Tofua

Photo of this volcano
Google Earth icon
Google Earth Placemark
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 19.75°S
  • 175.07°W

  • 515 m
    1689 ft

  • 243060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

13 July-19 July 2011

Based on information from Tonga Meteorological Services and pilot observations, the Wellington VAAC reported that a cloud from Tofua rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



 Available Weekly Reports


2011: July


13 July-19 July 2011

Based on information from Tonga Meteorological Services and pilot observations, the Wellington VAAC reported that a cloud from Tofua rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2004 Mar 19 2013 Sep 15 (continuing) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Lofia crater
[ 1993 Apr 29 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 0   Northern part of caldera
1958 Dec 31 ± 120 days 1960 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Northern part of caldera
1906 Dec Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Northern part of caldera
1906 Jan 1906 Feb Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Northern part of caldera
1885 Oct (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1854 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1792 Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations
1774 Jun Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Bauer G R, 1970. The geology of Tofua Island, Tonga. Pacific Sci, 24: 333-350.

Bryan W B, Stice G D, Ewart A, 1972. Geology, petrology, and geochemistry of the volcanic islands of Tonga. J Geophys Res, 77: 1566-1585.

Richard J J, 1962. Kermadec, Tonga and Samoa. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 13: 1-38.

Smithsonian Institution-GVN, 1990-. [Monthly event reports]. Bull Global Volc Network, v 15-33.

Taylor P W, Ewart A, 1997. The Tofua Volcanic Arc, Tonga, SW Pacific: a review of historic volcanic activity. Aust Volc Invest Occ Rpt, 97/01: 1-58.

The low, forested Tofua Island in the central part of the Tonga Islands group is the emergent summit of a large stratovolcano that was seen in eruption by Captain Cook in 1774. The first Caucasian to set foot on the 515-m-high island was Capt. William Bligh in 1789, just after the renowned mutiny on the "Bounty." The volcano's summit contains a 5-km-wide caldera whose walls drop steeply about 500 m. Three post-caldera cones were constructed at the northern end of a cold fresh-water caldera lake, whose surface lies only 30 m above sea level. The easternmost cone has three craters and produced young basaltic-andesite lava flows, some of which traveled into the caldera lake. The largest and northernmost of the cones, Lofia, has a steep-sided crater that is 70 m wide and 120 m deep and has been the source of historical eruptions, first reported in the 18th century. The fumarolically active crater of Lofia has a flat floor formed by a ponded lava flow.