Manam

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 4.08°S
  • 145.037°E

  • 1807 m
    5927 ft

  • 251020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

18 December-24 December 2013

RVO reported that activity at both Manam's Southern Crater and Main Crater was low during 1-15 December; white vapor emissions rose from both craters. Light gray ash clouds rose from Southern Crater during 6, 10, and 13-14 December, and incandescence from the crater was observed during 6-10 and 12-13 December. Incandescence from Main Crater was visible during 11-13 and 15 December, and gray ash plumes rose from the crater during 13-14 December. No plumes from either crater rose more than 100 m during the reporting period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



 Available Weekly Reports


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2005: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October
2004: April | September | October | November | December
2003: May
2002: February | May | October
2001: June | September


18 December-24 December 2013

RVO reported that activity at both Manam's Southern Crater and Main Crater was low during 1-15 December; white vapor emissions rose from both craters. Light gray ash clouds rose from Southern Crater during 6, 10, and 13-14 December, and incandescence from the crater was observed during 6-10 and 12-13 December. Incandescence from Main Crater was visible during 11-13 and 15 December, and gray ash plumes rose from the crater during 13-14 December. No plumes from either crater rose more than 100 m during the reporting period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


27 November-3 December 2013

RVO reported that activity at both Manam's Southern Crater and Main Crater was low during 16-30 November; white vapor emissions rose from both craters. Incandescence from Southern Crater was visible on 28 and 30 November, and on 30 November diffuse gray ash plumes rose from the crater.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


13 November-19 November 2013

RVO reported that both Manam's Southern Crater and Main Crater were quiet during 1 October-15 November. White vapor emissions rose from Southern Crater and on some days were slightly bluish. Light gray ash clouds and bright incandescence were visible on 31 October. Main Crater only produced white vapor plumes.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


4 September-10 September 2013

RVO reported that after a small eruption from Manam's Southern Crater during 27-28 August, activity subsided. Diffuse gray-brown ash plumes, emitted at short intervals, rose from the crater during 29-30 August, and crater incandescence was noted. Seismicity declined and was at a low level by the end of the day on 31 August.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


28 August-3 September 2013

RVO reported that Manam's Southern Crater was quiet during 16-17 August. Occasional light-gray emissions observed during 18-20, 22-23, and 25 August rose 100 m above the crater and drifted NW. Incandescence from the crater was seen during 18-19 and 21-26 August, and incandescent fragments were ejected during 21-25 August.

A small eruption began at 1830 on 26 August with emissions of dark ash clouds that rose 500-600 m. Bright incandescence from the crater and occasional ejected incandescent fragments were observed. Roaring and rumbling was heard by island residents as well as residents in Bogia, 25-30 km SSW of Manam on the N coast of the mainland. By the next morning the emissions decreased and were light gray to brown.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


21 August-27 August 2013

Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 August ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 150 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


14 August-20 August 2013

Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 August an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


31 July-6 August 2013

RVO reported that activity at Manam's Southern and Main craters remained low during 22-31 July; observers noted white vapor plumes rising from the craters during periods of clear weather. Considerable amounts of blue vapor rose from Southern Crater during 25-26 July. Deep and low booming noises were heard on the island on most days since 24 July, however, on 30 July a loud explosion was heard in Bogia, 25-30 km SSW of Manam on the N coast of the mainland. Seismicity fluctuated but remained high.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


17 July-23 July 2013

RVO reported that activity at Manam’s Main and Southern craters was low. White vapor plumes were observed rising from both craters when weather conditions were clear.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


10 July-16 July 2013

RVO reported that the increased activity at Manam noted during 17-18 June continued on 19 June, and then declined on 20 June. On 19 June diffuse dark gray ash plumes that rose 200 m above the summit crater were accompanied by deep, loud explosive and booming noises occurring at short intervals. Very loud explosions accompanied by shock waves were heard at much longer intervals. Observers noted ejected incandescent lava fragments at night.

Decreased activity that started on 20 June carried through 30 June, and was characterized by diffuse ash emissions at the beginning of the period changing to diffuse white vapor emissions towards the end. Diffuse gray emissions rose from Main Crater during 19-22 June; explosion and booming noises were reported during 19-20 June. Seismicity was low. Activity at Southern Crater and Main Crater was low during 1-14 July; both craters emitted white vapor.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


19 June-25 June 2013

Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 June ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km NE and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 June-18 June 2013

RVO reported that during 1-12 June activity at Manam was low, characterized by white vapor emissions from Southern Crater. On 13 June diffuse gray emissions were observed, and two explosions at midnight were heard in Bogia, 25-30 km SSW of Manam on the N coast of the mainland. During 14-15 June gray-to-brown ash plumes rose 100 m above the crater and incandescent fragment ejections from the crater were observed at night. Residents on the W part of the island heard explosions on 15 June. Diffuse brown-to-black ash clouds rose 600-700 m above the crater on 17 June, and then changed to dense white clouds later that day. Strombolian activity observed at night was accompanied by roaring, rumbling, and explosion noises. Shock waves were occasionally felt. Strombolian activity increased on 18 June, generating plumes that rose 800 m above the crater. At 0635 a small-to-moderate sized pyroclastic flow traveled down the SE valley and stopped 400 m a.s.l. Ash plumes from the pyroclastic flow rose 900 m above the crater. Roaring, rumbling, and explosion noises were accompanied by occasional shock waves. Plumes drifted NW.

Main Crater emitted white vapor plumes during 1-12 June. Weak but steady incandescence emanated from the crater at night on 2 and 17 June.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


15 May-21 May 2013

RVO reported that during 29 April-16 May activity at Manam was low, characterized by white, and sometimes blue, vapor plumes rising from Southern Crater. White vapor plumes also rose from Main Crater. Seismicity fluctuated but remained high until 1 May; seismicity then declined to a low on 4 May where it stayed for the rest of the period. RVO reminded people to stay away from the four main radial valleys, and especially the SE and SW ones where most products from the activity at Southern Crater were channeled.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


24 April-30 April 2013

RVO reported that on 23 April dense white vapor plumes occasionally rose from Manam's Southern Crater. During 25-28 April ash clouds rose from the new sub-terminal vent E of Southern Crater inside southeast valley. The ash clouds rose 600 m and drifted NW. Loud booming noises were heard each day; however, between 0700 and 1900 on 27 April the noises became frequent, louder, and explosive in nature, and were heard at Bogia, 25-30 km SSW of Manam on the N coast of the mainland. Strong explosions vibrated structures on the island.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


17 April-23 April 2013

RVO reported that a high level of activity at Manam continued on 15 April. Ash plumes rose 500 m above the crater. A loud explosion was heard at 0804. At about 1950 dense ash plumes rose 2 km and drifted SW. At night loud jet-like noises were reported by residents in Bogia, 25-30 km SSW of Manam on the N coast of the mainland. Bright red glow was visible within the dense mixture of ash plumes and atmospheric clouds. Lava was observed flowing from a new vent on the headwall of SW valley during a brief clear period from 1800 to 1850. Ash and scoria fell in most villages between Dugulava on the SW side of the island and Kuluguma on the NW side. Similar activity continued during the first half of 16 April and then changed to gentle light gray ash emissions until 20 April. On 23 April dense white vapor plumes occasionally rose from the crater.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


10 April-16 April 2013

RVO reported that during 1-14 April Strombolian activity was observed from Manam Southern Crater. During 1-7 April ash plumes rose above the crater. Island residents reported incandescent tepha ejections from the crater at night, and roaring and rumbling noises. Activity increased on 8 April. Strombolian activity was sustained for extended periods during 9-11 and 13-14 April. Loud roaring and rumbling noises were reported by residents in Bogia, 25-30 km SSW of Manam on the N coast of the mainland. A few loud banging noises on 13 April rattled bush-material houses at Dugulava village on the SW side of the island. Most fragments from the Strombolian eruptions, including a small volume of lava, were channeled into SW valley. Ash plumes rose as high as 600 m above the summit crater and drifted NW. White vapor plumes rose from Main Crater during the reporting period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


13 March-19 March 2013

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, pilot observations, and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 March an ash plume from Manam rose to altitudes of 6.1-7.6 km (20,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110-150 km ESE

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 March-12 March 2013

RVO reported that on 1 March Manam's Main and Southern Craters emitted small amounts of diffuse white vapor. The craters were either partially or totally obscured by meteorological cloud cover. On 4 and 7 March intermittent gray ash plumes rose 300 m, above the cloud cover.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


13 February-19 February 2013

Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Manam was observed on 12 February at an altitude of 10.1 km (33,000 ft) a.s.l. On 16 February an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 February-12 February 2013

Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 10.1 km (33,000 ft) a.s.l. on 12 February and drifted 55 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 January-29 January 2013

Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 28 January and drifted 22 km E. The next day an ash plume drifted 93 km NE, and then later another ash plume drifted 55 km NE at an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 January-15 January 2013

RVO reported that dark gray ash plumes were occasionally emitted from Manam's Southern Crater during 8-12 January. At about 1000 on 12 January a sub-Plinian eruption generated ash plumes that rose 1.4-1.5 km above the crater; activity peaked between 1200 and 1300. The ash plumes drifted SW, S, and SE, producing ashfall on the island in areas downwind and light ashfall in Bogia (23 km SSW). Rumbling was heard in areas on the S and SW parts of the island, and a few loud booming noises were heard in Bogia. Activity decreased after 1600 and ash plumes only rose 500 m above the crater. At night ejected incandescent material was observed. Ejected material and ashfall was deposited in the SE and SW valleys. Ash plumes drifted S during 13-14 January. White vapor plumes rose from Main Crater during the reporting period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


12 December-18 December 2012

RVO reported that during 8-14 December both diffuse and dense ash plumes rose 400 m above Manam's Southern Crater and drifted NW. Ejected incandescent tephra was observed at night, and small volumes of lava continued to flow from two vents located on the upper slopes of the SE valley. White vapor plumes rose from Main Crater during the reporting period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


5 December-11 December 2012

RVO reported that during 1-7 December both diffuse and dense ash plumes rose 500 m above Manam's Southern Crater and drifted NW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind. Roaring and rumbling were heard, and became loud and frequent on 4 December. Ejected incandescent tephra was observed at night, and a small volume of lava effused from a SE valley vent that formed in August. Small volumes of lava also flowed from a vent, adjacent to the first vent, which opened in late November. White vapor plumes rose from Main Crater during the reporting period. Data from the electronic tiltmeter showed a long-term inflationary trend towards the E. RVO warned residents to stay away from the four main radial valleys, especially to the SE and SW, because products of the current activity are channeled into them.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


28 November-4 December 2012

RVO reported that during 16-19 November white and blue plumes rose from Manam's Southern Crater. During 18-30 November crater incandescence and ejected incandescent tephra were observed on most nights, and a small volume of lava effused from a vent in the SE valley. During 20-30 November occasional dark gray ash plumes rose 500 m above the crater and produced ashfall in the NW and SE parts of the island. A small pyroclastic flow traveled down the SW valley on 21 November, and during 21-22 November roaring and rumbling was heard. White vapor plumes rose from Main Crater during the reporting period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


21 November-27 November 2012

RVO reported that during 19-20 November white and blue vapor rose from Manam. Activity increased at 1200 on 20 November characterized by occasional emissions of dark grey ash. Ejected incandescent tephra was observed at night. At 1700 on 21 November a small pyroclastic flow traveled down the upper part of the SW valley. Stronger activity was detected two hours later which lasted until the next morning; incandescent tephra was ejected several hundred meters above the crater, roaring was heard in Bogia (23 km SSW), and a lava flow was extruded into the SE valley from a new vent beneath Southern Crater. The activity slightly decreased at 1700 on 22 November and diffuse ash plumes occasionally rose from the crater. Activity increased again on 24 November. Ash fell on the NW side of the island.

Based on observations of satellite imagery and reports from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. on 26 November and drifted 110 km E.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


31 October-6 November 2012

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and other data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 November an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Images later that day showed that the ash had dissipated.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 October-16 October 2012

RVO reported that Manam's Southern Crater continued to erupt during 1-15 October. Activity was low the first few days, characterized by emissions of light gray ash plumes, occasional dark gray plumes, and ejected incandescent tephra. The intensity of ejected incandescent tephra increased on 5 October, and peaked during 9-10 October when the ejections developed into Strombolian activity. Strong explosions during the Strombolian activity produced shock waves that rattled houses on the S part of the island. Activity subsided after 10 October; erupted material fell in the SE and SE valleys. There was a corresponding increase in emissions of ash clouds that drifted NW but the volume of ash appeared insignificant. White vapor plumes rose from Main Crater during the reporting period.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 October an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37 km SW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 October-9 October 2012

RVO reported that variable low-level activity continued to be detected at Manam's Southern Crater during 16-30 September. White and occasionally gray ash plumes rose from the crater during 16-24 September, and gray ash clouds were observed during 25-29 September. Only white plumes rose from the crater on 30 September. Ash clouds drifted NW, producing ashfall in the NW part of the island. Two vents in the SE valley, just below the summit crater, produced small-volume lava flows, channeled into the deep ravines on the upper slopes of the SE valley. Glow from the crater was visible on most nights. Incandescent lava fragments were ejected from the crater during 16-17, 19-20, and 24-28 September. The ejections were occasionally sub-continuous to fountaining. Roaring and rumbling noises were sometimes heard at the Bogia station on the mainland on 16, 21, and 26 September. White vapor plumes rose from Main Crater during the reporting period.

According to the Darwin VAAC a pilot reported an intermittent eruption with a diffuse ash plume on 8 October. During 8-9 October satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly, and an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 45 km ENE.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 July-31 July 2012

RVO reported that activity at Manam increased slightly during 15-31 July, except from 18 to 20 July when there were fewer ash emissions. During most of the reporting period, when visibility was clear, gray-to-sometimes-black ash plumes were observed rising 300-700 m above the crater from two vents and drifting NW. Rumbling was often heard on the island; rumbling on 25 July was heard on the mainland 25 km SW. Bright glow visible at night was attributed to ejected incandescent tephra. Sub-Plinian activity occurred on most nights during 21-31 July. Small lava flows descended the SW flank. Four pyroclastic flows traveled down the SE flank on 30 July at 0638, 0640, during 1200-1300, and at 1428. The first event was the largest, and generated an ash plume that rose 1.8 km above the crater and drifted NW. Emissions from Main Crater were milder and mostly characterized by white and bluish plumes, and occasional gray ash plumes.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


27 June-3 July 2012

RVO reported that four pyroclastic flows traveled down Manam's SE flank on 16 June. The following day activity was low; emissions were mostly steam with occasional ash. During 18-30 June gray ash clouds, that were sometimes black, rose 100-150 m above the crater and drifted mainly NW. Roaring and rumbling noises were sometimes reported. Incandescent tephra was ejected from the crater on most nights; activity during 28-29 June was almost Subplinian. Emissions from Main Crater were milder and mostly characterized by white and bluish plumes. Gray ash plumes were emitted during 18, 23, 26-27, and 29 June. Incandescence from the crater was visible during 18, 20-22, and 24 June. Ash fell in the NW part of the island.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


13 June-19 June 2012

RVO reported low-to-moderate activity from Manam's Southern Crater during 1-15 June. Emissions consisted of gray and sometimes black ash clouds that rose from the crater on most days. Plumes drifted SE on 2 June and NW during 6-15 June. Ash fell in areas downwind between Yassa (WSW) and Baliau (NNW), and Warisi (ESE). Incandescent material was ejected from the crater, and roaring and rumbling noises were noted. Pyroclastic flows on 16 June (at 0700, 0720, 0722, and 0729) channeled into the SE valley. The last pyroclastic flow was perhaps the largest as it reached the lowest elevation, 300-400 m above sea level, but was far from populated areas. Ash plumes from the pyroclastic flows drifted WSW and WNW; ash fell in Bogia (22 km SSW, on the mainland). Emissions from Main Crater were milder and mostly characterized by white and bluish plumes. Light gray plumes were noted during 2 and 8-9 June. Fluctuating incandescence was intermittently observed and ash fell in the NW part of the island.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


30 May-5 June 2012

RVO reported mild activity from Manam's Southern Crater during the first two weeks of May. Emissions consisted of diffuse white vapor, with diffuse blue plumes observed during 5-6 and 13-14 May. Gray and gray-brown ash clouds rose from the crater on 7, 9, and 12 May. Incandescence was visible at night during 6, 8, 10-11, and 13-14 May, and incandescent tephra was occasionally ejected from the crater.

Activity increased on 16 May, marked by a change in emissions from gray and gray-brown ash clouds to gray-to-black ash clouds, and an increase in ejected incandescent tephra. On 27 and 30 May Strombolian activity was observed, and for periods lasting 1-2 hours incandescent tephra was continuously ejected from the crater. On 30 May two vents in Southern Crater produced lava fountains. Rumbling was heard, and ash plumes rose 100-400 m above the crater and drifted NW. Most of the ejected tephra fell back into the crater but some was channeled into the SE and SW valleys. Emissions from Main Crater were milder and mostly characterized by white plumes. Gray-to-gray-brown ash plumes were noted during 6, 10-11, 13, 26, 28-29, and 31 May. Fluctuating incandescence was intermittently observed. Ash fell in the NW part of the island.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


9 November-15 November 2011

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 November an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 90 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 October-25 October 2011

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-21 October ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 150-220 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 October-18 October 2011

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 October ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 150-170 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 August-23 August 2011

RVO reported that the summit area of Manam was obscured by atmospheric clouds on most days during 1-19 August. When the summit was clear to viewers on the mainland, 15-20 km away from Manam, both vents were emitting white vapor plumes. Main Crater produced light-gray ash clouds during 13 and 17-18 August, and bright, steady incandescence was visible on most clear nights. Weak incandescence was visible from Southern Crater on some nights. People living on the island reported occasional noises from both craters on 3 and 11 August. Seismicity during the reporting period was dominated by volcanic tremors. Discrete high-frequency volcano-tectonic earthquakes were also recorded. RVO noted that high-frequency volcano-tectonic earthquakes are not very common for Manam. An electronic tiltmeter located about 4 km SW from the summit craters continued to show inflation towards the summit area.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-21 August ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-90 km NW and W.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 January-11 January 2011

RVO reported that during 5-6 January low roaring from Manam's South Crater was heard and weak but steady crater incandescence was observed at night. Diffuse blue vapor was emitted from South Crater on 6 January. During 6-8 January white vapor rose from Main Crater and incandescence from both craters was observed at night. Diffuse brown ash plumes occasionally rose from South Crater on 7 January. The next day the Alert Level was lowered from Stage 3 to Stage 2. During 8-9 January Main Crater emitted white vapor and South Crater produced occasional gray ash plumes that drifted to the SE part of the island. Emissions from Main Crater turned to gray on 10 January. White-to-blue vapor plumes rose from South Crater. Both craters were incandescent at night during 8-10 January.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


29 December-4 January 2011

RVO reported that on 25 December a new episode of eruptive activity from Manam's South Crater began and was characterized during 25-29 December by rising ash plumes and ejections of incandescent lava fragments. Although most of the material fell back into the crater, some was deposited around the summit area, and some larger fragments were deposited in the SW and SE valleys. The Main Crater produced white plumes occasionally laden with ash. Incandescence was visible on some nights.

On 30 December activity from South Crater increased and was reported by observers in Bogia, 20 km SSW, on the mainland. A dense ash plume rose 3 km above the summit crater and drifted NW. An observer at Tabele on the SW flank confirmed the eruption and also reported that three pyroclastic flows descended the SE valley, stopping by a few to several hundred meters from the coastline. The first and largest pyroclastic flow devastated a broad unpopulated area between Warisi and Dugulava villages. Ash plumes drifted NW and caused light ashfall in Tabele. RVO recommended an increase in the Alert Level to Stage 3. Later that day, ash emissions and incandescent fragment ejections diminished.

On 31 December, gray ash plumes rose 200-300 m above the South Crater and also above the Main Crater. Low booming sounds were noted and incandescence from the crater was observed at night. During 1-4 January eruptive activity continued from South Crater and gray-to-black ash plumes rose above the summit crater. Incandescence emanated from the crater. During 3-4 January incandescent fragments were ejected onto the flanks and rolled down the SE valley. White vapor rose from the Main Crater.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


24 November-30 November 2010

RVO reported that during 19-25 November light brown to dark gray ash plumes were seen rising 400-500 m above Manam's South Crater. People living on the island reported occasional roaring and rumbling noises. Incandescent material ejected from the crater mainly fell back in and around the crater, but occasionally spilled into the SE and SW valleys. White vapor rose from Main Crater and incandescence from the crater was visible on most nights from 21 November onward.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


10 November-16 November 2010

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-16 November ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 95 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 October-2 November 2010

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 October an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 95 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 October-26 October 2010

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 October an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km NW. A subsequent notice stated that the ash plume had dissipated.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 September-21 September 2010

RVO reported that during 5-7 September ash plumes were seen rising from Manam's South Crater when the weather did not prevent observations. Light ashfall was reported on the NW part of the island. Variable amounts of white vapor that was sometimes tinted blue rose from Main Crater.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


1 September-7 September 2010

RVO reported that ash plumes and diffuse blue vapor plumes rose 150 m from Manam's Main Crater on 30 August. That same day gray emissions rose from South Crater at 5-10 minute intervals. During 30 August-2 September incandescence was observed when the craters could be seen.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


25 August-31 August 2010

RVO reported that during 13-26 August incandescence from Manam's South Crater was visible at night. Main Crater emitted diffuse white vapor. During 27-28 August incandescence emanated from both craters and brightened every 15-20 minutes. At that time, incandescent lava fragments ejected tens to hundreds of meters above South Crater were reported from observers in Bogia, about 23 km SSW. Weak explosions were heard at 15-20 minute intervals. During 28-29 August diffuse white-to-blue vapor emissions from Main Crater were occasionally accompanied by diffuse gray ash plumes. Incandescent lava fragments continued to be ejected. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 August an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


11 August-17 August 2010

RVO reported that incandescence from Manam's South Crater was visible at 4-5 minute intervals on 10 August. The next day diffuse black ash plumes rose a few hundred meters above the rim. Steady incandescence was accompanied by periodic ejections of lava fragments ejected 400-500 m above the rim. Main Crater emitted diffuse white vapor. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 August ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 December-15 December 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 December an eruption from Manam produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 October-3 November 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2 November ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-55 km NW and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 June-9 June 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 June an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 40 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


13 May-19 May 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 May an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 20 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 December-23 December 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 December an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 December-16 December 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 December an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 November-25 November 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 November an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 55 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 October-7 October 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 October ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 September-23 September 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 September ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


13 August-19 August 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that low-level ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW during 16-17 August.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 July-5 August 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 July a low-level plume from Manam rose to an altitude 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 July-29 July 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 July low-level plumes from Manam rose to an altitude 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 May-13 May 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 May low-level plumes from Manam rose to an altitude 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 April-29 April 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse plume from Manam rose to an altitude of below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 April-15 April 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported low-level ash-and-steam plumes from Manam during 14-15 April. The plume drifted WNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 April-8 April 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery and reports from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that a low-level plume from Manam drifted SW on 2 April.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 December-1 January 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery and reports from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 27 December and drifted N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 October-16 October 2007

RVO reported that Manam's Main Crater and South Crater occasionally released white vapor plumes during 6-15 October. During 10-11 October, weak incandescence and occasional ash plumes from Main Crater were visible.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


3 October-9 October 2007

RVO reported that incandescence was visible at the summit of Manam on 29 September and 1 October. The Main Crater occasionally released diffuse ash plumes during 1-5 October. Plumes drifted SW. White vapor plumes were emitted from South Crater.

Based on information from RVO and observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 September-18 September 2007

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. on 17 September and drifted W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 August-21 August 2007

Based on satellite image observations and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 10 August and drifted W. On 21 August, an ash plume again rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. as indicated by observations of satellite imagery. The plume drifted SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 June-26 June 2007

Based on satellite image observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 June and drifted WNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 May-5 June 2007

Based on satellite image observations and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that diffuse plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 5 June and drifted WNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 May-29 May 2007

Based on satellite image observations and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that diffuse plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 May and drifted SW and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 May-8 May 2007

RVO reported that Manam's Main Crater and South Crater occasionally released white vapor plumes during 1-5 May. Weak incandescence was visible from Main Crater on 2 and 4 May. Seismicity was at low levels. Based on information from RVO and satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse plume drifted W on 6 May.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 April-1 May 2007

Based on satellite imagery and information from Rabaul Volcano Observatory, the Darwin VAAC reported diffuse plumes from Manam during 25-26 April.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


14 March-20 March 2007

RVO reported that Manam's Main Crater emitted gray ash plumes during 11-19 March. The plumes rose to altitudes of 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Incandescence was visible the evenings of 11, 12, 16, and 18 March. Vapor clouds and occasional diffuse ash clouds were emitted from South Crater during 11-20 March.

According to a news article, four people were killed and one injured from an "ash-and-mud" avalanche in a valley on the northern part of the island. RVO received the report on 15 March, but had not yet confirmed whether it was a mudflow.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Reuters


7 March-13 March 2007

RVO reported that Manam's Main Crater emitted gray ash plumes on 22 February and during 3-11 March. The plumes rose to altitudes of 2.3-2.8 km (7,500-9,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Incandescence was visible on 22 February and during 2-5 and 9-11 March. Vapor clouds and occasional diffuse ash clouds were emitted from South Crater during 3-11 March.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


21 February-27 February 2007

RVO reported that Manam's South Crater emitted gray ash plumes during 15-19 February and white vapor plumes on 21 February. Gray ash plumes continually emitted from Main Crater rose to an altitude of 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE during 19-21 February.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


14 February-20 February 2007

Based on satellite imagery and information from Rabaul Volcano Observatory, the Darwin VAAC reported that diffuse plumes from Manam drifted WSW on 15 February.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 January-16 January 2007

RVO reported that emissions of white vapor plumes from Manam's Main Crater were observed during 1-14 January. Brown-to-gray ash plumes accompanied emissions on 6 and 9-11 January. Nighttime incandescence was observed intermittently. White vapor clouds were occasionally released from Southern Crater.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


13 December-19 December 2006

Based on satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that diffuse plumes from Manam drifted mainly W during 13-15 December.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 December-12 December 2006

RVO reported that during 8-10 December, incandescence was observed from Manam's Main Crater. Bluish white vapor emissions during 6-9 December changed to a darker gray on 10 December. A resultant plume rose to 2.1-2.2 km (6,900-7,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


8 November-14 November 2006

RVO reported that during 1-13 November white vapor plumes from Manam were emitted from South Crater and from Main Crater. Incandescence was noted from both craters during 8-10 November and from Main Crater on 12 November. Based on satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 November a diffuse plume drifted W.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 November-7 November 2006

RVO reported that during 15-17 October, eruptive activity from Manam consisted of mild emissions of steam and ash plumes. White vapor plumes were visible from South Crater and intermittently from Main Crater. Emissions from Main Crater were accompanied by gray ash plumes on 19 October. Weak incandescence was noted during 15-17 and on 29 October.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


30 August-5 September 2006

Based on satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash-and-steam plumes from Manam reached altitudes of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W on 1 and 2 September. Steam plumes with possible ash were visible on satellite imagery below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 August-29 August 2006

During 22-23 August, emissions from Manam consisted of dark brown-to-gray ash plumes that rose 1-2 km above the summit (9,200-12,500 ft a.s.l.) and drifted W and NW.

The Darwin VAAC reported that eruption plumes were visible on satellite imagery on 23 and 26 August, extending NW. Ash was not identified in the imagery.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 August-22 August 2006

The RVO reported continuous emissions of ash clouds from Manam's Main Crater during 14-17 August. On 14 August, dense pale gray-to-brown ash clouds rose to less than 1 km above the summit (~9,200 ft a.s.l.) and drifted WNW. During 15-17 August, the emissions decreased to diffuse pale gray ash clouds and weak incandescence was observed at night.

Based on pilot reports and satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported continuous emissions during 17-21 August. The plumes reached altitudes of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 August-15 August 2006

According to the Darwin VAAC, an ash plume from Manam was visible on satellite imagery extending NW on 9 August. Ash was not identified on subsequent imagery on 9 and 10 August. A small plume was visible on satellite imagery on 15 August.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 August-8 August 2006

On 4 and 5 August, an ash plume from Manam was visible on satellite imagery at an unknown altitude and extended 30 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 July-1 August 2006

On 29 July, an ash plume from Manam was visible on satellite imagery at an altitude of ~3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 July-18 July 2006

According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot reported that an ash cloud from Manam reached altitudes of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. on 17 July and drifted N. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery due to local cloud cover.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 May-30 May 2006

According to the Darwin VAAC, an ash plume from Manam was visible on satellite imagery on 24 and 25 May, extending ~100 km WNW. On 26 May, an ash plume visible on satellite imagery reached an altitude below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 48 km WNW. According to RVO (Rabaul Volcano Observatory), low-level activity occurred on 30 May.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 May-9 May 2006

On 8 May, an ash plume from Manam was visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 April-2 May 2006

Ash from Manam was observed on satellite imagery on 28 April at a height of ~3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 April-18 April 2006

Based on information from an aircraft report, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash emitted from Manam reached ~2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. on 12 April and drifted WNW. No ash was visible on satellite imagery. According to RVO, low-level activity occurred at Manam during 13-15 April. Roaring was heard from Main Crater on 13 April, and both summit craters emitted white vapor on the 14th.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


8 March-14 March 2006

During 9-11 March, both summit craters at Manam released gas, and seismicity was at moderate levels. Inspections of deposits from an eruption on 27 February confirmed that pyroclastic flows traveled down the SW and SE valleys and that a lava flow was confined to the upper part of the SW valley. On 7 March, a team from RVO witnessed a pyroclastic flow down the SE valley. Scoria and ashfall affected the E part of the island between Warisi and Bokure 1.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


1 March-7 March 2006

Based on information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that a minor explosion occurred at Manam on 6 March. The height of the resultant plume was not reported and ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 February-28 February 2006

A large eruption began at Manam on 27 February around 1733 from the volcano's Southern Crater. According to the Darwin VAAC, satellite imagery showed an umbrella cloud above the volcano and a strong hot spot. The edges of the ash cloud were ice rich and the eruption height appeared to be about 19 km (~62,300 ft) a.s.l. based on a warm temperature anomaly in the middle of the cloud indicating a stratospheric intrusion.

RVO reported that the strong phase of the eruption declined on 28 February around 0030. During the height of the activity, incandescent lava fragments were thrown 700-800 m high; ejection heights later decreased to 200-300 m. A large amount of ash was deposited on the E part of the island and lava flowed down the SW valley. By 1 March, only gas was emitted from Southern Crater, no noises were heard, and weak incandescence was visible around the vent. Incandescent lava fragments were thrown 100-150 m above the vent and fell into the crater. Main Crater gently emitted occasional ash clouds, and then gas later in the day. Field inspections on 28 February confirmed that a lava flow traveled down the SW valley to about 600 m elevation, a pyroclastic flow traveled down the same valley to about 500 m elevation, and the maximum ash thickness was about 7-8 cm on the E part of the island. After mid-February the seismic station at the volcano was not operating and radio communication with the observer at Bogia ceased. The island is inhabited by about 300 people who returned to the island after evacuating following the 27 January 2005 eruption. The Alert Level at the volcano was at "Stage 2."

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Agence France-Presse (AFP)


25 January-31 January 2006

Mild eruptive activity occurred at Manam during 1-15 January, with occasional ash emissions during 1-4 January. Dull incandescence was visible on 1 and 2 January. Gas was emitted from Southern Crater during 1-7 January. Seismicity was at low levels during the report period. The Alert Level remained at 1, which reflected low activity.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center


26 October-1 November 2005

During 29-30 October, low-level eruptive activity continued at Manam with plumes visible on satellite imagery extending NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 October-25 October 2005

On 20 and 24 October, low-level eruptive activity continued at Manam with plumes visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 October-11 October 2005

RVO reported that ash emissions continued from Manam's Main Crater during 3-9 October. Ash clouds rose to low levels and drifted NW, depositing ash in downwind areas. According to the Darwin VAAC, during the report period ash was visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Manam remained at Alert Level "Stage 1," reflecting low-level activity.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 September-4 October 2005

On 1 October, a pilot observed ash from Manam below a height of ~3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. extending NW. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 September-27 September 2005

During 12-18 September, Manam's Main Crater continued to release weak emissions of ash. For a brief period on the 17th, a moderate amount of ash was emitted. Ash plumes drifted to the NW part of the island. Manam remained at Alert Level " Stage 1."

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


24 August-30 August 2005

Mild eruptive activity continued at Manam during 22-28 August, with occasional emissions of weak-to-moderate ash plumes on several days. Ash clouds emitted on 22 and 26 August rose several hundred meters above the volcano's crater and drifted NW, depositing ash in areas between the towns of Jogari and Kuluguma, and beyond to Boisa Island. Manam remained at Alert Level " Stage 1."

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center


17 August-23 August 2005

According to RVO, during 15-21 August low-level volcanic activity continued at Manam. On the 15th, ash was emitted from Southern Crater. The Darwin VAAC reported that a low-level plume from Manam was visible on satellite imagery on 22 August. Manam remained at Alert Level "Stage 1," which indicates low levels of activity.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 July-26 July 2005

Ash from Manam was visible on satellite imagery on 29 July. The height of the plume was not reported.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


13 July-19 July 2005

Ash from Manam was visible extending SW on satellite imagery on 19 July. The height of the plume was not reported.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 June-5 July 2005

Thin plumes from Manam were visible on satellite imagery during 1-2 July. The plume heights were not reported.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 June-21 June 2005

During 16-17 June, ash plumes from Manam were visible on satellite imagery. The heights of the plumes were not reported.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


4 May-10 May 2005

A thin plume extending 55 km NW on 4 May was seen on satellite imagery by the Darwin VAAC. The ash cloud remained below 3 km a.s.l. (10,000 feet).

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 April-3 May 2005

During 28 April to 3 May a thin plume from Manam was visible on satellite imagery. RVO reported that mild eruptive activity continued at the volcano. Manam remained at Stage 2 Alert Level.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 March-29 March 2005

Mild eruptive activity continued at Manam during 22-28 March. Weak-to-moderate emissions from both the Main and Southern craters continued to produce occasional ash clouds during most days. On 24 March, emissions from Main Crater rose to ~1 km above the summit (~9,200 ft a.s.l.). On 28 March, a moderate explosion produced an ash plume to a height of ~1.2 km above the summit (~9,900 a.s.l.). Ash plumes drifted N, depositing ash on the island. Seismic activity fluctuated between low and moderate, with low-frequency earthquakes recorded. Manam remained at Stage 2 Alert Level.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 March-22 March 2005

Occasional ash emission continued at Manam through 16 March. According to RVO, volcanic activity is expected to continue at a low level.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 March-15 March 2005

On 15 March, a thin plume from Manam was visible on satellite imagery. The Alert Level at Manam remained at 2.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 February-1 March 2005

The summit of Manam was obscured by clouds during 22-24 February, impeding observations. Seismicity was low, with small low-frequency earthquakes and without volcanic tremor. The Alert Level at Manam remained at 2.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


16 February-22 February 2005

According to RVO, mild eruptive activity was observed from Manam's Southern Crater during 18-21 February. Weak-to-moderate ash explosions the crater emitted rose a few hundred meters above the crater and drifted E and SE, depositing fine ash in areas downwind. Main Crater emitted white vapor. Seismicity was at low levels at Manam, with small low-frequency earthquakes occurring. Manam remained at Alert Level 2.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


9 February-15 February 2005

Based on information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that emissions from Manam continued during 9-15 February. The Alert Level at Manam was reduced from 3 to 2 around 15 February.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 February-8 February 2005

Based on information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that emissions from Manam continued during 2-8 February. Manam was at Alert Level 3.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 January-1 February 2005

RVO reported that an eruption at Manam during the evening of 27 January was more severe than other eruptions that have occurred during the current eruptive period. Debris from the eruption was voluminous and widespread on the island. RVO's monitoring base at Warisi village was completely destroyed by a possible pyroclastic flow, preventing RVO from providing information on the current level of activity. One person was killed by volcanic activity, and about 14 people living in Warisi village were injured.

The Darwin VAAC estimated that the eruption around 2400 on 27 January rose 21-24 km a.s.l. The volcanic cloud was very difficult to track because it was ice rich and mixed with monsoonal storms, but dispersion models and satellite imagery suggested that a mid-tropospheric portion of the cloud spread quickly W over Irian Jaya, while a higher portion of the cloud remained near the eruption site for an extended amount of time. Another large eruption occurred around 2300 on 28 January.

According to news reports, many of the residents of the island who were originally evacuated in November 2004 had returned. There were reports of several houses that had burned down from hot emissions and others collapsed under the weight of ash and pyroclastic material. After the large eruption on 27 January, local authorities planned to evacuate about 2,000 residents.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), The National


19 January-25 January 2005

RVO reported that during 18-20 January there was a reduction in volcanic activity at Manam, but tremor continued. Steam plumes were emitted from Southern Crater and Main Crater. Small amounts of ash fell in the town of Waris on 20 January. It was not known which crater was the source of the ash. Overall, seismicity was at moderate-to-high levels. Manam remained at Alert Level 2.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


12 January-18 January 2005

During 12-18 January, the Darwin VAAC, based on information from RVO, reported that Manam was at Alert Level 2 and continued to produce variable emissions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 January-11 January 2005

During 5-11 January, the Darwin VAAC, based on information from RVO, reported that Manam was at Alert Level 2 and continued to produce variable emissions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 December-4 January 2005

On 29 December the Darwin VAAC, based on information from RVO, reported that Manam was at Alert Level 2, a reduction from the previous Alert Level 3. During 1-4 January, Manam produced variable emissions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 December-28 December 2004

Based on information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that eruptions continued at Manam during 22-28 December. The Alert Level remained at 3.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 December-21 December 2004

Based on information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that the Alert Level at Manam was raised from 2 to 3 on 19 December. During 19-20 December, satellite imagery showed that ash plumes rose to at least 9 km a.s.l. and ash high as 15 km a.s.l. and drifted ~460 km WSW of Manam. Clouds dissipated by 20 December at 1230.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


8 December-14 December 2004

RVO reported to the Darwin VAAC that during 8-14 December moderate eruptions continued at Manam. Satellite imagery showed a plume at a height of ~4.6 km a.s.l. extending ~220 km ENE. According to a news report, by 11 December more than 3,000 of the island's 9,000 residents had been evacuated.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), ABC News - Australian Broadcasting Corporation


1 December-7 December 2004

Emissions of ash and gas continued at Manam during 1-7 December. According to the Darwin VAAC, ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery on several days, with the highest reaching ~3 km a.s.l. and extending ~330 km E on 7 December. According to a news article, the coordinator of the evacuation confirmed that five people died due to respiratory complications from inhaling ash.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), The National


24 November-30 November 2004

High-level volcanic activity continued at Manam during 24-30 November. The Darwin VAAC reported that satellite imagery showed eruption cloud tops at a height of ~18 km a.s.l. on 24 November and that RVO reported strong Strombolian eruptions and lava flows. By 28 November plumes were visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~5.5 km a.s.l. On 30 November the Washington VAAC did not see plumes on satellite imagery, but RVO reported that the eruption continued.

According to news reports, evacuation of the ~9,600 residents of the island of Manam began on 28 November. Food gardens, cash crops, trees, and houses (about 20 bush houses) were destroyed on the island and the drinking water was contaminated. Residents were being evacuated to Bogia, about 2 hours away by boat. There were unconfirmed reports of two deaths, due to drinking "ash-contaminated water," and five injuries.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Papua New Guinea Post-Courier Online, Agence France-Presse (AFP), Associated Press, Reuters


17 November-23 November 2004

During 17-23 November, the Darwin VAAC issued numerous volcanic ash advisories concerning plumes emitted from Manam that were visible on satellite imagery. On 19 November at 1125, a plume visible on satellite imagery reached a height of 7-8 km a.s.l and extended 74 km to the NE. A plume detected on 23 November at 2225 rose to around 14 km a.s.l and extended 130 km to the ESE. The Aviation Color Code was at Red, the highest level. Rabaul Volcanological Observatory advised that the eruptions of Manam are continuing with occasional stronger activity.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


10 November-16 November 2004

Rabaul Volcanological Observatory reported a Strombolian eruption at Manam volcano that began 10 November at 2200 and lasted until 11 November at 1915. There was some fluctuation in intensity during the course of the eruption. The ash column from the eruption was estimated to have risen ~5-6 km above the crater, and perhaps rose as high as ~9 km above the crater at around 1732 according to an Air Niugini pilot account. The ash activity was accompanied by continuous weak to moderate roaring and rumbling noises and frequent loud explosions. Light ash and scoria fall was reported between Kolang 1 and Kuluguma villages. A moderate amount of ash fell during 11 November between Boakure 1 and Baliau villages.

During 10-16 November, the Darwin VAAC issued numerous volcanic ash advisories concerning plumes emitted from Manam that were visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 November-9 November 2004

According to the Darwin VAAC, ash emitted from Manam was visible on satellite imagery on 8 and 9 November at a height of ~3 km a.s.l. On the 9th the plume extended ~55 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 October-2 November 2004

The eruption that began at Manam on 24 October continued through at least 31 October. According to RVO, during 27-28 October there were occasional emissions of ash-laden brown clouds and projections of incandescent lava from Manam's Southern Crater. Fine ash from the eruptions traveled NW, and was deposited between the villages of Jogari and Baliau. Main Crater released occasional weak-to-moderate emissions of white vapor, and sometimes brown ash. Weak, fluctuating incandescence was visible from the crater at night. During 28-29 October, at Southern Crater there were occasional emissions of moderate, thick, dark ash-laden clouds that rose above normal atmospheric clouds. The ash clouds drifted NW, depositing ash between the villages of Yassa and Baliau. The Alert Level at Manam was at Stage 1. By 31 October, the eruption at Main Crater consisted of Strombolian activity, with ash and scoria emissions. Scoria of ~1 cm diameter and ash was deposited in Warisi village on the SE side of the island. Small pyroclastic flows were generated and fresh lava flowed into the NE valley. The lava flow followed the Boakure side of the valley, covering older flows from the 1992-1994 eruption. Beginning on the morning of the 31st, the amount of continuous volcanic tremor increased to moderate-to-high levels, so the Alert Level was increased to Stage 2. Villagers near the four main valleys near Manam were advised to remain away from the volcano.

The Darwin VAAC reported that a SE-drifting plume from Manam was visible on satellite imagery on 31 October during 0813-1449 at a height of ~13.7 km a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code was at Red, the highest level. According to a news report, about 4,000 villagers living near the volcano were moved to safer areas. Reportedly, "about 1 ft [0.3 m] of ash with hot pumice" landed on the roofs of houses, and ash drifted as far W as Wewak, ~100 km from Manam Island. On 2 November around 2325 a possible eruption may have produced a plume to a height of ~7.6 km a.s.l. that drifted SE.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), The Sydney Morning Herald


20 October-26 October 2004

Based on information from JMA, a pilot report, and satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption began at Manam on 24 October around 1125, producing a plume to a maximum height of about 15 km (a height of ~6 km was reported in news articles). Preliminary reports from RVO stated that pyroclastic flows traveled down the valley SE of the volcano. The aviation color code was at Red, the highest value. According to RVO, low-level eruptive activity occurred at the volcano after the 24 October eruption and was decreasing by 26 October. News articles reported that authorities advised the evacuation of ~3000 people living near the volcano to safer parts of the island.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), The Courier-Mail News, Associated Press


22 September-28 September 2004

According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot reported seeing a plume from Manam on 22 September at 1345 drifting W at a height of ~3 km a.s.l. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 April-13 April 2004

During 15 March to 1 April mild eruptive activity occurred at Manam's Southern Crater, with emissions of brown ash on 17, 18, 27, and 28 March. The ash clouds rose to about 100-300 m above the summit and drifted SE, depositing small amounts of ash in the villages of Boakure and Warisi. Vapor was emitted from Main Crater. During the report period, small low-frequency earthquakes occurred. On 24 March there was a slight increase in the amplitude of volcanic earthquakes, but the overall level of seismicity remained low. RVO advised people to stay away from the four main valleys near the volcano.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


28 May-3 June 2003

Occasional emissions of thin white-gray ash plumes occurred from Manam's Main Crater during 13-27 May. Ashfall was seen on the NW side of the island during 17-19 and 23 May. There were no precursors to this activity; no noises were heard and no incandescence was seen. During the report period, small amounts of thin white vapor were emitted from Southern Crater.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


30 October-5 November 2002

A pilot reported seeing a light brown ash cloud above Manam on 31 October at a height of ~3 km a.s.l. A possible thin low-level plume was visible on satellite imagery extending N of the volcano.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 May-28 May 2002

The Rabaul Volcanological Observatory stated that the Strombolian eruption from Manam's S crater on 20 May ceased on the same day at about 1400. After that, activity consisted of forceful ash emissions in moderate volumes. The decline in activity led to the reduction in Alert Level from 2 ("eruption expected within weeks to months") to 1 ("non-threatening, background level"). According to the Darwin VAAC, the ash cloud produced from the 20 May eruption was no longer visible on satellite imagery by 22 May at 1515. People were reminded to be cautious when near the valleys SE and SW of the volcano.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 May-21 May 2002

A moderate-sized Strombolian eruption occurred at Manam on 20 May. A pilot reported observing an ash plume at a maximum height of ~9 km on the 20th at 0500. At 0945 on the same day an eruption cloud was visible on satellite imagery extending to the SW. The Rabaul Volcano Observatory reported that a continuous eruption was occurring until at least 0947 on 20 May.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 February-26 February 2002

Mild eruptive activity was observed at Manam during January through late February. Beginning on 13 January weak puffs of ash clouds were emitted from Southern Crater at 5-10 minute intervals. On several days in January fine ash fell on the NE side of the island for periods of several hours. During 8-24 February ash fell to the SE and was occasionally deposited in Warisi village. Main Crater released only weak-to-moderate volumes of white vapor during the report period. No instrumental measurements were made.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


26 September-2 October 2001

Volcanic activity at Manam during September was very low. Occasional emissions of weak-to-moderate volumes of thin white vapor were visible at Main Crater. Southern Crater emitted very small volumes of thin white vapor.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


27 June-3 July 2001

The Rabaul Volcano Observatory reported that there have been no recent lava flows from Manam, contrary to pilot reports of multiple lava flows on 25 June. There were signs of recent volcanic activity on 14 June, when emissions produced fine ash, and on 21 June, when roaring/rumbling noises emanated from the volcano. Small light gray ash emissions had been occasionally observed on other occasions.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)


20 June-26 June 2001

According to information from pilot reports, Rabaul Volcanological Observatory (RVO), NOAA, and GMS imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 25 June Manam produced multiple lava flows and an ash cloud that rose to a maximum height of 4.5 km a.s.l. The ash cloud was not visible on satellite imagery. RVO noted that occasional low-level ash emissions had been observed since 20 June.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2010 Aug 10 (?) 2013 Aug 30 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South Crater, Main Crater
2004 Oct 24 2009 Dec 12 (?) Confirmed 4 Historical Observations South Crater, Main Crater
2003 Oct 26 ± 5 days 2004 Mar 28 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Main Crater
2003 May 17 2003 May 23 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Main Crater
2002 Oct 31 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2002 Jan 13 2002 May 21 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations South Crater
2001 Jun 14 2001 Jun 25 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2000 Jun 3 2000 Jun 4 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South Crater
1974 Mar 4 (?) 1999 Nov 9 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations South Crater, Main Crater
1965 1966 Jan 25 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South Crater
1963 Nov 26 1964 Apr Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South Crater
1963 Feb 1963 May (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South Crater
1962 Apr Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South Crater
1961 Jul 1961 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South Crater
1959 Dec 1960 Dec (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Main Crater, South Crater
1959 Jun 1959 Jul Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South Crater
1956 Dec 8 1958 Aug Confirmed 3 Historical Observations South Crater, Main Crater
1954 May 1954 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1953 Apr 1953 Aug Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1946 Dec 1 ± 30 days 1947 Sep Confirmed 3 Historical Observations South Crater
1936 Sep 1939 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Main Crater, South Crater
1932 1934 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1926 Mar 1928 Mar 1 ± 30 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1925 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1924 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
[ 1923 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1922 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1920 Dec 5 (?) 1921 Mar Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1919 Aug 11 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations South Crater, Main Crater
1917 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1909 1914 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1907 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1904 Oct 26 1904 Oct 27 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1904 Apr 30 ± 30 days Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
[ 1901 ] [ 1902 ] Uncertain    
1899 ± 1 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Main Crater, South Crater
1887 Jun 1895 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1885 May Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
[ 1884 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1877 Oct 29 1877 Nov 13 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South Crater
1830 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1700 Apr 2 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations South Crater
1643 Apr 21 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1616 Jul 6 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

de Saint Ours P, 1982. Potential volcanic hazards at Manam Island. Geol Surv Papua New Guinea Rpt, 82/22: 1-19.

Fisher N H, 1957. Melanesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 5: 1-105.

Johnson R W, Jaques A L, Hickey R L, McKee C O, Chappell B W, 1985. Manam Island, Papua New Guinea: petrology and geochemistry of a low-TiO2 basaltic island-arc volcano. J Petr, 26: 283-323.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Lowenstein P L, 1982. Problems of volcanic hazards in Papua New Guinea. Geol Surv Papua New Guinea Rpt, 82/7: 1-62.

McKee C O, 1981. Geomorphology, geology, and petrology of Manam volcano. Geol Surv Papua New Guinea Mem, 10: 23-38.

Palfreyman W D, Cooke R J S, 1976. Eruptive history of Manam volcano, Papua New Guinea. In: Johnson R W (ed) {Volcanism in Australasia}, Amsterdam: Elsevier, p 117-132.

Silver E, Day S, Ward S, Hoffmann G, Llanes P, Driscoll N, Appelgate B, Saunders S, 2009. Volcano collapse and tsunami generation in the Bismarck Volcanic Arc, Papua New Guinea. J Volc Geotherm Res, 186: 210-222.

The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded at Manam since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.