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Healy submarine volcano lies along the South Kermadec Ridge and consists of an elongated edifice with a 3 x 4 km wide caldera at the NE end whose rim reaches to 1150 m below sea level. A smaller caldera lies to the SW, and a satellitic cone, Cotton volcano, rises to 980 below sea level at the SW end of the 15-km-long complex. The flat-lying floor of the larger NE caldera lies 250-400 m below the caldera rim. Rhyodacitic pumice deposits mantle the caldera floor and walls, as well as the flanks of the volcano. Active hydrothermal venting has been observed on the lower part of the southern caldera wall. The roughly 590-year-old sea-rafted Loisels Pumice deposit found in many Holocene beach sequences of North Island, New Zealand and as far away as the Chatham Islands, 650 km east of New Zealand, is chemically and texturally similar to pumices from Healy caldera.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1360 ± 75 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (corrected)||Healy caldera|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|Cotton Volcano||Stratovolcano||-950 m||35° 3' 0" S||178° 58' 30" E|
|A bathymetric map of Healy submarine volcano is overlain by dive tracks of the submersible vehicle Pisces V. Depths in the area of the dives range from 1120 to 1490 meters. The resolution of the bathymetry data is 25 meters, and the contour interval is 20 meters. Roughly 600-year-old pumice deposits found on the shores of North Island, New Zealand, originated from Healy submarine volcano. The bathymetry data were obtained during a 2005 New Zealand/American NOAA Ocean Explorer research expedition to the Kermadec arc.
Image courtesy of New Zealand-American Submarine Ring of Fire 2005 Exploration, NOAA Vents Program.
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
de Ronde, C E J, Baker E T, Massoth G J, Lupton J E, Wright I C, Feely R A, Greene R R, 2001. Intra-oceanic subduction-related hydrothermal venting, Kermadec volcanic arc, New Zealand. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 193: 359-369.
Massoth G J, de Ronde C E J, Lupton J E, Feely R A, Baker E T, Lebon G T, Maenner S M, 2003. Chemically rich and diverse submarine hydrothermal plumes of the southern Kermadec volcanic arc (New Zealand). Geol Soc London Spec Pub, 219: 119-139.
NIWA/NOAA Vents Program, 2005. New Zealand American submarine ring of fire 2005 Kermadec arc submarine volcanoes. New Zeal Nat Inst Water Atmosph Res/NOAA Vents Program final cruise report (http://www.oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/05fire/logs/leg2_summary/media/srof05_cruisereport_final.pdf).
Wright I C, Gamble J A, 1999. Southern Kermadec submarine caldera arc volcanoes (SW Pacific): caldera formation by effusive and pyroclastic eruption. Marine Geol, 161: 207-227.
Wright I C, Gamble J A, Shane P A R, 2003. Submarine silicic volcanism of the Healy caldera, southern Kermadec arc (SW Pacific): I - volcanology and eruption mechanisms . Bull Volc, 65: 15-29.
Wright I C, Worthington T J, Gamble J A, 2006. New multibeam mapping and geochemistry of the 30°-35° S sector, and overview, of southern Kermadec arc volcanism. J Volc Geotherm Res, 149: 263-296.