Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai

Photo of this volcano
Google Earth icon
  Google Earth Placemark
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 20.57°S
  • 175.38°W

  • 149 m
    489 ft

  • 243040
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 18 March-24 March 2009


Based on information from Tonga Meteorological Services, analysis of satellite imagery, and pilot observations, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 18-19 March ash plumes from Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai rose to altitudes of 4-5.2 km (13,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and about 480 km ENE. On 20 March, steam plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. Wide-spread haze was reported in areas downwind, below an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l., including in Vava'u, a group of islands about 255 km NE of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai. On 21 March, an eruption plume rose to an altitude of 0.8 km (2,500 ft) a.s.l.

According to news articles, the eruption started on 16 March from two vents, one on Hunga Ha'apai and another about 100 m offshore. Video footage and photographs taken from a nearby boat and posted on 20 March showed repeated dark, ash-rich Surtseyan explosions and associated base surges from two vents. A journalist that visited the area reported that the island was covered with black ash, and coconut trees were reduced to black stumps. Dead birds and fish were seen in the water.

Sources: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Agence France-Presse (AFP), Infobae


Most Recent Bulletin Report: March 2009 (BGVN 34:03)


Eruption ends on 21 March, leaving new land and steaming lakes

The eruption from Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai (figure 6) that began from multiple vents at Hunga Ha'apai island on 17 March 2009 ended after five days of activity on 21 March. The eruption destroyed all vegetation on the island, one of two high points on a submarine caldera rim (figure 7). Strong Surtseyan activity was witnessed by passengers on a fishing boat on 18 March (BGVN 34:02). Satellite imagery acquired that day (figure 8) revealed a bright eruption plume, an extensive 10-km-radius zone of discolored water around the islands, and pumice rafts that had already drifted 20-25 km towards the NW. By the next day, scientists on the scene observed that the submarine vent offshore to the S (figure 9) had built new land that was connected to Hunga Ha'apai (BGVN 34:02).

Figure 6. Political map of Tonga, 1989, showing the Vava'u, Ha'apai, and Tongatapu island groups. Hunga Ha'apai is in the oval about 55 km NNW of Tongatapu Island. Map courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin.
Figure 7. Aerial photo showing the vegetated islands of Hunga Tonga (left) and Hunga Ha'apai (right) before the eruption. Courtesy of Brad Scott, GNS Science.
Figure 8. Aqua MODIS satellite image showing the eruption plume drifting NE and pumice rafts from Hunga Ha'apai on 18 March 2009. Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai are covered by the bright steam plume and surrounded by discolored water caused by suspended sediments reaching a maximum of about 10 km from the island. A detached older plume, possibly ash-bearing, is to the NE. Serpentine-shaped pumice rafts are drifting in the NW sector at a distance of 20-25 km from the island. Contrast has been enhanced. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.
Figure 9. Aerial photo showing the island of Hunga Ha'apai with a steam plume rising from the vent in the newly created portion of the island. Emissions can also be seen in the vicinity of the small lake (left) marking the location of another vent active during this eruption. Discolored water surrounds the island, but a denser plume of material is originating from the shoreline near the small lake. View is looking SSE on an unknown date, March 2009. Courtesy of AusAID in Tonga.

Based on inspection of an aerial photograph taken on 21 March (figure 10), the island had lengthened by ~ 1 km and the S crater was approximately 350 m in diameter on 21 March, assuming the island was 2 km long as previously described. Calculations using ASTER satellite imagery from 26 March result in similar dimensions for the island and S crater, and showed that the new extension was also about 1 km wide at that time.

Figure 10. Aerial photo of the W side of Hunga Ha'apai island showing two steaming lakes in the NW vent area and a steam plume rising from the vent on the new southern part of the island. View is to the S on 21 March 2009. Courtesy of GP Orbassano and the Waterfront Lodge.

Aerial photographs from 21 March showed no activity at the NW vent and a steam plume rising from the S vent. However, airport observers on Tongatapu saw new eruptive activity with ash plumes on the afternoon of 21 March (BGVN 34:02). A Matangi Tonga news article on 1 April reported the eruption as being on 17-21 March. Although Radio New Zealand International reported that residents of Nuku'alofa saw "glow on the horizon" on 22 March and stated that ash eruptions continued on the 23rd, those observations were not confirmed.

On 27 March a group of four people, organized by Gian Piero Orbassano of the Waterfront Lodge, landed on Hunga Ha'apai using an inflatable dinghy launched from a charter fishing boat. They landed on the newly built southern part of the island and walked to the rim of the crater which they described as filled with orange steaming water. They noted that landing on the "rocky black pumice" shore was difficult in rough seas. Large boulders (sizes not given) on the surface crumbled when touched. The ground was firm to walk on, but the crater rim was "fragile and cracked" (figure 11). Orbassano, in a 5 April news report, stated that people were visiting the island by boat but not landing, viewing the "smoking" vents and yellowish water around the island.

Figure 11. Photographs of the southern crater lake on newly formed land at Hunga Ha'apai, 27 March 2009. The steaming lake was colored orange-brown and the rim was unstable, as evidenced by the irregular rim, steep cliffs, and fractures. Courtesy of GP Orbassano and the Waterfront Lodge.

Information Contacts: Brad Scott, GNS Science, Wairakei Research Centre, Private Bag 2000, Taupo 3352, New Zealand (URL: http://www.gns.cri.nz/); NASA Earth Observatory (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/); GP Orbassano, Waterfront Lodge, Vuna Road, Ma'ufanga, PO Box 1001, Nuku'alofa, Tonga (URL: http://www.waterfront-lodge.com/); Radio New Zealand International, PO Box 123, Wellington, New Zealand (URL: http://www.rnzi.com/); Matongi Tonga Online, PO Box 958, Nuku'alofa, Tonga (URL: http://www.matangitonga.to/); Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin (URL: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/).

Index of Weekly Reports


2009: March

Weekly Reports


18 March-24 March 2009

Based on information from Tonga Meteorological Services, analysis of satellite imagery, and pilot observations, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 18-19 March ash plumes from Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai rose to altitudes of 4-5.2 km (13,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and about 480 km ENE. On 20 March, steam plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. Wide-spread haze was reported in areas downwind, below an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l., including in Vava'u, a group of islands about 255 km NE of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai. On 21 March, an eruption plume rose to an altitude of 0.8 km (2,500 ft) a.s.l.

According to news articles, the eruption started on 16 March from two vents, one on Hunga Ha'apai and another about 100 m offshore. Video footage and photographs taken from a nearby boat and posted on 20 March showed repeated dark, ash-rich Surtseyan explosions and associated base surges from two vents. A journalist that visited the area reported that the island was covered with black ash, and coconut trees were reduced to black stumps. Dead birds and fish were seen in the water.

Sources: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Agence France-Presse (AFP); Infobae


11 March-17 March 2009

Observers flying near the area of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai (about 62 km NNW of Nuku'alofa, the capital of Tonga) on 16 or 17 March reported seeing an eruption. Photos showed an eruption plume with a wide base that rose from the sea surface and mixed with meteorological clouds. Based on information from the Tonga airport and analysis of satellite imagery, the Wellington VAAC reported that on 18 March, a plume rose to altitudes of 4.6-7.6 km (15,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Steven Gates and Keizo Gates; Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

05/1988 (SEAN 13:05) Lava and tephra from shallow submarine site

02/2009 (BGVN 34:02) Eruption from two vents on 17 March 2009 creates new land

03/2009 (BGVN 34:03) Eruption ends on 21 March, leaving new land and steaming lakes




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


05/1988 (SEAN 13:05) Lava and tephra from shallow submarine site

Fishermen reported the beginning of an eruption E of Hunga Ha'apai Island on 1 June at 0800. They noted the ejection of "fire," tephra, and large volumes of dense white smoke/steam. Sea water nearby was warm. The next day, a Friendly Islands Airways pilot reported an active eruption at the S edge of a shoal. Vigorous steam emission was occasionally punctuated by ejection of solid material. On 3 June at 0915, a Friendly Islands flight with geologists Saimone Helu (Ministry of Lands, Tonga), Julian Pearce, and Michelle Ernewein (Newcastle Univ) was diverted to view the eruption. The eruption was continuing in shallow water ~1 km SSE of Hunga Ha'apai. Lava had apparently been erupted from three sources in a SW-NE trend extending 100-200 m, with current activity at the SW end. There was no evidence of a new island.

Information Contacts: R. Gatliff, S. Helu, and S. Tongilava, Ministry of Lands, Survey, and Natural Resources, Tonga; R. Singh, Mineral Resources Dept, Suva, Fiji.
Download or Cite this Report

02/2009 (BGVN 34:02) Eruption from two vents on 17 March 2009 creates new land

A new eruption from multiple vents on and near Hunga Ha'apai Island began producing ash and steam plumes sometime in the late afternoon of 17 March 2009. The early stage of the eruption was photographed by Steven Gates (figures 1 and 2) at 1804 on 17 March while flying from Vava'u to Tongatapu. Coordinates provided by the Chathams Pacific pilots accurately located the activity as being near the islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai, about 55 km NNW of Tongatapu Island, where the capital, Nuku'alofa, is located. The pilots had not observed any activity on the way to Vava'u approximately 90 minutes earlier, nor did pilots on previous flights that morning.

Figure 1. Aerial photograph showing the eruption plume from Hunga Ha'apai island at 1804 on 17 March 2009. The island of Hunga Tonga is the dark linear feature at lower right. Courtesy of Steven Gates.
Figure 2. Closeup aerial photograph of the Hunga Ha'apai eruption at 1804 on 17 March 2009. Horizontal plumes on the ocean, tephra fallout, and discolored water can be seen. Courtesy of Steven Gates.

According to Matongi Tonga news, the Tonga Defence Services reported the eruption to the Geological Division of the Ministry of Lands on 17 March. Government geologist Kelepi Mafi noted that "sharp tremors" had been recorded by their seismic instruments during the previous three weeks, though the seismicity could not be directly linked to the eruption. Quotes by Mafi indicated that, based on seismicity, the submarine eruption may have started on 16 March. However, initial reports of steam plumes seen on that day were incorrect, as were reports of the eruption being 10 km SW on Tongatapu.

As reported by Agence France Presse (AFP), radio journalist George Lavaka viewed the eruption from a game-fishing boat operated by Lothar Slabon on the afternoon of 18 March. He described an island completely covered in black ash, coconut tree stumps, and dead birds and fish in the surrounding water. Video and photographs taken by passengers on that boat clearly showed a submarine vent offshore to the S and another vent some distance away on the NW part of the island (figure 3). Activity increased during the hour that the boat was present, during which time both vents exhibited strong Surtseyan explosions (figure 4), an eruption type named for Surtsey volcano off the coast of Iceland. As the eruption from the offshore vent became stronger, the plume included larger amounts of steam, produced base surges along the ocean surface, and ejected bombs (figure 5). Fortunately the boat left the area just as the eruption escalated and volcanic bombs began falling around them.

Figure 3. Photograph of a steam-and-ash plume rising from Hunga Ha'apai Island and a submarine vent to the S erupting black tephra. View is looking NW on 18 March 2009. Photo from unknown photographer on the Sloban boat provided by Dana Stephenson/Getty Images on boston.com.
Figure 4. Photograph showing dark ash-laden Surtseyan eruption plumes from both Hunga Ha'apai vents. View is looking NNE on 18 March 2009. Photo from unknown photographer on the Sloban boat provided by Dana Stephenson/Getty Images on boston.com.
Figure 5. Photograph of the offshore Hunga Ha'apai vent during a strong eruptive event on 18 March 2009. Bombs with trailing ash plumes can be seen falling from the eruption cloud, which is producing base surges along the ocean surface. Photo from unknown photographer on the Sloban boat provided by Dana Stephenson/Getty Images on boston.com.

A science team led by Mafi observed the eruption site at Hunga Ha'apai from a boat on 19 March. By that time, as reported by AFP, tephra had filled the gap between the submarine vent, originally about 100 m offshore, and the island, adding hundreds of square meters of land. Residents on Tongatapu reported orange glow from the eruption on the night of 19 March.

Aviation reports. A New Zealand Dominion Post article on 19 March noted that flights were disrupted and rerouted around the activity following warnings from Airways New Zealand and MetService NZ.

The Wellington VAAC issued an aviation notice on 18 March based on ground observations from the Tongatapu airport of a plume rising to an altitude of 7.6 km at 0659 that morning; ash was not seen in satellite data. Later that day, at 1330, a plume seen on MODIS satellite imagery was within 1 km of the vent and moving NE. A similar plume was reported based on MODIS and ground observations to an altitude of 4.5 km at 1600. Airport observers continued to report a plume to 5 km altitude at 1000 on 19 March, and to 4 km at 1700, but with a band of ash extending 2.5 km NE from the volcano to 2.4 km altitude.

D. Tait, a pilot for Air Chatham, noted that at 1700 on 19 March frequent eruptions were ejecting black ash, sometimes to a height of 300 m. The main white eruption plume was rising to about 4 km altitude and drifting ENE, to a distance of almost 500 km as seen in MODIS satellite imagery. He also observed that widespread ash and haze was trapped below an inversion layer at about 2 km altitude. On 20 March, a VAAC report at 1140 indicated a steam plume to 4 km but no visible eruption.

Pilot Tait reported that at 1015 on 21 March the island was covered by weather clouds, the crater was not visible, and there was no vertical plume; haze was again below an inversion layer at 1.5 km altitude. No eruptions were seen during the 15 minutes the island was visible on the return flight around 1250. However, steaming continued, with the plume rising to 1.8 km altitude. A new eruptive episode was reported by Tongatapu airport observers at 1409 on 21 March that sent an ash plume 800 m high.

Information Contacts: Steven Gates, Tradewind Island Sailing, Private Bag 63, Neiafu, Vava'u, Tonga (URL: http://www.manuoku.com/); Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Meteorological Service of New Zealand Ltd (MetService), PO Box 722, Wellington, New Zealand (URL: http://www.metservice.com/ vaac/, http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/NZ/messages.html); The Dominion Post (URL: http://dompost.co.nz/); Matongi Tonga Online, PO Box 958, Nuku'alofa, Tonga (URL: http://www.matangitonga.to/); Agence France Presse (AFP) (URL: http://www.afp.com/); The Boston Globe, Boston, MA, USA (URL: http://www.boston.com/).
Download or Cite this Report

03/2009 (BGVN 34:03) Eruption ends on 21 March, leaving new land and steaming lakes

The eruption from Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai (figure 6) that began from multiple vents at Hunga Ha'apai island on 17 March 2009 ended after five days of activity on 21 March. The eruption destroyed all vegetation on the island, one of two high points on a submarine caldera rim (figure 7). Strong Surtseyan activity was witnessed by passengers on a fishing boat on 18 March (BGVN 34:02). Satellite imagery acquired that day (figure 8) revealed a bright eruption plume, an extensive 10-km-radius zone of discolored water around the islands, and pumice rafts that had already drifted 20-25 km towards the NW. By the next day, scientists on the scene observed that the submarine vent offshore to the S (figure 9) had built new land that was connected to Hunga Ha'apai (BGVN 34:02).

Figure 6. Political map of Tonga, 1989, showing the Vava'u, Ha'apai, and Tongatapu island groups. Hunga Ha'apai is in the oval about 55 km NNW of Tongatapu Island. Map courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin.
Figure 7. Aerial photo showing the vegetated islands of Hunga Tonga (left) and Hunga Ha'apai (right) before the eruption. Courtesy of Brad Scott, GNS Science.
Figure 8. Aqua MODIS satellite image showing the eruption plume drifting NE and pumice rafts from Hunga Ha'apai on 18 March 2009. Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai are covered by the bright steam plume and surrounded by discolored water caused by suspended sediments reaching a maximum of about 10 km from the island. A detached older plume, possibly ash-bearing, is to the NE. Serpentine-shaped pumice rafts are drifting in the NW sector at a distance of 20-25 km from the island. Contrast has been enhanced. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.
Figure 9. Aerial photo showing the island of Hunga Ha'apai with a steam plume rising from the vent in the newly created portion of the island. Emissions can also be seen in the vicinity of the small lake (left) marking the location of another vent active during this eruption. Discolored water surrounds the island, but a denser plume of material is originating from the shoreline near the small lake. View is looking SSE on an unknown date, March 2009. Courtesy of AusAID in Tonga.

Based on inspection of an aerial photograph taken on 21 March (figure 10), the island had lengthened by ~ 1 km and the S crater was approximately 350 m in diameter on 21 March, assuming the island was 2 km long as previously described. Calculations using ASTER satellite imagery from 26 March result in similar dimensions for the island and S crater, and showed that the new extension was also about 1 km wide at that time.

Figure 10. Aerial photo of the W side of Hunga Ha'apai island showing two steaming lakes in the NW vent area and a steam plume rising from the vent on the new southern part of the island. View is to the S on 21 March 2009. Courtesy of GP Orbassano and the Waterfront Lodge.

Aerial photographs from 21 March showed no activity at the NW vent and a steam plume rising from the S vent. However, airport observers on Tongatapu saw new eruptive activity with ash plumes on the afternoon of 21 March (BGVN 34:02). A Matangi Tonga news article on 1 April reported the eruption as being on 17-21 March. Although Radio New Zealand International reported that residents of Nuku'alofa saw "glow on the horizon" on 22 March and stated that ash eruptions continued on the 23rd, those observations were not confirmed.

On 27 March a group of four people, organized by Gian Piero Orbassano of the Waterfront Lodge, landed on Hunga Ha'apai using an inflatable dinghy launched from a charter fishing boat. They landed on the newly built southern part of the island and walked to the rim of the crater which they described as filled with orange steaming water. They noted that landing on the "rocky black pumice" shore was difficult in rough seas. Large boulders (sizes not given) on the surface crumbled when touched. The ground was firm to walk on, but the crater rim was "fragile and cracked" (figure 11). Orbassano, in a 5 April news report, stated that people were visiting the island by boat but not landing, viewing the "smoking" vents and yellowish water around the island.

Figure 11. Photographs of the southern crater lake on newly formed land at Hunga Ha'apai, 27 March 2009. The steaming lake was colored orange-brown and the rim was unstable, as evidenced by the irregular rim, steep cliffs, and fractures. Courtesy of GP Orbassano and the Waterfront Lodge.

Information Contacts: Brad Scott, GNS Science, Wairakei Research Centre, Private Bag 2000, Taupo 3352, New Zealand (URL: http://www.gns.cri.nz/); NASA Earth Observatory (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/); GP Orbassano, Waterfront Lodge, Vuna Road, Ma'ufanga, PO Box 1001, Nuku'alofa, Tonga (URL: http://www.waterfront-lodge.com/); Radio New Zealand International, PO Box 123, Wellington, New Zealand (URL: http://www.rnzi.com/); Matongi Tonga Online, PO Box 958, Nuku'alofa, Tonga (URL: http://www.matangitonga.to/); Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin (URL: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/).
Download or Cite this Report

The small islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai cap a large seamount located about 30 km SSE of Falcon Island. The two linear andesitic islands are about 2 km long and represent the western and northern remnants of the rim of a largely submarine caldera lying east and south of the islands. Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai reach an elevation of only 149 m and 128 m above sea level, respectively, and display inward-facing sea cliffs with lava and tephra layers dipping gently away from the submarine caldera. A rocky shoal 3.2 km SE of Hunga Ha'apai and 3 km south of Hunga Tonga marks the most prominent historically active vent. Several submarine eruptions have occurred at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai since the first historical eruption in 1912.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2009 Mar 17 (?) 2009 Mar 22 ± 1 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Hunga Ha'apai
1988 Jun 1 1988 Jun 3 (in or after) Confirmed 0 Historical Observations 1 km SSE of Hunga Ha'apai
1937 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1912 Apr 29 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

The Global Volcanism Program has no synonyms or subfeatures listed for Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai.

The small islands of Hunga Tonga (upper left) and Hunga Ha'apai (left) cap a large seamount located about 30 km SSE of Falcon Island. The two linear andesitic islands are about 2 km long. They have inward-facing cliffs that represent the western and northern remnants of a the rim of a largely submarine caldera lying east and south of the islands. A rocky shoal is visible 3.2 km SE of Hunga Ha'apai and 3 km south of Hunga Tonga and marks the most prominent historically active vent.

Aerial photo by Tonga Ministry of Lands, Survey, and Natural Resources, 1991 (published in Taylor and Ewart, 1997).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Bryan W B, Stice G D, Ewart A, 1972. Geology, petrology, and geochemistry of the volcanic islands of Tonga. J Geophys Res, 77: 1566-1585.

Ewart A, Brothers R N, Mateen A, 1977. An outline of the geology and geochemistry, and the possible petrogenetic evolution of the volcanic rocks of the Tonga-Kermadec-New Zealand island arc. J Volc Geotherm Res, 2: 205-250.

Ewart A, Bryan W B, Gill J B, 1973. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the younger volcanic islands of Tonga, southwest Pacific. J Petr, 14: 429-465.

Richard J J, 1962. Kermadec, Tonga and Samoa. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 13: 1-38.

Taylor P W, 1999. . (pers. comm.).

Taylor P W, Ewart A, 1997. The Tofua Volcanic Arc, Tonga, SW Pacific: a review of historic volcanic activity. Aust Volc Invest Occ Rpt, 97/01: 1-58.

Volcano Types

Submarine
Caldera
Fissure vent

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
230
230
532
86,213

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.