Rabaul

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  • Papua New Guinea
  • New Britain
  • Pyroclastic shield
  • 2013 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 4.271°S
  • 152.203°E

  • 688 m
    2257 ft

  • 252140
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
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19 March-25 March 2014

RVO reported that explosions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone were detected during 1-11 March, notably during 1 and 6-11 March, and generated ash plumes that rose 1 km and drifted E and SE. Mild ash emissions on other days during 1-15 March also drifted E and SE. Gases from Tavurvur caused browning vegetation on Turangunan (South Daughter) since early January.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



 Available Weekly Reports


2014: January | February | March
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2006: January | February | August | October | November | December
2005: January | February | March | June | July | August | September | October | November
2004: March
2003: January | March | June | August
2002: February | October | November | December
2001: August | September | October


19 March-25 March 2014

RVO reported that explosions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone were detected during 1-11 March, notably during 1 and 6-11 March, and generated ash plumes that rose 1 km and drifted E and SE. Mild ash emissions on other days during 1-15 March also drifted E and SE. Gases from Tavurvur caused browning vegetation on Turangunan (South Daughter) since early January.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


5 February-11 February 2014

RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was quiet during 26 January-11 February. A pale gray/brown plume rose 50-100 m above the vent and dispersed on 12 February.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 January-7 January 2014

RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was quiet during 16-31 December. White and occasionally blue vapor plumes rose from the crater. An explosion at 0732 on 22 December generated an ash-poor plume. Weak fluctuating glow was visible at night on 31 December.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


18 December-24 December 2013

RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was quiet during 1-15 December. White and occasionally blue vapor plumes rose from the crater, An explosion at 1850 on 15 December generated an ash-poor plume.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


27 November-3 December 2013

RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was generally quiet during 16-30 November. A few explosions during 15-18 November generated ash plumes that rose to low altitudes (no more than 1 km) and drifted E, SE, and NW. Small amounts of fine-grained ash fell around Rabaul town (3-5 km NW). White-to-light-gray emissions rose from the crater the remainder of the month.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


13 November-19 November 2013

RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was quiet during 1-12 November. At 0516 on 13 November a moderate explosion generated a dense billowing ash cloud that rose 1 km above the crater and drifted NW. A few more explosions continued after that, at irregular intervals; notably on 14 November at 0738, 0851, 1308, 2044, and on 15 November at 1903. Ash plumes from these events also drifted NW. During 1-15 November seismicity was very low, except for events associated with the explosions. Deformation measurements showed slight inflation of the central part of the caldera; the long-term inflationary trend continued.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


4 September-10 September 2013

RVO reported that during 1-31 August low-level activity at Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone consisted of pale gray plumes with variable but mostly minor ash content. Intervals between emissions ranged from tens of seconds to hours. Ash plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted NW, causing ashfall mainly in a narrow band between the E part of old Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and Namanula Hill, and further downwind towards Nonga area. Malaguna No. 1 and other parts of Rabaul town were also affected. Most noises were associated with forceful emissions and were short in duration. Seismicity was high and dominated by ash-emission events.

Ash plume characteristics were similar during 1-5 September, although the interval time between emissions ranged from tens of seconds to tens of minutes. Plumes rose 50 m and were immediately blown NW by strong winds which re-suspended older ash deposits in widespread areas including Rabaul town. Residents of Rabaul town reported a chlorine odor; RVO noted that the odor, although uncommon, did not represent an increase in activity.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


28 August-3 September 2013

Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 August ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 August-27 August 2013

Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 25 August ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 150 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


31 July-6 August 2013

RVO reported that during 22-31 July low-level activity consisted of discrete emissions of pale gray ash plumes occurring at short intervals. Some emissions were explosive and generated plumes that rose 2 km above the crater. Plumes drifted E, NE, N, NW, W, and SW, and deposited minor amounts of fine white and gray ash in areas downwind mainly between Namanula and Malaguna No. 1 (with Rabaul Town, 3-5 km NW, in between), and to a lesser extent between the Vulcan area and Malaguna No. 2. Roaring and rumbling noises also continued, often in conjunction with explosions.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


17 July-23 July 2013

RVO reported that during 15-21 July low-level activity consisted of discrete emissions of pale gray ash plumes occurring at short intervals. Some emissions were explosive and generated plumes that rose 2 km above the crater. Plumes drifted E, NE, N, NW, W, and SW, and deposited minor amounts of ash in areas downwind mainly between Nodup and Rapolo (with Rabaul Town, 3-5 km NW, in between), and to a lesser extent in the Vulcan area. Roaring and rumbling noises also continued, often in conjunction with explosions.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


10 July-16 July 2013

RVO reported that during 16 June-14 July white-to-light-gray plumes sometimes containing fine ash rose at most 2 km from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone and drifted NW and SE. Roaring and rumbling noises also continued, and seismicity was low. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) during 16-30 June. The lava dome on the crater floor of Tavurvur continued to glow; on 26 June and 4 July observers near the dome noted brief incandescence at the vent associated with strong and rapid venting. Explosions during 10-14 July generated dense gray ash clouds that drifted NW, causing ashfall between Namanula Hill (3 km W) and Malaguna No.1 (NW), and Pilapila and Tavui Point.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


12 June-18 June 2013

RVO reported that during 1-15 June white vapor plumes sometimes containing fine ash rose at most 800 m from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone and drifted NW and SE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Rabaul town (3-5 km NW). Roaring and rumbling noises also continued, and seismicity was low. Photographers observed a 1-m-high lava dome on the crater floor on 12 June.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


29 May-4 June 2013

RVO reported that during 17-31 May white vapor plumes sometimes containing fine ash rose at most 800 m from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone and drifted NW and SE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Rabaul town (3-5 km NW). Roaring and rumbling noises also continued. Seismicity was low, and slight inflation was detected at a station on Matupit Island (2 km W).

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


15 May-21 May 2013

RVO reported that during 29 April-16 May white vapor plumes sometimes containing fine ash rose at most 200 m from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone and drifted NW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Rabaul town (3-5 km NW). Roaring and rumbling noises also continued. Seismicity was low.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


24 April-30 April 2013

RVO reported that during 24-28 April white vapor plumes sometimes containing ash rose at most 200 m from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone and drifted SE. Roaring and rumbling noises also continued but the intensity was low.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


17 April-23 April 2013

RVO reported that during 15-23 April white vapor plumes containing some ash rose at most 100 m from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone and drifted SE. Roaring and rumbling noises were less intense than during previous weeks. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 April an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 35 km E. Satellite images later that day showed that the plume had dispersed.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 April-16 April 2013

RVO reported that roaring and rumbling noises from Rabaul were heard during 1-14 April, especially at night. White vapor plumes with ash rose at most 100 m above the main crater and drifted NW, causing ashfall in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW).

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


6 March-12 March 2013

RVO reported that ash emissions increased at Rabaul on 3 March and were mainly brownish. Emissions again increased the next day, occurring almost every minute. Billowing brown ash clouds slowly rose from the crater then quickly dispersed to the SE. The emissions decreased to about every hour on 7 March.

Seismicity was very high during 4-6 March and then declined in the evening of 7 March. Three regional earthquakes felt during this period ranged in magnitude from 5.1-5.5, and occurred SSE from Rabaul offshore outside the Wide Bay area at depths ranging between 50 and 60 km. They were felt in Rabaul town with intensities of III-IV. Emissions were absent during 8-11 March.

Activity resumed on 12 March at 1108. An explosion ejected tephra and a gray-to-black billowing ash plume rose 300 m and drifted SE. The forcefulness and color lessened over at least the next 40 minutes; ash plumes rose 100 m, but were carried to 1 km with the wind. Seismicity remained low.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


6 February-12 February 2013

RVO reported that during 4-5 February pale gray ash plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone. On 5 February the ash plumes slowly rose 2 km a.s.l. and drifted E and ENE. On 6 February only white plumes rose from the crater during most of the day. In the evening a gray billowing ash cloud was followed by a sequence of "gentle puffs" of white to light gray ash emissions at irregular intervals into the night and through the morning of 7 February. Fine ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) in the late evening of 6 February.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


30 January-5 February 2013

According to a news report from 31 January, Tokua airport (20 km SE) reopened after being closed due to ash from Rabaul.

RVO reported that during 1-3 February Rabaul was mostly quiet, although occasional explosions produced light gray ash plumes that rose as high as 500 m above sea level and drifted E and ESE. At 1151 on 3 February an explosion produced a dense, dark ash plume that slowly rose 2 km above sea level and drifted ENE. Ash was observed falling on South Daughter (Turangunan, ~2 km to the E) and to the N of it. Dark gray ash emissions continued for the next 15-20 minutes. During the afternoon of 3 February through the morning of 4 February light gray ash emissions rose at irregular intervals and drifted E and ESE. White vapor plumes rose from the crater in between the ash emissions.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Radio Australia


23 January-29 January 2013

RVO reported that during 23-24 January variable emissions at Rabaul mostly consisted of white vapor plumes, although following explosions gray plumes rose 600 m above the crater. Some roaring and rumbling noises were noted. Five explosions were detected between 0656 and 0859 on 24 January; these explosions produced light gray ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above sea level. After the explosion at 0656 white plumes also rose from the crater. All plumes drifted E and ESE. Several explosions were detected between 1630 on 24 January and 0232 on 25 January, although seismicity remained at a low level. White vapor plumes and occasional light gray ash plumes rose from the crater and drifted E and SE.

About five explosions occurred between 1947 on 26 January and 0414 on 27 January, producing plumes that drifted ESE. An explosion at 1000 on 27 January produced a dense, billowing, light gray ash plume that rose a few hundred meters above sea level and drifted ESE. Ash emissions continued until 1500, followed by white vapor emissions. Six explosions were detected overnight, possibly generating ash plumes that drifted E and ESE.

During the morning of 28 January white vapor plumes rose from the crater. At 1003 an explosion produced a dense, billowing, gray ash plume; ash emissions continued from the next hour and then turned to white vapor. Two explosions occurred at 1323 and 1816, generating ash plumes and sub-continuous emissions for one hour and 15-20 minutes, respectively. Plumes again drifted E and ESE. White plumes rose from the crater afterwards through 29 January, but an explosion at 1723 generated a dense, billowing ash plume followed by a short period of sub-continuous emissions.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


16 January-22 January 2013

RVO reported that roaring and rumbling noises from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone began at 2128 on 19 January and lasted for about 15 minutes. Darkness prevented visual observations but the next day ash emissions were evident. On 20 January small discrete explosions generated ash clouds that rose up to 500 m above the crater and drifted E and SE. A few days before the eruption an observer noticed that vegetation on the N flanks of South Daughter (Turangunan, ~2 km to the E) had browned, and on 18 January a climber reported a strong sulfur dioxide odor.

A loud explosion at 2325 on 20 January was followed by a few minutes of continuous roaring and rumbling. During 20-22 January light gray ash emissions occurred at irregular intervals; the color of the plumes suggested mostly water vapor with low ash content. Plumes rose 200 m and drifted ESE on 20 January, and SW, S, and SSE on 21 January. Activity increased during 21-22 January with more frequent ash emissions occurring for extended periods. According to a news article, flights to Tokua airport were cancelled on 21 January.

Emissions subsided in the afternoon of 22 January but small-to-moderate explosions continued. A large explosion at 2147 ejected incandescent fragments, and produced an ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted SE and ESE. Explosions were heard through the night. Ash plumes that rose from the crater on 23 January drifted SE.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), adelaidenow


14 November-20 November 2012

RVO reported that during 16-19 November diffuse white plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 300 m above the crater; plume volume increased during times of high humidity. Seismicity continued at very low level. Measurements two weeks prior showed continuing low levels of gas emissions.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


30 May-5 June 2012

RVO reported that observations of Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 1-31 May revealed some periods of white emissions. Seismic activity was very low; however, several high-frequency volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


17 August-23 August 2011

RVO reported that white vapor plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 15-19 August. No volcano-related seismicity was recorded. The rate of uplift from GPS measurements on Matupit Island had increased from the end of July.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


10 August-16 August 2011

RVO reported a decline in frequency of ash emission from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 9-12 August, and no distinct explosions were detected. Ash-rich plumes rose 1 km above the crater and drifted NW, causing ashfall in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and in areas between Toliap (10 km NW) and Tavui. Seismicity was very low, consisting of sub-continuous volcanic tremor associated with the ash emissions and some small discrete low-frequency earthquakes. Ash emissions ceased on 12 August. During 13-15 August white vapor plumes rose from the crater.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


3 August-9 August 2011

RVO reported that white vapor plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 1-3 August. An explosion on 3 August produced a gray ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater and drifted NNW. Sustained emissions of pale-gray ash continued for about an hour afterwards. In addition, ash deposited at the former airport was re-suspended and blown NW into the E part of Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and towards Namanula hill (3 km W). Seismicity was very low, although two periods of harmonic tremor on 2 August and the explosion and ash emissions on 3 August were detected.

During 4-5 August gray ash emissions periodically continued, punctuated by a few large and notable explosions. Ash plumes from the explosions rose 1 km above the crater and drifted N and NW producing fine ashfall in the E part of Rabaul town, Namanula Hill, and further downwind towards Tavui Point. Moderate seismicity consisting of low-frequency earthquakes, explosions, and volcanic tremors with variable durations was detected. During 5-9 August activity increased, characterized by an increased frequency and duration of ash emissions and more explosions. About 34 explosions were recorded between 5 and 8 August. Ash-rich clouds that rose 1.5 km above the crater drifted NW causing ashfall in most parts of Rabaul town and in areas between Toliap and Nonga (10 km NW). GPS measurements on Matupit Island continued to show long-term inflation; about 10-11 cm of uplift had been recorded since August 2010.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


27 July-2 August 2011

RVO reported that white vapor occasionally tinted blue rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 1-28 July. Dull incandescence emanated from a small caved-in vent on the floor of the crater. The start of an ash eruption on 29 July was marked by an emergent low-frequency tremor and slowly rising gray ash plumes. One explosion on 30 July possibly produced light ashfall to the NW. Seismic data indicated forceful degassing on 1 August.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


1 June-7 June 2011

RVO reported that variable amounts of white vapor plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 1-31 May and were occasionally tinted brown. During 19-21 May thick white plumes rose 2-3 km above the crater.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


23 March-29 March 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 March an ash plume from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 53 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 July-3 August 2010

RVO reported that GPS data measurements showed deflation of Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone after the eruption that took place during 23-25 July. Seismicity was very low, and diffuse white plumes were emitted during 26-30 July.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


21 July-27 July 2010

RVO reported an eruption from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone on 23 July, after increased seismicity likely beneath Tavurvur cone was detected the previous day. The eruption was preceded by a few small hybrid earthquakes at 1034 followed by small low-frequency earthquakes and later continuous volcanic tremor. Diffuse white plumes were initially emitted at 1320, and then pink-gray fumes with low ash content were seen. A strong odor of hydrogen sulfide was noted, and a diffuse cloud rose 1 km and drifted NW. Billowing gray clouds a few hours later (at 1600) indicated a higher ash content and increased activity. They were also accompanied by roaring and rumbling noises. Discrete explosions commenced at 1730. Ashfall was reported in areas to the NW and NNW.

During 23-25 July seismicity was variable. Ash emissions and ashfall in areas to the NW continued. Visibility was poor in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) due to re-suspended ash from moving vehicles. Ash emissions stopped at about 1430 on 25 July. Later that day and into 26 July only diffuse brown-tinted vapor plumes were emitted and seismicity was very low.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


7 April-13 April 2010

RVO reported on 9 April that deformation measurements at Rabaul caldera during the previous 3-4 months showed an inflationary trend with a total of 4 cm of uplift. During 2-8 April seismicity was low and variable amounts of white vapor rose from Tavurvur cone.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


13 January-19 January 2010

Based on a Port Moresby Met Office notice, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 January an ash plume from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 January-12 January 2010

RVO reported that activity from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was at a low level during 1-10 January. No emissions from the crater were observed on most days, but white steam plumes accompanied by blue plumes were occasionally seen. On 8 January, ash emissions rose less than 200 m above the cone.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


30 December-5 January 2010

RVO reported that activity from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was at a low level during 21-31 December; no emission from the crater was observed on most days. White steam plumes accompanied by blue plumes were occasionally emitted. On 23 December, ash emissions rose less than 200 m above the cone. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 30 km SE.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 December-15 December 2009

RVO reported that activity from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone consisted of a few strong explosions towards the beginning of the 4-10 December reporting period, and emissions of gray ash afterwards. Diffuse white vapor was emitted during quieter intervals. Ash plumes rose 1 km above the summit and drifted SE towards Tokua and the Tokua airport, causing suspension of some flights. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35 km SE.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 December-8 December 2009

RVO reported that during 27 November-3 December dense white plumes and gray ash plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone. Strong explosions produced ash plumes that rose 1.5 km above the summit and showered the flanks with lava fragments that were incandescent at night. Shock waves rattled windows in the Kokopo area, about 20 km SE. Incandescence from the summit crater was occasionally noted. During 2-4 December, ash fell in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and other villages downwind. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5 and 7-8 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-55 km E.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 November-1 December 2009

RVO reported that during 20-26 November thick white plumes and gray ash plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone. Strong explosions produced ash plumes that rose 1.5 km above the summit and showered the flanks with lava fragments that were incandescent at night. Shock waves rattled windows in the Kokopo area, about 20 km SE. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was noted.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


18 November-24 November 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 November ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-90 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


11 November-17 November 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-14 November ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-150 km NW and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


4 November-10 November 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 November an ash plume from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 October-3 November 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-29 October ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-45 km N, E, and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 October-27 October 2009

RVO reported that during 16-22 October diffuse white plumes and gray ash plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone; ash plumes rose 700 m above the crater. Ashfall was reported in areas to the NW.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


14 October-20 October 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15, 18, and 20 October ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 2.7-3 km (9,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-85 km NW, W, and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 October-13 October 2009

RVO reported that during 2-8 October gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 2 km above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas. Incandescence from the summit crater was occasionally visible. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 October an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 September-6 October 2009

RVO reported that during 25 September-1 October gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 2 km above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night and incandescent lava fragments were ejected from the crater. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 October an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 September-29 September 2009

RVO reported that during 18-24 September gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1.5 km above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night, and incandescent lava fragments were ejected from the crater. Rumbling and roaring noises were reported, although less frequently than during 11-17 September. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 September-22 September 2009

RVO reported that during 11-17 September gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1.5 km above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night, and incandescent lava fragments were ejected from the crater. Rumbling and roaring noises were reported. Several strong explosions occurred on 11, 16, and 17 September, but were few or absent on other days. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 September ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-110 km NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 September-15 September 2009

RVO reported that during 4-10 September gray ash and white plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1.5 km above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night, and incandescent lava fragments were ejected from the crater. Rumbling and roaring noises were reported. Several large explosions occurred during an eight-hour period one unspecified evening. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-13 and 15 September ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-130 km N and NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 September-8 September 2009

RVO reported that during 28 August-3 September white and gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1.5 km above the crater and produced ashfall in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night, and incandescent lava fragments were ejected from the crater. Rumbling and roaring noises were reported. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 and 8 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-90 km N and NE.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 August-1 September 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-29 August ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-260 km NW and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 August-18 August 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 August ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-280 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 August-11 August 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-11 August ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-185 km in multiple directions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 July-4 August 2009

RVO reported that during 22-30 July incandescence from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was occasionally visible at night. Steam plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater. During 28-30 July, ash plumes also rose 1.5 km above the crater, and rumbling and roaring noises were reported. On 30 July, incandescent lava fragments were ejected from the crater. Ashfall was reported in areas to the NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 August ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-90 km SW and S.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 July-21 July 2009

RVO reported that during 10-21 July white and occasionally blue tinted plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose less than 1 km above the crater. Pale-gray ash accompanied the emissions on 13 and 15 July. Ashfall affected Rabaul town (3-5 km NW), Ratavul (20 km SSE), and Nonga (10 km NW). Incandescence was visible at night and roaring was heard during 14-18 July.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


8 July-14 July 2009

RVO reported that during 3-9 July incandescence from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was visible at night. Steam plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-10 July ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20-40 km NW, N, and NE.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 July-7 July 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 July an ash plume from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km N. On 7 July, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 30 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 June-30 June 2009

RVO reported that during 19-25 June gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1.5 km above the crater and produced ashfall in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-28 June ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-75 km NW and W.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 June-23 June 2009

An RVO report for 12-18 June noted that the Tavurvur cone at Rabaul produced pale gray ash plumes during 16-17 June. Activity after that consisted primarily of dense white steam plumes, with occasional ash emissions. Continuous glow was seen at night.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


10 June-16 June 2009

RVO reported that during 7-11 June white and occasionally blue plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1.5 km above the crater. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 and 16 June ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-45 km SE, E, and NE.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 June-9 June 2009

RVO reported that during 29 May-6 June white and occasionally blue plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1 km above the crater. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night. On 5 June, an ash plume drifted NW and caused ashfall in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


27 May-2 June 2009

RVO reported that during 21-28 May white and occasionally blue plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1 km above the crater. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


20 May-26 May 2009

RVO reported that during 14-20 May white and occasionally blue plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1 km above the crater. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-21 May ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 30-40 km SE and SW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 May-12 May 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 May ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 35 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 April-5 May 2009

RVO reported that on 27 April white and occasionally gray plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 0.5-1 km above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Kokopo, about 20 km SE, along with infrequent roaring noises. Activity decreased during 28 April-2 May; white and, less frequently blue, plumes were emitted. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-4 May ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 35 km NE.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 April-28 April 2009

RVO reported that during 18-25 April white and gray plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 0.5-1.5 km above the crater. Plumes drifted E and SE. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night and occasional roaring noises were reported. Ashfall was reported in Kokopo, about 20 km SE, and surrounding areas. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 and 28 April ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km S and 35 km SW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 April-21 April 2009

RVO reported that during 10-17 April white and gray plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1-2 km above the crater. Plumes drifted SE and NW. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night and roaring noises were reported. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


8 April-14 April 2009

RVO reported that during 3-9 April white and gray plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1 km above the crater. Plumes drifted SE and NW. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night and roaring noises were reported. Light ashfall was reported in Kokopo, about 20 km SE. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 April ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted up to 75 km NW. On 14 April, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and up to 120 km NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 April-7 April 2009

RVO reported that during 27 March-2 April white and occasionally gray or brown plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1 km above the crater. Plumes drifted SE and NW. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night and roaring noises were reported. On 2 April, light ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 April an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 37 km NE. On 7 April, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 March-31 March 2009

RVO reported that during 21-26 March white and occasional gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 500 m above the crater and drifted in variable directions. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night. Light ashfall was reported S of Duke of York Islands, about 20 km E.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


18 March-24 March 2009

RVO reported that during 16-20 March gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to a maximum altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Blue vapor was visible during intervals between ash cloud emissions. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night, and incandescent tephra was occasionally ejected from the crater during periods of heightened activity. Light ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including in the Duke of York Islands about 20 km E.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


11 March-17 March 2009

RVO reported that during 9-15 March gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to a maximum altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. Incandescence was seen at night and incandescent tephra was occasionally ejected from the crater during periods of heightened activity. Light ashfall was reported in areas to the NW and SE.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


4 March-10 March 2009

RVO reported that during 2-8 March white plumes and gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose a few hundred meters above the crater to 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and SE. Incandescence was seen most nights and incandescent tephra was ejected from the crater. Rumbling and roaring noises were reported during 4-6 March, and ashfall was reported in areas downwind. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 March an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 February-24 February 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-23 February ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, W, and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


11 February-17 February 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 February ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and W. On 17 February, a low-level ash plume drifted SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


4 February-10 February 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 February an ash plume from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 January-3 February 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-30 January ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.8-4.3 km (6,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 January-27 January 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-25 January ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. On 27 January, an ash plume at an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. was visible on satellite imagery.

RVO reported that during 23-26 January gray ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. White plumes were also emitted. Occasional low rumbling noises were heard throughout the period and weak incandescence was visible at night. Forceful emissions sometimes ejected incandescent lava fragments. Ashfall affected areas downwind, including Rapolo and Malaguna (NW), Kokopo (SE), and Tokua airport (SE).

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


14 January-20 January 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-18 January ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, SE, and SW. On 16 January, RVO reported that gray ash plumes rose above the crater and dispersed slowly to the E.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 January-13 January 2009

RVO reported that during 3-14 January gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose several hundred meters above the crater to 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and SE. Explosions or forceful emissions sometimes ejected incandescent lava fragments that fell back into the crater and occasionally onto the slopes. Ashfall affected areas downwind; Air Niugini suspended all its flights to Tokua airport (about 20 km SE) during 5-9 January. According to a news article, a local shipping company offered to take passengers to a nearby airport in New Ireland Province, an area not affected by the ash plumes. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 January ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE.

RVO reported that on 11 January two small vents opened on the SW flank of Tavurvur (one-quarter of the way up the flank) and emitted strong fumaroles. During 11-13 January, the vents ejected ash. On 13 January, two explosions produced dull booms and sounds resembling falling rocks. Ash plumes rose 200-500 m above the vents and drifted SE. Later that day, diffuse white plumes were emitted. Air Niugini flights into Tokua airport remained suspended on 13 January.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), ABC News - Australian Broadcasting Corporation


31 December-6 January 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 December, 1 January, and 3-5 January, ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, NNW, and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 December-30 December 2008

RVO reported that during 20-26 December gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.2 km (5,600-7,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and W. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Kokopo Town (SE). Rumbling and roaring noises were reported on some days. Explosions or forceful emissions sometimes ejected incandescent lava fragments that fell back into the crater and occasionally onto the slopes.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 December an ash plume rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 December-23 December 2008

RVO reported that during 13-19 December gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.2 km (5,600-7,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul town (3-5 km NW). Rumbling and roaring noises were reported on some days. Explosions or forceful emissions sometimes ejected incandescent lava fragments.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 and 23 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 December-16 December 2008

RVO reported that during 6-12 December gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul town (3-5 km NW). Rumbling and roaring noises were reported on some days. Explosions or forceful emissions sometimes ejected incandescent lava fragments.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-16 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, ESE, and NE.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 December-9 December 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-5, 7, and 9 December ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, NE, NNW, WNW, and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 November-2 December 2008

RVO reported that during 21-27 November light gray ash plumes and white steam plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind. Incandescence from the vent was observed, and rumbling and roaring noises were reported on some days. Explosions or forceful emissions sometimes ejected incandescent lava fragments.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30 November-1 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WSW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 November-25 November 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12 and 19-25 November ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly N, NW, and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 November-18 November 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12 and 16-18 November ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and NNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 November-11 November 2008

RVO reported that during 3-6 November ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.2 km (5,600-7,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind. Sub-continuous incandescence from the vent was observed, and rumbling and roaring noises were reported on some days. Explosions or forceful emissions sometimes ejected incandescent lava fragments.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7 and 9-12 November ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 October-4 November 2008

RVO reported that during 27 October-2 November ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and SE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind. Sub-continuous incandescence from the vent was observed and rumbling and roaring noises were reported on some days. Explosions or forceful emissions sometimes ejected incandescent lava fragments.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 November ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 October-28 October 2008

RVO reported that during 21-26 October ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. During 21-24 October ashfall was reported in areas downwind, continuous incandescence from the vent was observed, and loud rumbling and roaring noises were reported. During 24-25 October ash plumes drifted to the NW area between Namanula Hill and Rabaul town. On 26 October, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, creating hazy conditions in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW).

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


15 October-21 October 2008

RVO reported that during 12-20 October ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 0.9-2.7 km (3,000-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, S, and SE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind. During 20-21 October, large explosions occurred and ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.7-3.7 km (5,600-12,100 ft) a.s.l. A significant amount of ash fell in the area of Rabaul town (3-5 km NW). Continuous incandescence from the vent was observed and loud roaring noises were reported.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


8 October-14 October 2008

RVO reported that during 7-12 October steam and ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, and W. During 11-12 October, ash emissions increased in frequency; ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Namanula Hill (3 km W). Continuous incandescence from the vent was observed. Loud roaring noises were reported on 9 October.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 October ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and WNW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 October-7 October 2008

RVO reported that during 30 September-6 October ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.7 km (5,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, W, and NW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and Namanula Hill (3 km W). Continuous incandescence from the vent was observed. Loud roaring noises were reported on 6 October.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 October ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 September-30 September 2008

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued to be emitted during 15-29 September. Plumes drifted in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul town (3-5 km NW), Namanula Hill (3 km W), and Kokopo (20 km SE). Flights to Tokua airport (20 km SW) were canceled on 24 September due to ashfall. During 28-29 September, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.7-3.2 km (8,900-10,500 ft) a.s.l. Continuous incandescence at the summit was observed and roaring noises were heard.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


17 September-23 September 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-23 September ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW, W, NW, and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 September-16 September 2008

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued to be emitted during 9-14 September. Ashfall was reported in areas to the S, SW, and NW. Sub-continuous incandescence at the summit was observed, and roaring and rumbling noises were heard. Explosions also ejected incandescent lava fragments.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, pilot reports, and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-16 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, and NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 September-9 September 2008

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued to be emitted during 1-8 September. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind. Ash accumulation in Rabaul Town was significant in mid-to-late July and in August; fresh ashfall and re-suspended ashfall due to winds and cars caused "unpleasant" conditions. During 1-6 September, conditions improved due to decreased ashfall, changes in wind patterns, and light rains that inhibited ash re-suspension. Continuous incandescence at the summit was observed, and roaring and rumbling noises were heard. Explosions also ejected incandescent lava fragments.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-6 and 8-9 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 August-2 September 2008

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued to be emitted during 29-31 August. The plumes drifted NW and caused ashfall in areas downwind. Continuous incandescence at the summit was observed and roaring noises were heard. Explosions also ejected incandescent lava fragments.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


20 August-26 August 2008

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued to be emitted during 18-22 August, although less so than during 16-18 August. Some prolonged ash-free intervals were immediately followed by explosions that produced ash plumes. The plumes drifted NW and caused ashfall in areas downwind. Occasionally incandescence at the summit was observed and roaring noises were heard. Explosions also ejected incandescent lava fragments.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 August ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


13 August-19 August 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and reports from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-19 August, low-level plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW and NW. During 16-18 August, RVO reported ashfall in areas downwind. Occasionally incandescence at the summit was observed and roaring noises were heard. Explosions also ejected incandescent lava fragments.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 August-12 August 2008

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued to be emitted during 4-10 August. Ashfall was reported in areas NW. Occasionally incandescence at the summit was observed and roaring noises were reported. Incandescent lava fragments were ejected along with some of the more forceful ash emissions. Based on observations of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 August, low-level ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 July-5 August 2008

RVO reported that during 25 July-4 August, ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.7-3.7 km (5,600-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. Ashfall was reported downwind in Rabaul town, Namanula Hill, Malaguna, and surrounding areas. Occasionally incandescence at the summit was observed and roaring noises were reported. During 31 July-4 August, incandescent lava fragments were ejected along with some of the more forceful ash emissions.

Based on observations of satellite imagery and reports from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that low-level plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW during 5-6 August.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 July-29 July 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-24 and 26-29 July ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 July-22 July 2008

RVO reported that during 12-18 July, ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone drifted NW and W. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including significant accumulation in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW).

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


9 July-15 July 2008

Eruptions continued from the Tavurvur cone at Rabul during 7-12 July 2008. Occasional thick gray ash clouds formed a continuous ash plume drifting NW, causing fine to moderate ashfall in Rabaul town and other villages. Occasional loud roaring noises were heard accompanying some of the emissions. Seismicity was at moderate levels, dominated by low-frequency volcanic earthquakes. The deflationary trend, identified from ground deformation measurements since July 2007, ceased between May and June 2008.

Advisories to aviators issued by the Darwin VAAC noted ash plumes to altitudes of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. extending 90 km downwind to the NW during 14-15 July.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 July-8 July 2008

RVO reported that during 1-7 July, ash-and-steam plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes up to 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. Ashfall was reported downwind in Rabaul town, Namanula Hill, Malaguna, and surrounding areas, and was heavy during 2-3 July. Incandescence at the summit was noted at night during 1-2 July; plumes blocked views of the summit during 3-7 July. During 4-7 July, roaring noises were reported. Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 July an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 June-1 July 2008

RVO reported that during 20-26 June, ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes less than 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. Roaring noises were reported. During 26-30 June, steam-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 0.9-1.7 km (3,000-5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Nighttime incandescence was noted. During 23-30 June, ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including in Rabaul and surrounding towns.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


11 June-17 June 2008

RVO reported that during 10-18 June white plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes less than 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. During 10-12 June, intermittent roaring and incandescence at the summit were reported. On 17 June, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW. White plumes with a small amount of ash were seen the next day.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


4 June-10 June 2008

RVO reported that during 2-5 June periodic explosions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone were followed by short-lived ash plumes and steam plumes. During 5-10 June, plumes with little to no ash were emitted, loud roaring was almost continuous, and nighttime incandescence was noted.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


28 May-3 June 2008

RVO reported steam plumes and roaring noises from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 28 May-2 June. Based on observations of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. on 2 June and drifted NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 May-27 May 2008

RVO reported that during 21-28 May ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (3,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Intermittent roaring noises were heard and ashfall was reported in Rabaul Town (3-5 km NW). During 25-27 May, ash and steam plumes drifted N, NW, and W, resulting in almost continuous ashfall in nearby areas. Occasional roaring noises were again reported.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


14 May-20 May 2008

RVO reported that during 13-15 May gas plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone produced a haze to the W and NE. During 15-21 May, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.7 km (5,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, N, and NW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul Town (3-5 km NW). Occasional roaring noises and incandescence at the base of the plume was noted.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


7 May-13 May 2008

RVO reported that during 7-13 May ash-and-steam plumes from multiple places inside Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.2 km (7,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Intermittent roaring and rumbling noises were reported. Incandescent tephra was occasionally visible at night. Based on observations of satellite imagery and reports from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that low-level ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE during 8-9 May. Low-level plumes drifted NE during 10-11 May.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 April-6 May 2008

RVO reported that during 30 April-7 May ash plumes from multiple places inside Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.2 km (3,900-7,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, E, and SE. Intermittent roaring and rumbling noises and occasional explosions were reported. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas. Ash in Rabaul Town (3-5 km NW) suspended by wind and traffic was problematic. During 5-7 May, incandescent tephra was occasionally visible at night.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


23 April-29 April 2008

RVO reported that during 23-29 April ash and ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.7 km (5,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, SE, and SW. Incandescence at night at the summit, intermittent roaring noises, and occasional explosions were reported. Ashfall measured over 1 cm thick nearby and E of Tavurvur during 23-24 April and was noted in other areas downwind during 25-29 April. Incandescent fragments were propelled from the summit at night during 27-28 April.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


16 April-22 April 2008

During 18-19 April, the Darwin VAAC reported that low-level ash-and-steam plumes from Rabaul were observed on satellite imagery drifting ESE. According to the VAAC, RVO advised that ash eruptions continued and rocks were expelled during explosions. RVO reported several explosions on 21 April. Billowing ash plumes drifted W and SE during 21-23 April, and caused ashfall about 2 km away in N Matupit on 22 April and areas downwind on 23 April.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 April-15 April 2008

RVO reported that during 9-13 April ash and steam-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.2 km (5,600-7,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul Town (3-5 km NW). Incandescence at night at the summit and intermittent roaring noises were reported. A large explosion on 10 April showered the flanks with lava fragments and produced a shockwave that rattled windows in Rabaul Town.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


2 April-8 April 2008

RVO reported that during 1-9 April ash and steam-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 0.9-1.7 km (3,000-5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. Ashfall was reported in Kokopo (about 20 km SE) on 2 April and in areas downwind during 4-7 April. Incandescence at night at the summit and occasional explosions were reported. Roaring noises were reported and sometimes rhythmic during 2-3 and 8-9 April.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


26 March-1 April 2008

During 26 March-1 April, RVO reported that ash and steam-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (3,900-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, NW, and N. Incandescent material was propelled above the crater rim and explosive roaring noises were occasionally heard.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


19 March-25 March 2008

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.7-3.2 km (5,600-10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in almost all directions during 19-26 March. Ashfall was reported daily in areas downwind, including Rabaul Town (3-5 km NW), Matupit Island (2 km W), and Kokopo (20 km SE). Incandescence at the summit was observed and roaring noises were occasionally heard. An explosion produced lava fragments that showered the flanks on 20 March. Shockwaves rattled windows in Rabaul Town. Another explosion showered the flanks with lava fragments on 22 March. During 25-26 March, ashfall affected flights into Tokua (about 20 km SE of Rabaul).

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


12 March-18 March 2008

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 2.7-3.2 km (8,900-10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, W, SW, and S during 12-19 March. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul Town (3-5 km NW) and Matupit Island (2 km W). Incandescence at the summit was observed and roaring noises were occasionally heard.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


5 March-11 March 2008

RVO reported that during 4-7 March white plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone and incandescence at the summit was noted. Ash was emitted on 6 March. A slight smell of hydrogen-sulfide gas was reported in areas to the S on 5 March. During 8-11 March, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.7 km (3,900-5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, SW, S, and SE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Kokopo town (SE) during 8-10 March, and Rabaul town (NW) on 11 March.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


27 February-4 March 2008

RVO reported that ash and steam plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 0.9-2.2 km (3,000-7,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W during 27 February-4 March. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Matupit, during 27 February-1 March. A smell of hydrogen-sulfide gas was reported in Rabaul Town and roaring noises were heard during 1-3 March. On 3 March, incandescence at the summit was observed.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


20 February-26 February 2008

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.7 km (5,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, S, and SW during 20-27 February. Roaring noises were occasionally heard. Ashfall was reported in areas mainly downwind, including Kokopo Town (SE), Takubar (SW), and Tokua (SE), during 21-25 February. Incandescence at the summit was noted during 22-24 February. On 25 February an explosion showered the flanks with lava fragments. On 26 February a large explosion was accompanied by a thick billowing ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. The flanks were again showered with lava fragments. Ashfall was reported in Kokopo and surrounding areas.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


13 February-19 February 2008

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.2 km (7,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, E, SE, and S during 12-15 and 17-20 February. Ashfall was reported in Barovon, Lalakua, Raluana, Kokopo, and surrounding villages downwind. During 19-20 February, incandescence at the summit was accompanied by projections of lava fragments. Roaring noises were sometimes heard.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


6 February-12 February 2008

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.7 km (3,900-5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, SW, S, SE, and E during 6-11 February. Ashfall was reported everyday in areas downwind, including Matupit, Kokopo, and Rabaul Town, and surrounding areas. During 6-7 February, incandescence at the summit was noted and incandescent material was propelled from a vent on the inner E wall of the crater.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


30 January-5 February 2008

RVO reported that gray and brown ash plumes and steam plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 0.9-2.7 km (3,000-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE during 31 January-5 February. Incandescence from the center of the crater was visible almost every night. On 1 February, ashfall was reported in Kokopo, about 20 km SE. Roaring noises were heard from near-by areas during 1-3 February. On 4 February, a strong smell of hydrogen sulfide gas was reported from Rabaul Town (3-5 km NW).

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


23 January-29 January 2008

RVO reported that white plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (4,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE during 24-25 January. Incandescence at the summit was seen at night. On 26 January, ash plumes that were emitted about every 10-20 minutes rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Slight ashfall was reported in areas on the E coast. Deformation-monitoring instruments indicated that uplift started on 23 January and peaked during 25-26 January with 2 cm of inflation. On 28 January, white plumes rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. On 29 and 30 January, ash-and-gas plumes rose to the same altitude as the previous day but drifted SW, W, and E.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


16 January-22 January 2008

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 0.8-1 km (2,600-3,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE during 17-20 and 22-23 January. On 17 January ashfall was reported in Tokua, about 20 km SE, prompting Air Niugini to cancel some flights. During 18-20 January, the ash plumes were released at 10-20 minute intervals. White plumes were emitted on 21 and 22 January. Incandescence from the center of the crater was visible at night during 17-22 January.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


9 January-15 January 2008

RVO reported that intermittent ash and vapor plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone were observed during 8-15 January. On 11 January, a small explosion produced an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.5 km (3,900-4,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. During 11-15 January, ash and vapor plumes rose to altitudes of 0.9-1.2 km (3,000-3,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, NE, N, and W. Slight ashfall was reported about 20 km SE in Tokua on 11 and 12 January. Data from deformation-monitoring instruments indicated no deformation. Incandescence from the lava dome on the crater floor was occasionally visible at night.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


2 January-8 January 2008

RVO reported that white plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone were observed during 28 December-3 January. Incandescence at the summit was noticeable at night and loud roaring noises were often heard after rain.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


12 December-18 December 2007

RVO reported that ash plumes from the new vent in the NE crater of Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (3,900 ft) a.s.l. during 10-13 December. Plumes drifted SE, W, NW, and E. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul town on 11 December. Occasional incandescence at the summit was observed. During 13-18 December, white plumes were observed and a strong smell of hydrogen-sulfide gas was reported.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


5 December-11 December 2007

RVO reported on 10 December that after five weeks of low-level activity from Rabaul, ash was emitted from a new vent in the NE crater during 8-9 December. Resultant ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.6 km (8,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S during 8-10 December. Occasional roaring noises were heard. Continuous incandescence from the lava dome on the crater floor was visible at night.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


31 October-6 November 2007

RVO reported that white plumes occasionally accompanied by ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.7 km (5,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. during 2-5 November. Plumes drifted N, NW, and W. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town and surrounding areas. A strong smell of hydrogen-sulfide gas was reported and occasional incandescence at the summit was observed.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


24 October-30 October 2007

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 2.7-3.7 km (3,900-15,400 ft) a.s.l. during 29-30 October. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town. Occasional incandescence at the summit was observed.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


17 October-23 October 2007

RVO reported that white vapor plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 17-22 October. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-4.7 km (3,900-15,400 ft) a.s.l. during 17-18 October and drifted S and NNW. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind on 17 October. The ash emissions were intermittently accompanied by roaring noises, and incandescence at the summit was observed during the reporting period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


10 October-16 October 2007

RVO reported that white vapor plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 8-16 October. Occasional explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.7 km (5,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted NNE and S. Ashfall was reported downwind, including Namanula Hill and surrounding areas. The ash emissions were intermittently accompanied by roaring noises, and incandescence at the summit was observed during the reporting period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


3 October-9 October 2007

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of approximately 1.7-2.7 km (5,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW on 3 October. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind, including Rabaul Town. Ash plumes on 4 October drifted W and resulted in ashfall in Matupit Island, Malaguna. Incandescent fragments were ejected from the summit. On 5 October, vapor plumes with minor ash content were noted. Rumbling noises occasionally accompanied the ash emissions.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


26 September-2 October 2007

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of approximately 1.7-2.7 km (5,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, W and SW during 25-27 September and 30 September-2 October. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind, including Rabaul Town and Nonga. Roaring and rumbling noises occasionally accompanied the emissions. On 27 September, a large explosion was noted. During 30 September-2 October, incandescent fragments were ejected from the summit and rolled down the flanks.

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. on 2 October.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 September-25 September 2007

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (3,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW on 20 September. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind, including Rabaul Town. White vapor plumes containing a small amount of ash were emitted during 20-24 September. On 25 September, ash plumes rose to an altitude less than 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Roaring noises were heard. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind, including Namanula Hill.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


12 September-18 September 2007

RVO reported that white vapor plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 10-18 September. On 16, 18, and 19 September, occasional ash plumes rose to an altitude of 0.9 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W or NW. Slight ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul town.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


5 September-11 September 2007

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude less than 1 km (3,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W on 3 September. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind. During 4-10 September, white vapor plumes rose to altitudes less than 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW. On 8 and 9 September, the smell of hydrogen-sulfide gas coincided with a blue tinge in the vapor plumes. During the reporting period, emissions were accompanied by roaring noises and observers saw incandescence at the summit.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


29 August-4 September 2007

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone decreased in frequency during 30 August-1 September. Ash plumes drifted W and NW on 29 August. On 31 August, an explosion produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted W and resulted in fine ashfall downwind. On 2 September, ash plumes drifted NW and ashfall was reported in Rabaul Town and surrounding areas. The ash emissions were accompanied by roaring noises. Incandescence at the summit was observed during the reporting period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


22 August-28 August 2007

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 0.9-2.4 km (3,000-7,900 ft) a.s.l. during 22-29 August and drifted NW. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul Town and surrounding areas during 23-29 August. Seismic activity increased to a high level on 25 through 29 August. The ash emissions were accompanied by roaring noises. Incandescence at the summit was observed during the reporting period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


15 August-21 August 2007

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.1 km (3,600 ft) a.s.l. on 15 August and drifted NNW. The ash emissions were accompanied by roaring noises. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul Town and surrounding areas. White vapor plumes noted during 14-20 August were occasionally accompanied by blue vapor plumes. Vapor plumes rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. on 20 August and drifted WNW.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


8 August-14 August 2007

RVO reported that during 7-13 August, ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW. On 8 August, ashfall greater than 5 mm thickness was reported in Rabaul Town. During 10-13 August, ashfall was reported from areas downwind, including Rabaul Town. Rumbling and jet-like noises were heard and incandescence was seen at the crater during the reporting period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


1 August-7 August 2007

RVO reported that during 22 July-1 August, white and blue vapor plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an approximate altitude of 0.9 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNW. Roaring noises were occasionally heard and incandescence was intermittently visible at the crater rim. On 30 July, a white plume with little ash content rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. During 1-7 August, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 0.9-1.7 km (3,000-5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, and W. Slight ashfall was reported at Rabaul town and surrounding areas.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


11 July-17 July 2007

RVO reported that during 10-11 July, ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude less than 1.2 km (3,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW. Fine ash fell in areas downwind, including Rabaul Town. During 12-14 July, white and blue vapor plumes drifted N and NW. A mild smell of sulfur gas was reported from areas downwind. On 17 July, an explosion was accompanied by a loud booming noise and an ash plume. The flanks were showered with lava fragments. The ash plume rose to an altitude less than 1.2 km (3,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Ashfall was reported from Rabaul Town, Malaguna, and surrounding areas. White and blue vapor plumes were observed during 14-16 July. Roaring noises were heard and incandescence was visible at night.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


27 June-3 July 2007

RVO reported that on 30 June and 2 July, explosions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone produced shockwaves that rattled windows of houses in Rabaul Town and surrounding areas. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.7-3.7 km (8,900-12,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind. Incandescence was visible at the summit.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


20 June-26 June 2007

RVO reported that during 20-26 June, emissions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone consisted of white vapor plumes containing little ash occasionally accompanied by blue vapor. The plumes rose to an altitude less than 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, N, and SSE. Fine ash fell in areas downwind, including Rabaul Town. A mild smell of hydrogen sulfide gas was reported from Rabaul Town. Weak roaring noises were heard and incandescence was visible at night.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


13 June-19 June 2007

RVO reported that during 19-20 June, four explosions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone produced shockwaves that rattled windows of houses in Rabaul Town and surrounding areas. The explosions showered the flanks of the volcano with lava fragments. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Ashfall was reported from Rabaul Town and surrounding areas.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


2 May-8 May 2007

RVO reported that during 29-30 April, ash emissions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone generated plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (3,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. During 1-2 May, ash plumes drifted NNW; ashfall was reported from Rabaul town and surrounding areas. Occasional roaring noises were heard and incandescence was observed at night.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


25 April-1 May 2007

Based on information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that explosions occasionally occurred from Rabaul on 26 April. Diffuse steam-and-ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery and rose to a few hundred meters. RVO reported that on 29 April, ash plumes rose to 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind and occasional roaring noises were heard. Incandescence was observed at night during 25-29 April.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 April-24 April 2007

RVO reported that during 16-25 April, white-to-gray emissions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone generated plumes that rose a few hundred meters and drifted multiple directions. Based on reports from RVO and satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 18 April and drifted SW. Occasionally during 18-23 April, moderately-sized explosions led to darker gray plumes. During 22-25 April, light ashfall was reported in Rabaul town. Weak roaring noises occasionally accompanied the emissions. A slight glow was seen from crater at night and small amounts of incandescent material were rarely ejected from the crater during 16-23 April.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


11 April-17 April 2007

RVO reported that during 10-17 April, Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone emitted steam and steam-and-ash plumes that rose to 1.1-2.7 km (3,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SE. Weak roaring noises occasionally accompanied the emissions. Small amounts of incandescent material were ejected from the crater during 13-15 April.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


4 April-10 April 2007

RVO reported that during 3-10 April, Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone emitted steam and steam-and-ash plumes that rose to 0.8-2.7 km (2,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, N, NE, and E. Weak roaring noises occasionally accompanied the emissions. On 3 April, explosions shook buildings in Rabaul town. Based on reports from RVO and satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. during 8-9 April. Incandescent material was ejected from the crater during 9-10 April.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 March-3 April 2007

RVO reported that during 26 March-1 April, Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone emitted steam and steam-and-ash plumes that rose to 0.8 km (2,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, N, and NW. Roaring noises occasionally accompanied emissions. Incandescent material was ejected to at most 100 m above the lowest part of the vent during 26-30 March. Based on reports from RVO and satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE during 1-2 April.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 March-27 March 2007

RVO reported that during 21-26 March, Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone emitted steam and steam-and-ash plumes that rose to 1-2.7 km (3,300-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. Roaring noises occasionally accompanied emissions. Incandescent material that was expelled during explosions landed on and rolled down the flanks. On 25 March, explosions shook buildings in Rabaul town.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


14 March-20 March 2007

RVO reported that during 13-21 March, Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone emitted ash plumes that rose to 1.1-3.7 km (3,600-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, S, and W. Loud roaring noises occasionally accompanied emissions. During 16-21 March, multiple explosions occurred, some of which produced shockwaves. Summit incandescence was observed at night and lava fragments were projected onto the flanks. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind during the reporting period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


7 March-13 March 2007

RVO reported that during 6-13 March, Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone emitted ash plumes that rose to 0.9-2.7 km (3,000-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, W, and E. Loud roaring noises occasionally accompanied emissions and ashfall was reported from surrounding villages. Multiple explosions occurred. Large explosions produced shockwaves that rattled windows in Rabaul town and surrounding areas. The flanks were showered with incandescent lava fragments during 7-13 March.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


28 February-6 March 2007

RVO reported that during 28 February-6 March, Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone emitted white vapor plumes containing a small amount of ash that rose to 1.2-1.7 km (3,900-5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE and E. Loud roaring noises occasionally accompanied emissions. During 3-6 March, multiple explosions occurred. Larger explosions produced shockwaves that rattled windows in Rabaul town and surrounding areas on 3 and 5 March. The flanks were showered with lava fragments. On 4 and 6 March, ash plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind during the reporting period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


21 February-27 February 2007

RVO reported that during 16-24 February, Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone emitted white vapor plumes that rose to 0.9-3.7 km (3,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, W, and E. Ash clouds were emitted on 16, 19, 21, and 23-24 February and ashfall was reported from surrounding villages on 20 February. Loud roaring noises were occasionally heard. On 22 February, a moderate explosion produced fragments that showered the flanks. On 27 February, the Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse plume was visible on satellite imagery. On 28 February, RVO reported a large explosion produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


14 February-20 February 2007

Based on satellite imagery and RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that diffuse plumes from Rabaul rose to altitudes of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


31 January-6 February 2007

RVO reported that on 31 January, a large explosion from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone produced a shockwave. The flanks were showered with lava fragments and an ash plume rose a few hundred meters above the summit and drifted SE and E. Two more explosions occurred later that day. During 31 January-6 February, emissions of steam and of variable amounts of ash produced plumes that rose to a maximum altitude of 2.2 km (7,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, SE, and E. Roaring noises were audible on 4 February.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


24 January-30 January 2007

RVO reported that during 18-26 January, seismic activity at Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued at low levels. On 24 and 27-30 January, emissions of steam and a small amount of ash produced plumes that rose to a maximum altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E. Roaring noises were occasionally audible. Based on satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that a small plume was visible on 30 January and drifted NE.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 January-16 January 2007

RVO reported that during 4-10 January, Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone emitted steam plumes with small amounts of ash that rose to 0.9-3.2 km (3,000-10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. On 10 January, a plume rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Roaring noises were occasionally audible.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


3 January-9 January 2007

RVO reported that during 1-3 January, Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone emitted steam plumes with small amounts of ash that rose to 1.0-2.7 km (3,300-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and N. Roaring noises accompanied emissions on 2 January.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


27 December-2 January 2007

RVO reported that during 24-29 December Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone emitted ash plumes that rose to 1.1-3.7 km (3,600-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind including Rabaul town on 25, 27, and 28 December.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


13 December-19 December 2006

Based on satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that diffuse plumes from Rabaul drifted mainly N and E during 15-17 December.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 December-12 December 2006

RVO reported that during 6-8 December Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone emitted thick white-to-gray plumes that rose to 1.2-3.2 km (3,900-10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and NE. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind (NW) on 6 and 7 December. Roaring noises were heard during 7-10 December. On 11 December, the volcano was quiet and emitted only a diffuse plume that was also visible on satellite imagery. On 12 December, a loud explosion shook houses in Rabaul Town and a gray plume rose to 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. When the noise stopped on 10 December, the deformation monitoring equipment recorded an approximate 1-cm rapid uplift that subsided after the explosion on 12 December.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 November-5 December 2006

RVO reported that during 26-27 November Rabaul emitted weak gray ash clouds that drifted NW to W. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind. During 28 November-1 December, the emissions were forceful and plumes rose to 900 m (3,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. On 2 December, emissions of white vapor and gray ash clouds produced plumes to 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. that drifted ENE. During 3-6 December, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (3,900-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Ashfall was again reported from areas downwind. Seismicity continued at low levels and deformation rates were low.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


22 November-28 November 2006

RVO reported that during 20-23 November Rabaul emitted thick white vapor accompanied by minor gray ash clouds. On 21 November, emissions created a haze around the summit. On 22 and 23 November, plumes rose to about 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and E, respectively. Fine ashfall was reported from areas downwind to the W.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


15 November-21 November 2006

RVO reported that during 14-20 November eruptions occurred at Rabaul caldera's active Tavurvur cone. On 14 November, a large explosion produced an ash plume that rose to 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Lava fragments fell onto the flanks and into the sea. Continuous ash emissions followed. During 15-18 and 20 November, continuous emissions of white vapor and gray ash clouds produced plumes that rose to 0.8-3.2 km (2,600-10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, E, N, and NW. On 19 November only thick white vapor clouds were emitted. Fine ashfall was reported downwind on 20 November.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


8 November-14 November 2006

RVO reported that during 25 October-1 November, Rabaul emitted thick white vapor and sub-continuous gray ash clouds. Fine ashfall was reported from areas N and NW, including Rabaul town. On 28 October, a large explosion produced an ash cloud that reached an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Fine ashfall was reported from areas downwind and lava fragments fell onto the flanks. Only continuous, thick, white vapor clouds were emitted during 1-7 November. Two explosive events occurred on 2 November. Ash plumes from the first explosion reached altitudes of 1.5 km (4,900 ft) a.s.l. Plumes from both explosions drifted N. During 3-10 November, occasional small-to-moderate ash emissions produced plumes that drifted SE, away from populated areas. During 11-13 November, thick white vapor and occasional gray ash clouds drifted SE, S, W, NW, and N. Fine ashfall was reported downwind on 11 November.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


1 November-7 November 2006

Based on satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse plume from Rabaul drifted N on 1 November.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 October-31 October 2006

Based on satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that a small ash-and-steam plume from Rabaul reached an altitude of 3.0 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW on 26, 27, and 28 October. The RVO reported that mild eruptions during 29-30 October produced thick, gray ash plumes that drifted N and NW. Fine ashfall was reported from Namanula, including surrounding areas downwind, and E Rabaul town. Seismicity was at background levels and the rate of ground deformation was low.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 October-24 October 2006

The RVO reported that a few Vulcanian eruptions from Rabaul occurred on 18 October and produced ash plumes to 1 km (3,300 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported from E Rabaul town. Seismicity was at background levels and the rate of ground deformation was low.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


11 October-17 October 2006

Based on information from the RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that a brief eruption of Rabaul on 11 October produced a plume that reached an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipated NW. Continuous low-level emissions and Vulcanian eruptions produced plumes to 1 km (3,300 ft) a.s.l. during 12-17 October.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


4 October-10 October 2006

The RVO reported that a large, sustained Vulcanian eruption of Rabaul began at about 0845 on 7 October. An ash column rose to over 5 km (16,400 ft a.s.l.) and had produced thunder and lightning. Sand-sized particles fell to the E. By 1200, windows rattled and doors slammed in the nearby town of Rabaul, N of Tavurvur crater, from semi-continuous air blasts that became rhythmic. Windows in the observatory, 12 km away, blew out from shockwaves. Moderately heavy ash fell in southern Rabaul town. Lapilli ~1 mm in diameter and lithics up to 3 cm in diameter fell in the S and SW parts of the caldera. Residents affected by heavier ashfall and air blasts self-evacuated. The eruption grew to sub-Plinian status throughout the day. Thick ash plumes reached 18 km (59,000 ft a.s.l.) altitude and dispersed N, NW, S, and SW. Ashfall affected the entire Gazelle Peninsula.

At 1415, the eruption style changed to Strombolian, which lasted until about 1730. During the night, moderate to bright incandescence was observed on the N rim of Tavurvur. Explosions and loud roaring noises were occasionally heard.

On 8 October, thick white and blue vapor clouds were accompanied by ash explosions and plumes that drifted N and NW. Lava flows on the W and N flanks were visible from 2 km NW in Rapindik. The lava flow on the W flank reached the sea, causing secondary explosions.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Times Online


16 August-22 August 2006

RVO reported that during 11-20 August, Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued with mild eruptive activity. Variable amounts of diffuse gray ash-clouds were emitted from the summit area and rose to less than 150 m above the summit (~2,750 ft a.s.l.). The plumes drifted N and NW depositing small amounts of ash in Rabaul Town. Based on GPS and Tide Gauge measurements, an overall inflationary trend that began in mid-February continued through the reporting period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


15 February-21 February 2006

RVO reported that during 30 January to 15 February, Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued to be relatively quiet. Variable amounts of gas were emitted from an active fumarole at the summit area on the upper part of the W flank. An average sulfur-dioxide flux of 200 metric tons per day was recorded and seismicity was at low levels. According to the Darwin VAAC, ash from Rabaul was visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~3.7 km (12,100 ft) a.s.l. on 17 February.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 January-31 January 2006

Ash emissions from Rabaul caldera's active Tavurvur cone on 10,11,12, and 15 January rose over 1.5 km above the volcano's summit and drifted E. Seismicity was at low levels during 1-15 January.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center


23 November-29 November 2005

Rabaul caldera's active Tavurvur cone was quiet after ash emissions ceased on 20 November. During 21-27 November, only very small traces of gas were released from the eruption vent and from other spots on the summit area. Seismicity was at very low levels and a small amount of ground inflation was recorded.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center


5 October-11 October 2005

RVO reported that during 3-9 October, eruptions occurred at Rabaul caldera's active Tavurvur cone. Irregular ash emissions rose 800-1,500 m above the volcano (or 4,900-7,200 ft a.s.l.). Incandescent volcanic bombs were visible showering the cone's sides. Seismicity at the volcano was at moderate-to-high levels, with most earthquakes associated with ash emissions and explosions. Ground-deformation measurements fluctuated since stabilizing during the previous week, however the general trend showed slight deflation. People were discouraged from venturing within 1 km of the erupting vent. According to the Darwin VAAC, ash was visible on satellite imagery on 5 October.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 September-27 September 2005

During 12-18 September, ash emissions continued at Rabaul caldera's active Tavurvur cone. Ash plumes rose 800-1,500 m above the volcano (or 4,900-7,200 ft a.s.l.) and drifted N and NW, depositing ash in most parts of Rabaul Town and beyond. Projections of incandescent volcanic material were visible at night during strong explosions. Seismicity was at moderate-to-high levels, with most earthquakes associated with ash emissions and explosions. The deformation trend generally reflected uplift. People were discouraged from venturing within 1 km of the erupting vent.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


24 August-30 August 2005

During 22-28 August, ash emissions continued at Rabaul caldera's active Tavurvur cone. Ash plumes rose 800-1,500 m above the volcano (or 4,900- 7,200 ft a.s.l.) and drifted N and NW, depositing ash on the eastern part of Rabaul Town and beyond. Seismicity was at moderate-to-high levels, with most earthquakes associated with ash emissions and explosions. The deformation trend generally reflected uplift.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center


17 August-23 August 2005

Rabaul caldera's active Tavurvur cone continued to emit ash during 15-21 August, although there was a slight decline in the frequency of emissions in comparison to earlier weeks. Ash plumes rose 800-1,500 m above the volcano (or 4,900-7,200 ft a.s.l.) and drifted N and NW, occasionally depositing ash on the E part of Rabaul Town and in areas farther downwind. Projected incandescent lava fragments were visible at night. Seismicity was at moderate-to-high levels, with most earthquakes associated with ash emissions and explosions. Ground-deformation measurements from GPS and tide-gauge instruments fluctuated, however the general trend showed a slow rate of uplift. As a safety precaution, people were discouraged from venturing within 1 km of the erupting vent.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center


3 August-9 August 2005

A low-level ash plume was visible on a satellite image of Rabaul on 9 August at an altitude of 1.5 km (~5,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 July-2 August 2005

A pilot observed an ash plume from Rabaul on 28 July at a height of 3 km (~10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not visible on satellite data.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 June-28 June 2005

On 27 June the Darwin VAAC received a pilot report of an ash plume 37 km (20 nautical miles) to the NW of the volcano.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 March-29 March 2005

During 22-28 March, eruptions continued at Rabaul caldera's active Tavurvur cone every 10-20 minutes. These intervals were longer than during the previous weeks. Ash clouds rose several hundred meters above the summit. Moderate ash fell in Rabaul Town during 25-28 March. There were 100-200 earthquakes daily associated with the eruption. No changes were recorded in ground deformation. People were discouraged from entering within 1 km of the erupting vent.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


9 March-15 March 2005

Low-level eruptions continued at Rabaul caldera's active Tavurvur cone during 9-15 March. According to the Darwin VAAC, ash may affect Tokua airport, depending on the prevailing wind direction.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 March-8 March 2005

Low-level eruptions continued at Rabaul caldera's active vent at Tavurvur cone during 2-8 March. According to the Darwin VAAC, monsoonal low-level NW winds were expected to continue to blow ash towards Tokua airport.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 February-1 March 2005

RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's active vent at Tavurvur cone continued to erupt during 22-24 February. Ash clouds rose several hundred meters before drifting SE. Most ash fell offshore, but there were reports of fine ash reaching Tokua airport, ~45 km SW of Rabual Town. RVO stated that based on past eruptive episodes from Tavurvur between 1995 and 2004 the current episode will most likely continue indefinitely. Also, the eruption will fluctuate but is not expected to reach levels that will pose a threat to life in Rabaul Town and surrounding villages. People were discouraged from venturing within 1 km of the eruptive vent. According to a news report, several flights to and from Tokua airport were cancelled due to ashfall in the area. Many flights have been cancelled since the eruption commenced in late January 2005.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


16 February-22 February 2005

During 1-21 February, eruptions of ash clouds occurred fairly frequently at Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone. Ash clouds rose a few hundred meters, drifted SE, and deposited ash mainly offshore. Incandescent lava fragments were visible during several evenings. Between 200-350 earthquakes associated with the eruption occurred daily. During 18-21 February, ash fell in the town of Tokua.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


26 January-1 February 2005

Based on information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 January ash was emitted from Rabaul to a height of ~1 km above the summit. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 January-25 January 2005

Based on information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash emissions commenced at Rabaul on 25 January. Ash rose to ~500 m above the summit and drifted E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 March-23 March 2004

Eruptive activity, which began at Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone in October 2002, ceased on 17 February. During 1-17 February, emissions of "light-to-pale ash clouds" were accompanied by occasional moderate explosions that produced thick ash plumes. The ash plumes rose 1-2 km above the summit and drifted E and NE, resulting in ashfall in Duke of York, Rabaul Town, and other villages. During 18-29 February there were only weak gas emissions. Ground-deformation measurements showed a deflationary trend during the last half of February.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


27 August-2 September 2003

On 10 August eruptions began again at Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone after 2 days of very little activity. Eruptions mainly consisted of slowly emitted convoluted ash plumes at irregular intervals. On 25 August discrete explosions began to occur. Most of the ash from the eruptions was blown NW, resulting in ashfall in towns downwind, including in Rabaul and the Nonga area. During 1 July to 28 August, seismicity was at low levels and the amount of deformation was insignificant.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


13 August-19 August 2003

On 10 August at least three small low-intensity ash emissions were observed at Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone. On 13 August emissions produced ash clouds to a maximum height of ~1 km above the volcano. In August seismicity was at low levels and there were minimal ground movements. The volcano's edifice was inflated, and earthquakes occurred in the NE area of the volcano.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


25 June-1 July 2003

There was a noticeable decline in ash eruptions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone on 22 June through at least 30 June. Around the 19th, ash plumes drifted NW, depositing ash in Rabaul Town and nearby villages. On 19 and 21 June ash emissions occurred within several minutes of each other, but on the 22nd the interval became much longer with no ash emissions occuring for as long as an hour. Ash-laden plumes rose between several hundred and ~1,500 m above the summit. Seismicity decreased on the 22nd, with the occurance of fewer low-frequency earthquakes that are associated with eruptive activity. No significant changes in deformation were recorded.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


18 June-24 June 2003

On 21 June a low-level plume from Rabaul was visible on satellite imagery extending ~11 km NW of the summit.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 March-25 March 2003

Activity at Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 13-19 March was low in comparison with previous months. The eruption continued to be characterized by discrete, convoluted ash plumes occurring at long irregular intervals and rising slowly to several hundred meters above the summit. Ash emissions mainly drifted E and SE. Some light ashfall occurred in the town of Rabaul on 16 March. During the report period, seismicity was at low levels and deformation measurements fluctuated.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center


5 March-11 March 2003

The eruption at Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued during 26 February to 2 March. Activity was characterized by discrete, slow, convoluted ash plumes occurring at long, irregular intervals and rising slowly to several hundred to a thousand meters above the summit. Activity during the report period was slightly lower than activity during 17-26 February, with intervals between ash emissions becoming much longer. Ash emissions were blown to the E and SE. Seismicity remained at low levels and there were no significant changes in deformation. According to the Darwin VAAC, ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 January-4 February 2003

Eruptions of Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued during 27 January to 2 February, with steam-and-ash emissions occurring at irregular intervals and rising about a few hundred meters above the summit. Ash plumes were blown to the SE and seismicity fluctuated at low levels. Ground-deformation measurements showed a slight inflationary trend over the last couple of days in the report period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center


15 January-21 January 2003

Eruptions of Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued during 17-19 January, with activity from three different vents. Discrete convoluted ash plumes rose several hundred to a thousand meters above the volcano's summit. Plumes drifted N and NW, depositing small amounts of ash in Rabaul Town, and the villages of Malaguna, Matupit, Nonga, Tavai, Korere, and Rabura. During the report period, seismicity was at low levels. No significant short-term deformation was recorded, following a very slow inflationary trend during the previous 2 months.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center


31 December-6 January 2003

Activity at Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued through 2 January, with eruptions occurring from three vents at different times. The eruptions were characterized by slow convoluted ash plumes rising several to thousands of meters above the summit. Seismicity was at low-to-moderate levels. No significant short-term deformation was recorded, following a very slow inflationary trend during the previous month.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center


18 December-24 December 2002

During 17-20 December, the eruption of Rabaul volcano's Tavurvur cone was characterized by slow, convoluted ash plumes that rose several hundred to more than a thousand meters above the summit. Seismicity was low to moderate and no significant ground deformation was recorded.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center


11 December-17 December 2002

During 12-16 December, the eruption of Rabaul volcano's Tavurvur cone was characterized by slow, convoluted ash plumes that rose several hundred meters above the summit. Moderate amounts of ashfall affected areas close to the cone. Seismicity was low to moderate and no significant ground deformation was recorded. Although the NE vent was still dominant, some plumes also rose from the W side of the N crater.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center


4 December-10 December 2002

Through 11 December the eruption of Rabaul volcano's Tavurvur cone was characterized by slow, convoluted ash plumes that rose several hundred meters above the summit. There was a small amount of ash in the plumes, and minor ashfall affected areas close to the cone. Seismicity was low to moderate, and there was a ~2.5-minute-long period of harmonic tremor the morning of the 11th that was accompanied by a pulsating noise that emanated from the volcano. No ground deformation was recorded.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center


27 November-3 December 2002

The eruption at Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued through 3 December. The intensity of ash emission changed on 30 November from very slow to slightly forceful, and the interval between eruptions increased. Occasional moderate eruptions produced ash clouds that reached heights of 1-1.5 km above the crater. Two moderate explosions on the night of the 30th emitted visible incandescent lava fragments that showered the volcano's N and NE slopes and ash plumes that rose several hundred meters above the crater. On the evening of 3 December ash plumes were blown N and NW, causing fine ashfall in parts of Rabaul Town. During the report period, seismicity was at low-to-moderate levels. GPS measurements of ground deformation showed no significant changes, but electronic tiltmeters showed minor inflation. RVO stated that the current eruption at Tavurvur is expected to continue, but an increase in eruptive activity is unlikely.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 November-26 November 2002

Very heavy ash emission was observed at Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone on 24 November. A low-level plume was produced and no ash was visible on satellite imagery. RVO advised on 25 November that ash emissions were continuing from Rabaul, but at a reduced rate in comparison to previous weeks. Observations revealed that the ash content in the emissions was generally decreasing, and erupted ash clouds remained below ~1.5 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 October-5 November 2002

Based on information from the Rabaul Volcano Observatory, the Darwin VAAC reported that low-level activity continued from Tavurvur volcano at Rabaul caldera through 4 November. Ash emissions occurred at long, irregular intervals and remained below ~3 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 October-29 October 2002

An eruption on 20 October from Tavurvur volcano took place at Rabaul caldera. The head of RVO stated that rocks were thrown 700 m from the summit and no lava was erupted. Ash from the eruption caused Tokua airport flights to be suspended on 22 October. It reopened on the 27th, with two flights permitted during the day. Reopening the airport was possible because ash from the eruption shifted away from it. Several small explosions occurred after the 20 October eruption and sent ash clouds to 4 km a.s.l. On the 28th RVO stated that a major increase in volcanic activity seemed unlikely.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Reuters, Pacific Island Report


16 October-22 October 2002

According to the Darwin VAAC, a large explosion occurred at Rabaul caldera on 20 October at 1347. They did not specify whether the eruption occurred from Tavurvur or Vulcan volcano. The eruption produced a thick, dark, ash plume that rose to ~3 km before dispersing to the N and NW. No ash was visible on satellite imagery due to meteorological clouds in the vicinity. The VAAC reported that similar explosions were expected to continue for the next couple of days. On the 23rd ash was visible at a height of ~3.6 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 February-26 February 2002

During 11-24 February volcanic and seismic activity were low at Rabaul's post-caldera cone, Tavurvur. Only white vapor was released from Tavurvur; emissions were blown to the SE and E resulting in vegetation being killed in the town of South Daughter (~2 km to the E). The Rabaul Volcanological Observatory stated that this suggests volcanic gases such as SO2 were being emitted.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


10 October-16 October 2001

During 8-14 October summit activity at Tavurvur, a stratovolcano of the Rabaul Caldera, remained low and was dominated by weak-to-moderate emissions of white vapor. Low-frequency volcanic earthquakes continued to occur, but their number and size were relatively low. No significant ground deformation was detected.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


26 September-2 October 2001

During 10-30 September summit activity at Tavurvur, a stratovolcano of the Rabaul Caldera, was very low. During the report period very small-to-moderate amounts of steam were emitted from the active vent and low-frequency volcanic earthquakes decreased. After the 11th seismic activity was relatively low, except for a slight increase on the 16th. Very slow deflation began on 20 September.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


29 August-4 September 2001

On 28 August very mild ash eruptions began. The eruptions followed an increase in the number and magnitude of low-frequency volcanic earthquakes a few days earlier. Eruptions continued until at least 31 August.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Jan 19 2013 Sep 5 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tavurvur
2011 Mar 29 2011 Aug 12 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tavurvur
2010 Jul 23 2010 Jul 25 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Tavurvur
2006 Aug 11 2010 Jan 31 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Tavurvur
2005 Jan 25 2006 Feb 17 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tavurvur
2002 Oct 6 (?) 2004 Feb 17 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tavurvur
1995 Nov 28 2001 Sep 5 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tavurvur
1994 Sep 19 1995 Apr 16 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Tavurvur and Vulcan
1943 Nov 24 1943 Dec 23 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tavurvur
1941 Jun 6 1942 Mar 31 ± 30 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tavurvur
1940 Feb 4 ± 4 days 1940 May 18 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Tavurvur
1937 May 29 1937 Jun 2 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Vulcan and Tavurvur
1878 Jan 30 (?) 1878 Feb 26 ± 2 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Vulcan Island and Tavurvur
1850 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Sulfur Creek
1791 May 22 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tavurvur
1767 Sep 10 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tavurvur ?
1450 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology NE caldera rim (Rabalanakia)
0540 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 6 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Emeleus T G, 1981. Palaeomagnetic directions in lava flows of the Rabaul volcanic complex: preliminary application to dating. Geol Surv Papua New Guinea Mem, 10: 201-207.

Finlayson D M, Gudmundsson O, Itikarai I, Nishimura Y, Shimamura H, 2003. Rabaul volcano, Papua New Guinea: seismic tomographic imaging of an active caldera. J Volc Geotherm Res, 124: 153-171.

Fisher N H, 1957. Melanesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 5: 1-105.

Greene H G, Tiffin D L, McKee C O, 1986. Structural deformation and sedimentation in an active caldera, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea. J Volc Geotherm Res, 30: 327-356.

Heming R F, 1974. Geology and petrology of Rabaul Caldera, Papua New Guinea. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 85: 1253-1264.

Heming R F, Carmichael I S E, 1973. High-temperature pumice flows from the Rabaul caldera, Papau, New Guinea. Contr Mineral Petr, 38: 1-20.

Johnson R W, Threlfall N A, 1985. Volcano Town: the 1937-43 Rabaul Eruptions. Bathurst, Australia: Robert Brown & Assoc, 151 p.

McKee C O, Johnson R W, Lowenstein P L, Riley S J, Blong R J, de Saint Ours P, Talai B, 1985. Rabaul Caldera, Papua New Guinea: volcanic hazards, surveillance, and eruption contingency planning. J Volc Geotherm Res, 23: 195-238.

Nairn I A, McKee C O, Talai B, Wood C P, 1995. Geology and eruptive history of the Rabaul Caldera area, Papua New Guinea. J Volc Geotherm Res, 69: 255-284.

Nairn I A, Talai B, Wood C P, McKee C O, 1989. Rabaul Caldera, Papua New Guinea - 1:25,000 reconnaissance geological map and eruption history. New Zeal Geol Surv Dept Sci Ind Res, geol map.

Wood C P, Nairn I A, McKee C O, Talai B, 1995. Petrology of the Rabaul Caldera area, Papua New Guinea. J Volc Geotherm Res, 69: 285-302.

The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor utilized by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims of Rabaul. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.