Rumble III

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 35.745°S
  • 178.478°E

  • -220 m
    -722 ft

  • 241130
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Rumble III.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Rumble III.

Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

07/1986 (SEAN 11:07) Submarine activity discolors water; hydrophone noise

03/1990 (BGVN 15:03) Submarine summit bathymetry; bubble plumes in water column

06/1992 (BGVN 17:06) Gas bubbles detected; summit 140 m below surface

07/2009 (BGVN 34:07) Submarine summit craters underwent collapse and eruption

01/2011 (BGVN 36:01) Eruption in 2009 linked to over 100 m of sea floor collapse


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

All times are local (= UTC + 12 hours)

07/1986 (SEAN 11:07) Submarine activity discolors water; hydrophone noise

The New Zealand Defence Scientific Establishment reported that hydrophones detected noise of probable volcanic origin, peaking on 15-16 June. About 1 July, hydrophones on Great Barrier Island, ~290 km SW of Rumble III, recorded noise of possible volcanic origin, but detected no activity by 13 July.

On 13-14 July, a Japanese fishing boat reported cream-colored steam rising from the ocean at 35.74°S, 178.49°E, and observed a 500 m2 sulfur slick. No explosions were reported. The New Zealand Meteorological office reported a satellite-derived sea surface temperature anomaly of possibly +2°C in the area 10-14 July.

On an overflight 5 August, Royal New Zealand Air Force observers saw a circular patch of discolored blue water ~40 m across, thought to be a zone of gas-rich water. The discolored water repeatedly vanished and reformed, then dispersed 4-6 km SW. Sonar buoys dropped into the area detected bubbling noises, but no low-frequency or pulsing noises.

Personnel on the HMNZS Tui examined the area of the volcano during the night or 7-8 August between 2300 and 0500. The sea was calm with no discoloration, sulfur smell, or steam. They found a minimum depth of 150 m [but see 15:03], and samples were dredged from ~300 m.

Information Contacts: J. Latter, DSIR Geophysics, Wellington; L. Hall, Defence Scientific Establishment, Auckland.

03/1990 (BGVN 15:03) Submarine summit bathymetry; bubble plumes in water column

The following observations, made by scientists from the USSR and New Zealand during a cruise of the RV Vulkanolog, were reported by W.F. Giggenbach and I. Menyailov.

"Considerable uncertainty remains about the minimum depth to the summit of Rumble III seamount. Early bathymetric measurements place it at 117 m depth (Kibblewhite and Denham, 1967), while later data and surveys by the RV Vulkanolog in March 1988 suggest a depth of 200 m. A special effort was therefore made to locate its highest point and to determine its depth.

"From echograms, it appears that the uncertainty may largely be due to the production of gas-rich, probably volcanic fluids from the summit area (Kibblewhite, 1966). Close inspection of the echograms shows that reflections above 200 m are probably caused by a plume of expanding bubbles, as they are invariably Separated from the solid reflector (the true summit) by a non-reflecting zone. There, the bubbles are either too small or the prevailing pressures keep the gases in solution.

"In contrast to March 1988, when echograms suggested that some of the bubble swarms reached the surface and gas bubbles were observed from the RV Vulkanolog, in January 1990 the plumes terminated at 150-120 m depth and no bubbles were observed at the surface. The disappearance of bubbles at depths <120 m is likely to be due to re-dissolution of soluble, probably volcanic gases (CO2 and SO2). The decrease in extent of the bubble zones may reflect a decrease in the production rate of thermal fluids and, therefore, of volcanic activity. There were no obvious signs of volcanic activity in either March 1988 or January 1990.

"Several large samples of ferro-magnesian, basaltic pillow lavas were dredged from the slopes of the seamount at depths of 400-1,200 m."

References. Kibblewhite, A.C., 1966, The acoustic detection and location of an underwater volcano: New Zealand Journal of Science, v. 9, p. 178-199.

Kibblewhite, A.C. and Denham, R.N., 1967, The Bathymetry and total magnetic field of the south Kermadec Ridge seamounts: New Zealand Journal of Science, v. 10, p. 52-69.

Information Contacts: I. Menyailov and A. Ivanenko, IV, Petropavlovsk; W. Giggenbach, DSIR Chemistry, Petone.

06/1992 (BGVN 17:06) Gas bubbles detected; summit 140 m below surface

Three previously unknown submarine arc stratovolcanoes have been identified at the S end of the Kermadec Ridge: Rumble V (36.140°S, 178.195°E, summit 700 m below sea level); Tangaroa (36.318°S, 178.031°E, summit 1,350 m below sea level); and Clark (36.423°S, 177.845°E, summit 1,150 m below sea level) (figure 1). All three have basal diameters of 16-18 km and rise from the seafloor at ~2,300 m depth. The first evidence of the volcanoes was from GLORIA side-scan mapping of the southern Havre Trough-Kermadec Ridge region in 1988 (Wright, 1990). Later investigations, including a photographic and rock-dredge study during the 3-week Rapuhia cruise (early 1992), confirmed previous interpretations. Side-scan and photographic data show a complex terrain of lava flows and talus fans on the flanks of all three volcanoes, with the most pristine-looking morphology at Rumble V. During the 1992 cruise, gas bubbles were detected acoustically, rising from the crests of Rumble III, IV, and V. No gas bubbling was evident from Tangaroa or Clark. Bathymetric surveys indicated that the summits of the shallowest volcanoes, Rumble III and IV, were at ~140 and 450 m, respectively, below the sea surface.

Figure 1. Sketch map of New Zealand's North Island and the southern Kermadec Ridge area, with locations of young volcanoes. Courtesy of Ian Wright.

Reference. Wright, I.C., 1990, Bay of Plenty-Southern Havre Trough physiography, 1:400,000: New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Chart, Miscellaneous Series no. 68.

Information Contact: I. Wright, New Zealand Oceanographic Institute, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington.

07/2009 (BGVN 34:07) Submarine summit craters underwent collapse and eruption

GNS Science in New Zealand issued a press release on 12 March 2009 reporting that scientists have returned from exploring submarine volcanoes in the Kermadec arc, where they found evidence of a recent large eruption at Rumble III (figure 2). While mapping the volcano aboard the University of Washington research vessel Thomas G. Thompson on 11 March 2009, they found that marked changes had occurred in the bathymetry of the summits and ash deposits there since their previous visit in 2007. The base of the volcano sits at a depth of 1.4 km.

Figure 2. Map showing the location of Rumble III and other submarine volcanoes along the southern Kermadec arc. Rumble III volcano is located ~ 350 km NE of the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, and is one of a number of submarine volcanoes that delineate the active arc front in this region. Courtesy of GNS Science (12 March 2009 press release).

A 2007 bathymetric map prepared by GNS Science showed an 800-m-wide crater near the top of Rumble III. The map, made aboard the RV Thompson in 2009, showed that this crater has been in-filled and a nearby summit cone had been reduced in height by ~ 100 m. "This suggests there has been a major eruption that collapsed the summit cone and filled the adjacent crater," said Co-Chief Scientist on the voyage, Cornel de Ronde of GNS Science. He also stated that the date of collapse was not known.

According to the same report, images taken by a WHOI underwater camera towed by the research ship showed strewn lava boulders covered by black volcanic ash near the summit. Consistent with the lowering of the summit, de Ronde noted that hydrothermal plumes emanating from the summit vents were more vigorous than observed previously. In addition, some new and deeper vents were discovered.

Olivier Hyvernaud looked for acoustic (T-wave) signals recorded by the French Polynesian network that may have originated from Rumble III. He reported that the Laboratoire de Géophysique in Tahiti did not see any acoustic events from that location.

Information Contacts: GNS Science, Wairakei Research Centre, Private Bag 2000, Taupo 3352, New Zealand (URL: http://www.gns.cri.nz/research/marine/curtis_island.html); Cornel de Ronde, GNS Science (URL: http://www.gns.cri.nz/, Email: Cornel.deRonde@gns.cri.nz); Olivier Hyvernaud, Laboratoire de Géophysique, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA/DASE/LDG), PO Box 640, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia (Email: hyvernaud@labogeo.pf).

01/2011 (BGVN 36:01) Eruption in 2009 linked to over 100 m of sea floor collapse

We reported in BGVN 34:07 that New Zealand scientists found evidence during a research cruise in 2009 of a recent large eruption at Rumble III, one of more than 30 big submarine volcanoes on the Kermadec Arc, NE of the Bay of Plenty on the N coast of New Zealand's North Island (figures 3 and 4). A newly available report of the 2009 cruise (Dodge, 2010) noted some new details, including the following: (1) since the last study of Rumble III volcano in 2007, significant volcanic activity had occurred; (2) the bathymetric profile of the seamount had changed since it was last mapped in 2007—the summit of Rumble III had collapsed and was ~100 m deeper, at 310 m, much of the 800-m-wide crater was filled by ash, and much of the W side of the volcano had slid down-slope; (3) volcanic flow deposits were documented in camera tows—lava boulders, hackley flow, truncated lobate or pillows, and talus were common; and (4) there was a massive abundance of ash, in particular draped across substrates in many areas, provided compelling evidence for a large eruption since 2007.

Figure 3. Southwest Pacific from Samoa (NE) to New Zealand (SW), showing the location of Rumble III and other submarine volcanoes along the southern Kermadec Arc. Rumble III volcano is located ~ 350 km NE of the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, 200 km NE of Auckland, and is one of a number of submarine volcanoes that delineate the active arc front in this region. Bathymetry data were satellite-derived (for deep water) and acquired using an EM 300 multibeam echo sounder (along the arc and Lau Basin). Satellite-derived bathymetry from Sandwell and Smith (1997); EM300 bathymetry data courtesy of New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). Map courtesy of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) Ocean Explorer web site; from New Zealand American Submarine Ring of Fire 2005 expedition plan.
Figure 4. Bathymetric map of all available multibeam data as of 2009 for the Southern Havre Trough, between the Colville and Kermadec Ridges and N of the New Zealand's North Island. In the colored version of this figure, the bathymetry key (in meters) ranges from red at the surface to purple at depths of 5 to 6 km. The location of Rumble III submarine volcano is highlighted. The inset indicates the tracks and areas of individual surveys whose data comprise the map. Areas that are not covered use satellite data configured to fit the edges of multibeam data set. Courtesy of Wysoczanski and others (2010).

A press release dated 17 August 2010 by the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) noted that, during an oceanographic cruise aboard NIWA's research vessel R/V Tangaroa in May-June 2010, scientists confirmed that (a) the W flank of the volcano had collapsed ~100 m or more, (b) collapse of 90 m was observed at its highest (shallowest) point, and (c) as much as 120 m collapse occurred in some places. The release noted that the collapse was caused by an eruption some time in the last 2 years.

Glassy, black basaltic rock filled with vesicles was dredged from the volcano. Richard Wysoczanski (NIWA) noted that the samples are the youngest-known rocks from the Kermadec Arc region, created some time between the years 2007 and 2009. It is notable that andesite samples were previously collected from the flank of the submarine volcano by Brothers (1967). Rumble III was last mapped using multibeam technology in 2002.

NIWA principal scientist Geoffrey Lamarche said that the observation of significant pieces of sea floor moving hundreds of meters in height over a short timespan of 8 years give insight into short-time movements of the seabed. Research of the Kermadec Arc is directed in part by NIWA's survey of the area for massive sulphide deposits that sometimes develop over hydrothermal vents.

On 28 February 2011, NIWA and GNS Science announced an upcoming research cruise of about 3 weeks in 2011 to investigate mineral deposits and hydrothermal activity at five major submarine volcanoes in the Kermadec Arc (Clark, Healy, Brothers, Rumble II West, and Rumble III; see figure 4).

References. Brothers, R.N., 1967, Andesite from Rumble III Volcano, Kermadec Ridge, southwest Pacific, Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 31, no. 1, pp. 17-19.

Dodge, E., 2010, Catastrophic volcanic activity at Rumble III volcano based on EM300 bathymetry and direct sea floor imaging, Senior Thesis for Oceanography 444, University of Washington, School of Oceanography, Seattle, WA.

Smith, W. H. F., and Sandwell, D.T., 1997, Global seafloor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings, Science, v. 277, p. 1957-1962+.

Todd, E., Gill, J.B., Wysoczanski, R.J., Handler, M.R., Wright, I.C., Gamble, J.A., 2010, Sources of constructional cross-chain volcanism in the southern Havre Trough: New insights from HFSE and REE concentration and isotope systematics, Geochemistrry Geophysics Geosystems. v. 11, Q04009, 31 pp, DOI: 10.1029/2009GC002888.

Wysoczanski, R.J., Todd, E., Wright, I.C., Leybourne, M.I., Hergt, J.M., Adam, C., and Mackay, K., 2010, Backarc rifting, constructional volcanism and nascent disorganised spreading in the southern Havre Trough backarc rifts (SW Pacific), Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 190, issues 1-2, p. 39-57.

Information Contacts: Roger Matthews, North Shore City Council, 1 The Strand, Takapuna Private Bag 93500, Takapuna, North Shore City, New Zealand (URL: http://www.northshorecity.govt.nz/, Email: Roger.Matthews@northshorecity.govt.nz); Richard Wysoczanski, New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) (URL: http://www.niwa.co.nz/, Email: r.wysoczanski@niwa.co.nz); Geoffrey Lamarche, NIWA (URL: http://www.niwa.co.nz, Email: g.lamarche@niwa.co.nz); GNS Science, Wairakei Research Centre, Private Bag 2000, Taupo 3352, New Zealand (URL: http://www.gns.cri.nz/research/marine/curtis_island.html); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) Ocean Explorer (URL: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/gallery/gallery.html).

The Rumble III seamount, the largest of the Rumbles group of submarine volcanoes along the South Kermadec Ridge, rises 2300 m from the sea floor to within about 200 m of the sea surface. Collapse of the edifice produced a horseshoe-shaped caldera breached to the west and a large debris-avalanche deposit. Fresh-looking andesitic rocks have been dredged from the summit of Rumble III and basaltic lava from its flanks. Rumble III has been the source of several submarine eruptions detected by hydrophone signals. Early surveys placed its depth at 117 m, and later depths of about 200 m, 140 m, and 220 m were determined.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2008 ± 1 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations
1986 Jun 15 1986 Aug 5 (?) Confirmed 0 Hydrophonic
1973 Oct 15 1973 Oct 17 Confirmed 0 Hydrophonic
1970 Unknown Confirmed 0 Hydrophonic
1963 Jan 1966 Dec (in or after) Confirmed 0 Hydrophonic
1958 Jul 9 1962 Confirmed 0 Hydrophonic

The Global Volcanism Program has no synonyms or subfeatures listed for Rumble III.

The Rumble III seamount, the largest of the Rumbles seamount group along the South Kermadec Ridge, rises 2300 m from the sea floor to within about 200 m of the sea surface. Edifice collapse has left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera breached to the west. Fresh-looking andesitic rocks have been dredged from its summit and basaltic lava from its flanks. Rumble III has been the source of several submarine eruptions detected by hydrophone signals.

Courtesy of Ian Wright (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington, New Zealand).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

de Ronde, C E J, Baker E T, Massoth G J, Lupton J E, Wright I C, Feely R A, Greene R R, 2001. Intra-oceanic subduction-related hydrothermal venting, Kermadec volcanic arc, New Zealand. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 193: 359-369.

Decker R W, 1971. Table of Active Volcanoes of the World. Unpublished 41 page table, compiled primarily from IAVCEI catalogs with revisions by many volcanologists.

Kibblewhite A C, 1966. The acoustic detection and location of an underwater volcano. New Zeal J Sci, 9: 178-199.

Kibblewhite A C, Denham R N, 1967. The bathymetry and total magnetic field of the south Kermadec ridge seamounts. New Zeal J Sci, 10: 52-67.

Latter J H, Lloyd E F, Smith I E M, Nathan S, 1992. Volcanic hazards in the Kermadec Islands, and at submarine volcanoes between southern Tonga and New Zealand. New Zeal Ministry Civil Defense, Volc Hazards Inf Ser, 4: 1-45.

Smithsonian Institution-GVN, 1990-. [Monthly event reports]. Bull Global Volc Network, v 15-33.

Wright I C, Chadwick W W Jr, de Ronde C E J, Reymond D, Hyvernaud O, Gennerich H-H, Stoffers, P, Mackay K, Dunkin M A, Bannister S C, 2008. Collapse and reconstruction of Monowai submarine volcano, Kermadec arc, 1990-2004. J Geophys Res, doi:10.1029/2007JB005138 .

Wright I C, Worthington T J, Gamble J A, 2006. New multibeam mapping and geochemistry of the 30°-35° S sector, and overview, of southern Kermadec arc volcanism. J Volc Geotherm Res, 149: 263-296.

Volcano Types

Submarine

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
0
0

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Rumble III Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.