Maroa

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 38.42°S
  • 176.08°E

  • 897 m
    2942 ft

  • 241061
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

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    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 28 March-3 April 2001


On 30 March the IGNS reported that a moderate-sized hydrothermal explosion occurred in the Alum Lakes area, Wairakei, knocking over trees and destroying vegetation near the crater. Water levels at several of the Alum Lakes had dropped several weeks before the explosion.

Source: New Zealand GeoNet Project

Index of Weekly Reports


2001: March

Weekly Reports


28 March-3 April 2001

On 30 March the IGNS reported that a moderate-sized hydrothermal explosion occurred in the Alum Lakes area, Wairakei, knocking over trees and destroying vegetation near the crater. Water levels at several of the Alum Lakes had dropped several weeks before the explosion.

Source: New Zealand GeoNet Project


The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Maroa.

The 16 x 25 km Maroa caldera formed sometime after 230 thousand years ago (ka) in the NE corner of the 30 x 40 km Whakamaru caldera, which is the largest of the Taupo Volcanic Zone. The Whakamaru caldera partially overlaps with the Taupo caldera on the south and was formed during the eruption of the Whakamaru Group ignimbrites between about 340 and 330 ka. The Maroa caldera was subsequently filled by at least 70 rhyolitic lava domes or flows, mostly erupted along a SW-NE trend. Lesser amounts of basalt were also erupted. The latest dated magmatic eruption took place about 14 ka, when the rhyolitic Puketarata tuff ring and lava domes were formed (Brooker et al., 1993). The Orakeikorako, Ngatamariki, Rotokaua, and Wairakei hydrothermal areas are located within or adjacent to the Whakamaru caldera. Large hydrothermal eruptions have occurred at the Orakeikorako thermal area during the Holocene, the latest immediately prior to the 1800-year-old Taupo eruption.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0180 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Orakeikorako
7050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Orakeikorako

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Rolles Peak
    Apuahoe
Stratovolcano 570 m 38° 40' 0" S 176° 15' 0" E

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Whakamaru Pleistocene caldera 38° 30' 0" S 176° 5' 0" E

Domes

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Ben Lomond Dome 740 m 38° 35' 0" S 175° 58' 0" E
Caws Road Dome 598 m 38° 24' 0" S 175° 50' 0" E
Kaimanawa Dome 534 m 38° 35' 0" S 176° 14' 0" E
Mangatoetoe Dome 641 m 38° 30' 0" S 176° 7' 0" E
Mangatutu Dome 525 m 38° 25' 0" S 176° 3' 0" E
Maraemanuka Dome 610 m 38° 28' 0" S 175° 51' 0" E
Maroa North Dome 770 m 38° 28' 0" S 176° 2' 0" E
Maroa South Dome 686 m 38° 30' 0" S 176° 2' 0" E
Maroa West Dome 792 m 38° 30' 0" S 176° 0' 0" E
Maroanui Dome 897 m 38° 31' 0" S 176° 1' 0" E
Maungaiti Dome 774 m 38° 20' 0" S 175° 56' 0" E
Mokai Dome 740 m 38° 34' 0" S 175° 55' 0" E
Ngangiho Dome 656 m 38° 35' 0" S 176° 3' 0" E
Ngautuku Dome 626 m 38° 23' 0" S 176° 1' 0" E
Oheinui Dome 805 m 38° 29' 0" S 176° 5' 0" E
Oruahinawe Dome 526 m 38° 36' 0" S 176° 7' 0" E
Oruanui Dome 720 m 38° 35' 0" S 176° 1' 0" E
Pohaturoa Dome 520 m 38° 24' 0" S 176° 1' 0" E
Pokuru Dome 673 m 38° 29' 0" S 175° 51' 0" E
Pukeahua Dome 715 m 38° 26' 0" S 176° 0' 0" E
Pukemoremore Dome 686 m 38° 31' 0" S 175° 58' 0" E
Puketarata Dome 690 m 38° 33' 0" S 176° 3' 0" E
Rapanui Dome 740 m 38° 22' 0" S 175° 54' 0" E
Te Terata Dome 704 m 38° 32' 0" S 175° 53' 0" E
Tirohanga Dome 590 m 38° 27' 0" E 175° 53' 0" E
Tuahu Dome 591 m 38° 28' 0" S 176° 4' 0" E
Tutukau Dome 800 m 38° 28' 0" S 176° 7' 0" E
Upper Atiamuri Dome 535 m 38° 19' 0" S 176° 6' 0" E
Whakapapataringa Dome 680 m 38° 32' 0" S 176° 10' 0" E

Thermal

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Atiamuri Thermal
Craters of the Moon
    Karapiti
Thermal 38° 38' 0" S 176° 5' 0" E
Geyser Valley Geyser 38° 38' 0" S 176° 5' 0" E
Ngatamariki Thermal 310 m 38° 32' 0" S 176° 10' 30" E
Ongarato Thermal
Orakeikorako Thermal 360 m 38° 28' 30" S 176° 9' 0" E
Rotokaua
    Rotokawa
Thermal 360 m 38° 37' 30" S 176° 12' 0" E
Waiora Valley Thermal 38° 38' 0" S 176° 5' 0" E
Wairakei Thermal 460 m 38° 37' 30" S 176° 4' 0" E
Ngahigo lava dome is one of at least 70 post-caldera lava domes erupted within the Maroa caldera, which formed sometime after about 230,000 years ago north of the Taupo caldera. The youngest of the post-caldera lava domes is Puketarata, which was emplaced within a rhyolitic tuff ring about 14,000 years ago. The domes were erupted along a general SW-NE trend, parallel to the structural trend of the Taupo volcanic zone. No Holocene eruptions have occurred, but vigorous thermal activity continues.

Photo by Ichio Moriya (Kanazawa University).
Spectacular siliceous sinter terraces at Orakeikorako cover an area of about 1 cu km, forming one of New Zealand's most impressive thermal areas. The thermal area lies along the Waikato River at an altitude of 260-360 m on the eastern side of the Maroa volcanic center. Hydrothermal explosions took place at five centers at Orakeikorako prior to the Taupo pumice eruption about 1800 years ago, depositing explosion breccias that immediately underlie the Taupo Pumice.

Photo by Richard Wysoczanski, 1994 (Smithsonian Institution).
Algae colors the surface of spectacular siliceous sinter terraces at the Orakeikorako thermal area. This geothermal area is one of the principal hydrothermal fields of the Taupo volcanic zone. It lies on the banks of the Waikato River where the Paeroa Fault divides into smaller branches that intersect the eastern margin of the Maroa volcanic center. Orakeikorako contains sinter sheets covering an area of about 1 cu km. Flooding of the river hydroelectric power generation has drowned about 70% of the hot springs.

Photo by Richard Wysoczanski, 1994 (Smithsonian Institution).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Allis R G, 1984. The 9 April 1983 steam eruption at Craters of the Moon thermal area, Wairakei. New Zeal Dept Sci Ind Res Rpt, 196: 1-25.

Alloway B V, Pillans B J, Carter L, Naish T R, Westgate J A, 2005. Onshore-offshore correlation of Pleistocene rhyolitic eruptions from New Zealand: implications for TVZ eruptive history and paleoenvironmental construction. Quat Sci Rev, 24: 1601-1622.

Brooker M R, Houghton B F, Wilson C J N, Gamble J A, 1993. Pyroclastic phases of a rhyolitic dome-building eruption: Puketarata tuff ring, Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand. Bull Volc, 55: 395-406.

Brown S J A, Wilson C J N, Cole J W, Wooden J, 1998. The Whakamaru Group ignimbrites, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: evidence for reverse tapping of a zoned silicic magmatic system. J Volc Geotherm Res, 84: 1-37.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kissling W M, Weir G J, 2005. The spatial distribution of the geothermal fields in the Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand. J Volc Geotherm Res, 145: 136-150.

Nairn I A, Cole J W, 1975. New Zealand. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 22: 1-156.

Spinks K D, Acocella V, Cole J W, Bassett K N, 2005. Structural control of volcanism and caldera development in the transtensional Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. J Volc Geotherm Res, 144: 7-22.

Spinks K D, Cole J W, Leonard G S, 2004. Caldera volcanism in the Taupo Volcanic Zone. Geol Soc New Zeal, New Zeal Geophys Soc, 26th New Zeal Geotherm Workshop, 6th-9th Dec 2004, Great Lake Centre, Taupo, Field Trip Guides, 7: 110-135.

Wilson C J N, Gravley D M, Leonard G S, Rowland J V, 2009. Volcanism in the central Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: tempo, styles and controls. In: Thordarson T, Self S, Larsen G, Rowland S K, Hoskuldsson A (eds), {Studies in Volcanology: The Legacy of George Walker}. Geol Soc London, p 225-247.

Wilson C J N, Houghton B F, Lloyd E F, 1986. Volcanic history and evolution of Maroa-Taupo area, central North Island. Roy Soc New Zeal Bull, 23: 194-223.

Wilson C J N, Houghton B F, McWilliams M O, Lanphere M A, Weaver S D, Briggs R M, 1995a. Volcanic and structural evolution of Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: a review. J Volc Geotherm Res, 68: 1-28.

Wilson C J N, Rogan A M, Smith I E M, Northey D J, Nairn I A, Houghton B F, 1984. Caldera volcanoes of the Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand. J Geophys Res, 89: 8463-8484.

Volcano Types

Caldera(s)
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Rhyolite
Minor
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
117
532
27,958
475,588

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Maroa Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.