Okataina

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  • Last Known Eruption
  • 38.12°S
  • 176.5°E

  • 1111 m
    3644 ft

  • 241050
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Most Recent Bulletin Report: November 1987 (SEAN 12:11)


Tectonic seismic swarm; no co-seismic deformation

A short but intense sequence of earthquakes occurred in the Lake Rotomahana area of the [Tarawera] rift on 16 November. The largest event (ML 3.8) occurred at 1835, in the middle of the sequence; events continued until about 2000. A geodetic survey of the Lake Rotomahana strain monitoring pattern was completed ~20 minutes before the earthquake sequence commenced. Selected stations were reoccupied three days later but no significant co-seismic deformation was detected. All the earthquakes appeared to be of tectonic origin. Similar swarms were recorded 22-23 February 1986 and in February 1983.

The 17-km-long Tarawera Rift was the site of a vigorous eruption in 1886 that ejected ~0.7 km3 of basaltic magma in ~4 hours (Nairn and others, 1986); large phreatic explosions occurred from Lake Rotomahana, which has grown substantially since that eruption. Phreatic explosions have been recorded [16] times between 1896 and 1973 in the [Waimangu] thermal area to the SW, along the rift.

Reference. Nairn, I.A., Cole, J.W., Houghton, B.F., and Wilson, C.J.N., 1986, Tarawera 1886 eruption: International Volcanological Congress Handbook, 1-9 February 1986, p. 111-121.

Information Contacts: B. Scott, NZGS Rotorua; S. Sherburn, DSIR Geophysics, Wairakei.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Okataina.

Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

11/1982 (SEAN 07:11) Shallow earthquakes; no volcanic tremor

11/1987 (SEAN 12:11) Tectonic seismic swarm; no co-seismic deformation




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


11/1982 (SEAN 07:11) Shallow earthquakes; no volcanic tremor

A series of shallow earthquakes occurred 23-29 September a few kilometers SE of Haroharo Dome, in the Okataina Volcanic Center (figure 1). The main earthquake was at 1423 on 23 September. A foreshock preceded it by about 3 minutes, and three of the four large aftershocks followed at 1429, 1440, and 1452 (table 1). Many other aftershocks were recorded, the last at 0530 on 29 September.

Figure 1. Map showing the Haroharo Volcanic Complex and part of the Tarawera Volcano in the Okataina Volcanic Center. From Cole and Nairn (1975).

Table 1. Earthquakes of M > 2.5 recorded in the Okataina Volcanic Center during 23-29 September 1982.

    1982      Time    Magnitude

    23 Sep    1420     [3.3]
              1423      4.1
              1429      2.6
              1440      3.2
              1452     [2.9]
    27 Sep    1806     [2.7]

I.A. Nairn, working on the N side of Tarawera Volcano (~11 km S of the epicenters) on 23 September, felt shocks and heard rockfalls nearby. He estimated the Modified Mercalli intensities of the foreshock and main shock as IV, and of the aftershocks at 1440 and 1452 at III-IV. He described the ground vibrations as low-frequency but relatively large-amplitude. Other nearby NZGS personnel noted the relatively low frequency of the felt shocks compared to typical local felt earthquakes. Observers noted that although they did not feel the shocks strongly outdoors, houses and vehicles resonated to large-amplitude vibrations. A small seiche was recorded on the N side of Lake Tarawera (7-8 km SW of the events). Three tilt networks around Tarawera Volcano showed no significant changes.

J.H. Latter placed the hypocenter for the 27 September event [at 38.129°S, 176.531°E, figure 1] about 5 km SE of Haroharo Dome at a depth of about 2 km. Nairn reported that this location coincides with a small area of surface faulting and geothermal activity. The 23 September earthquakes could not be located because of the lack of any nearby seismic records, but epicenters were estimated to be within 6 km of the 27 September event. Latter noted that the slow propagation of energy from the earthquakes and the low frequency of the felt shocks might suggest that they were "roof rock" events generated by activity in an underlying magma body. However, no volcanic tremor was detected during or after the earthquake sequence.

Although Haroharo has not been historically active, five eruptions in the last 10,000 years have been dated by 14C or tephrochronological methods. Very large explosive eruptions occurred roughly 2,050, 2,850, 5,050, and 7,050 years before the present (BP). Dome extrusion occurred at 2,450 years BP (± 400 years).

[Reference. Cole, J.W., and Nairn, I.A., 1975, Catalog of active volcanoes of the world, part XXII.]

Information Contacts: J. Latter, DSIR, Wellington; I. Nairn and B. Scott, NZGS, Rotorua; P. Otway, NZGS, Wairakei.

11/1987 (SEAN 12:11) Tectonic seismic swarm; no co-seismic deformation

A short but intense sequence of earthquakes occurred in the Lake Rotomahana area of the [Tarawera] rift on 16 November. The largest event (ML 3.8) occurred at 1835, in the middle of the sequence; events continued until about 2000. A geodetic survey of the Lake Rotomahana strain monitoring pattern was completed ~20 minutes before the earthquake sequence commenced. Selected stations were reoccupied three days later but no significant co-seismic deformation was detected. All the earthquakes appeared to be of tectonic origin. Similar swarms were recorded 22-23 February 1986 and in February 1983.

The 17-km-long Tarawera Rift was the site of a vigorous eruption in 1886 that ejected ~0.7 km3 of basaltic magma in ~4 hours (Nairn and others, 1986); large phreatic explosions occurred from Lake Rotomahana, which has grown substantially since that eruption. Phreatic explosions have been recorded [16] times between 1896 and 1973 in the [Waimangu] thermal area to the SW, along the rift.

Reference. Nairn, I.A., Cole, J.W., Houghton, B.F., and Wilson, C.J.N., 1986, Tarawera 1886 eruption: International Volcanological Congress Handbook, 1-9 February 1986, p. 111-121.

Information Contacts: B. Scott, NZGS Rotorua; S. Sherburn, DSIR Geophysics, Wairakei.

The massive, dominantly rhyolitic Okataina Volcanic Centre is surrounded by extensive ignimbrite and pyroclastic sheets produced during multiple caldera-forming eruptions. Numerous lava domes and craters erupted from two subparallel NE-SW-trending vent lineations form the Haroharo and Tarawera volcanic complexes. Lava domes of the Haroharo complex, at the northern end of the Okataina Volcanic Centre, occupy part of the 16 x 26 km Pleistocene Haroharo caldera, which formed incrementally between 300,000 and 50,000 years before present (BP). The oldest exposed rocks on the caldera floor are about 22,000 years old. The Tarawera complex at the southern end of Okataina consists of 11 rhyolitic lava domes and associated lava flows. The oldest domes were formed as late as about 15,000 years BP, and the youngest were formed in the Kaharoa eruption about 800 years BP. The NE-SW Tarawera vent lineation extends from the two dacitic cones of Maungaongaonga and Mangakakaramea on the SW to Mount Edgecumbe on the NE. Construction of the Haroharo and Tarawera complexes impounded lakes Rotoiti, Totoehu, Okataina, and Tarawera against the outer margins of the Okataina ring structure. A major hydrothermal area is located at Waimangu; the world-renowned Pink and White Terrace siliceous sinter deposits were destroyed during the major basaltic explosive eruption of 1886.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1981 May 1981 May Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (Raupo Pond crater)
1978 Feb 23 1978 Feb 23 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (Raupo Pond, Inferno Crater)
1973 Feb 22 1973 Feb 22 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (Echo Crater)
1951 Jun Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Rotomahana
1926 Nov 17 1926 Nov 18 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Rotomahana
1924 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (Echo Crater)
1918 1920 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (Echo Crater)
1917 Mar 24 1917 Apr 4 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (Echo Crater)
1915 Nov 5 1915 Nov 9 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (Echo Crater)
1915 Feb 4 1915 Apr 13 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (Echo Crater & NW of Fairy Crater)
1914 Jan 28 1914 Feb Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (NW of Fairy Crater)
1913 Jan 27 1913 Jan 27 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (Echo Crater)
1912 Apr Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (Echo Crater)
1910 Jul 24 1910 Jul 25 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (Echo Crater)
1908 Oct 1 1908 Oct 1 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (Echo Crater)
1906 Feb 21 1906 Feb 21 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (NW of Fairy Crater)
1905 Jun 17 1905 Jun 17 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (Echo Crater)
1905 Feb 18 1905 Feb 23 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (Echo Crater)
1900 Jan 1904 Nov 1 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu Geyser
1896 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Waimangu (Echo Crater)
1886 Jun 10 1886 Aug Confirmed 5 Historical Observations Tarawera (Wahanga-Waimangu fissure)
1310 ± 12 years 1315 (?) Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tarawera (Kaharoa eruption)
0180 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Te Kopia thermal area
0300 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Mt. Edgecumbe
1330 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Mt. Edgecumbe
1750 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Haroharo (Rotokawau to Rotoatua)
3580 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Haroharo (Makatiti and other domes)
5550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Mt. Edgecumbe
6060 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Haroharo (Te Horoa & other domes)
7560 BCE ± 18 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Rotoma caldera, Tuahu, Kawerau
8050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology West Rerewhakaaitu fissures

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Maungakakaramea
    Rainbow Mountain
Cone 743 m 38° 19' 0" S 176° 23' 0" E
Maungaongaonga Cone 826 m 38° 20' 0" S 176° 21' 0" E
Onepu Cone 189 m 38° 4' 0" S 176° 43' 0" E
Rerewhakaaitu Tuff cone 38° 16' 0" S 176° 30' 0" E
Rotorua Vent
Tuahu Tuff cone 790 m 38° 7' 0" S 176° 28' 0" E

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Awaatua Bay Crater 438 m 38° 17' 0" S 176° 30' 0" E
Haroharo Fissure vent 914 m 38° 5' 31" S 176° 30' 29" E
Rerewhakaaitu Fissure vent 438 m 38° 17' 0" S 176° 30' 0" E
Rotoatua, Lake Crater 38° 4' 0" S 176° 25' 0" E
Rotoiti Pleistocene caldera
Rotokawau, Lake Maar 38° 4' 0" S 176° 23' 0" E
Rotoma Pleistocene caldera 38° 3' 0" S 176° 35' 0" E
Tarawera Fissure vent 1111 m 38° 14' 0" S 176° 30' 0" E
Te Whekau Crater 38° 10' 0" S 176° 23' 0" E
Wahanga-Waimangu
    Chasm, The
Fissure vent 1111 m 38° 14' 0" S 176° 30' 0" E

Domes

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Crater Dome Dome 38° 14' 0" S 176° 30' 0" E
Eastern Dome Dome 518 m 38° 13' 0" S 176° 34' 0" E
Edgecumbe, Mount Dome 821 m 38° 6' 0" S 176° 44' 0" E
Green Lake Plug Dome 366 m 38° 15' 0" S 176° 28' 0" E
Hainini Dome 38° 8' 0" S 176° 29' 0" E
Kanakana
    Plateau Dome
Dome 945 m 38° 14' 0" S 176° 31' 0" E
Makatiti Dome 914 m 38° 9' 0" S 176° 28' 0" E
Mangawhakamana Dome 728 m 38° 8' 0" S 176° 35' 0" E
Matahawra Dome 550 m 38° 2' 0" S 176° 29' 0" E
Pararoa Dome 525 m 38° 4' 0" S 176° 34' 0" E
Parewhaiti Dome 700 m 38° 7' 0" S 176° 30' 0" E
Puhipuhi Dome 335 m 38° 11' 0" S 176° 36' 0" E
Pukepoto Dome 686 m 38° 9' 0" S 176° 21' 0" E
Ridge Dome
    Waiwhakapa
Dome 830 m 38° 15' 0" S 176° 32' 0" E
Rotokakahi Dome 680 m 38° 13' 0" S 176° 21' 0" E
Rotokohu Dome 38° 6' 0" S 176° 31' 0" E
Rotomahana Dome 38° 15' 0" S 176° 29' 0" E
Ruawahia Dome 1111 m 38° 14' 0" S 176° 30' 0" E
Southern Dome
    Koa
Dome 1024 m 38° 15' 0" S 176° 30' 0" E
Tapahoro Dome 914 m 38° 8' 0" S 176° 29' 0" E
Te Hapeotoroa Dome 577 m 38° 17' 0" S 176° 25' 0" E
Te Horoa Dome 38° 10' 0" S 176° 25' 0" E
Te Kumete Dome 544 m 38° 15' 0" S 176° 25' 0" E
Tikorangi Dome 550 m 38° 4' 0" S 176° 33' 0" E
Tutaeheka Dome 719 m 38° 15' 0" S 176° 21' 0" E
Wahanga Dome 975 m 38° 13' 0" S 176° 31' 0" E
Western Dome Dome 38° 15' 0" S 176° 28' 0" E
Whakapoungakau Dome 759 m 38° 6' 0" S 176° 24' 0" E

Thermal

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kawerau Thermal 60 m 38° 3' 0" S 176° 43' 0" E
Onepu Springs Hot Spring 60 m 38° 3' 0" S 176° 43' 0" E
Otei Springs Hot Spring 319 m 38° 3' 0" S 176° 34' 0" E
Paukohurea Thermal 400 m 38° 19' 0" S 176° 19' 0" E
Rotoma Geothermal Field
    Rotoehu, Lake
Thermal 305 m 38° 2' 0" S 176° 33' 0" E
Rotomahana Thermal 335 m 38° 17' 0" S 176° 25' 0" E
Te Haehaenga Thermal
Te Kopia Thermal 610 m 38° 24' 29" S 176° 14' 0" E
Waikite Thermal 400 m 38° 19' 0" S 176° 19' 0" E
Waimangu Thermal 468 m 38° 17' 0" S 176° 23' 0" E
Waitangi Soda Springs Hot Spring 305 m 38° 2' 0" S 176° 33' 0" E
The Haroharo volcanic complex is the NW-most of two lava dome complexes forming the Okataina volcanic centre. A 16 x 28 km wide caldera was formed incrementally during eruptions between 300,000 and 50,000 years ago. Its rim, seen in this photo in the background across an infilling caldera lake, is generally obscured by a group of overlying lava domes. All post-caldera domes are less than 20,000 years old, and the most recent Haroharo eruption took place about 3500 years ago.

Photo by Ian Nairn (Geological Survey of New Zealand).
The 1886 Tarawera eruptive fissure, seen from the north, cut lava domes of the 800-year-old Kaharoa eruption. The rocks of the 1886 eruption, 20-30 m thick here, are red and black, and overlie white rhyolitic pyroclastic rocks of the Kaharoa eruption. This view shows a 2-km-long section of the 8-km en echelon fissure with gray rocks of the Ruawahia lava dome appearing at the far end.

Photo by Bruce Houghton (Wairakei Research Center).
The SE part of the fissure within Ruawahia crater reveals stratigraphy from the ca. 700 BP Kaharoa and 1886 AD eruptions. The 35-m-thick light-colored Kaharoa plinian deposits at the base are largely obscured by talus fans of scoria from above. The thick overlying bright red scoria is from phase 2 of the 1886 eruption. Above it is a thin black zone (phase 3) consisting of very widespread scoria fall. Phase 4 (at the top) consists of white rhyolitic blocks ripped off the walls during the vent widening in the last half hour of the June 10, 1886 eruption.

Photo by Bruce Houghton (Wairakei Research Center).
The flat-topped Tarawera lava dome complex at the top of the photo to the NE is one of two large dome complexes forming the Okataina volcanic center at the northern end of the Taupo volcanic zone. An eruptive fissure that cuts the dome complex and extends across Lake Rotomahana to the foreground was the source of a major eruption in 1886. The Tarawera complex and the Haroharo complex off the photo to the left were both sources of major explosive eruptions during the Pleistocene and Holocene that produced large ignimbrite sheets.

Photo by Lloyd Homer, courtesy of Bruce Houghton (Wairakei Research Center).
The 800-year-old Kaharoa eruption was the first Holocene eruption of the Tarawera lava dome complex. It produced an extensive rhyolitic airfall deposit that extended to the east coast of North Island. Geologist Pat Brown examines a charcoalized log within a pyroclastic-flow deposit from this eruption. The upper part of the section consists of blocky debris from collapse of a rhyolitic lava dome at the end of the eruption.

Photo by Jim Cole (University of Canterbury).
The steaming Waimangu cauldron is located near the southern end of the 1886 eruptive fissure. Intermittent phreatic eruptions took place from this and other craters south of Lake Rotomahana from 1886 until as recently as 1973. Waimangu (black water) geyser was spectacularly active from 1900 until it became extinct on November 1, 1904.

Photo by Richard Waitt, 1986 (U.S. Geological Survey).
This large fissure system produced during a major explosive eruption at Tarawera in 1886 is one of the most dramatic features of the massive Okataina Volcanic Centre. Okataina is surrounded by extensive ignimbrite and pyroclastic sheets produced during caldera-forming eruptions. The subparallel NE-SW-trending Haroharo and Tarawera complexes consist of rhyolitic lava domes and associated lava flows that formed between about 15,000 and 800 years ago and impounded lakes against the margins of the Okataina ring structure.

Photo by Richard Waitt, 1986 (U.S. Geological Survey).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Alloway B V, Pillans B J, Carter L, Naish T R, Westgate J A, 2005. Onshore-offshore correlation of Pleistocene rhyolitic eruptions from New Zealand: implications for TVZ eruptive history and paleoenvironmental construction. Quat Sci Rev, 24: 1601-1622.

Darragh M, Cole J, Nairn I, Shane P, 2006. Pyroclastic stratigraphy and eruption dynamics of the 21.9 ka Okareka and 17.6 ka Rerewhakaaitu eruption episodes from Tarawera Volcano, Okataina Volcanic Centre, New Zealand. New Zeal J Geol Geophys, 49: 309-328.

Houghton B F, Wilson C J N, Del Carlo P, Coltelli M, Sable J E, Carey R, 2004. The influence of conduit processes on changes in style of basaltic Plinian eruptions: Tarawera 1886 and Etna 122 BC. J Volc Geotherm Res, 137: 1-14.

Houghton B F, Wilson C J N, McWilliams M O, Lanphere M A, Weaver S D, Briggs R M, Pringle M S, 1995. Chronology and dynamics of a large silicic magmatic system: Central Taupo Volcano Zone, New Zealand. Geology, 23: 13-16.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Jurado-Chichay Z, Walker G P L, 2000. Stratigraphy and dispersal of the Mangaone Subgroup pyroclastic deposits, Okataina volcanic centre, New Zealand. J Volc Geotherm Res, 104: 319-383.

Jurado-Chichay Z, Walker G P L, 2001. The intensity and magnitude of the Mangaone subgroup plinian eruptions from Okataina volcanic centre, New Zealand. J Volc Geotherm Res, 111: 219-237.

Leonard G S, Cole J W, Nairn I A, Self S, 2002. Basalt triggering of the c. AD 1305 Kaharoa rhyolite eruption, Tarawera volcanic complex, New Zealand. J Volc Geotherm Res, 115: 461-486.

Macpherson C G, Chiang K K, Hall R, Nowell G M, Castillo P R, Thirlwall M F, 2010. Plio-Pleistocene intra-plate magmatism from the southern Sulu Arc, Semporna peninsula, Sabah, Borneo: implications for high-Nb basalt in subduction zones. J Volc Geotherm Res, 190: 25-38.

Manning D A, 1996. Middle-late Pleistocene tephrostratigrapy of the eastern Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. Quat Internatl, 34-36: 3-12.

Nairn I A, 1989. Mount Tarawera. New Zeal Geol Surv, 1:50,000 geol map sheet V16 AC and 55 p text.

Nairn I A, 1991. Volcanic hazards at Okataina Volcanic Centre. New Zeal Ministry Civil Defense, Volc Hazards Inf Ser, 2: 1-29.

Nairn I A, Cole J W, 1975. New Zealand. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 22: 1-156.

Nairn I A, Hedenquist J W, Villamor P, Berryman K R, Shane P A, 2005. The ~AD1315 Tarawera and Waiotapu eruptions, New Zealand: contemporaneous rhyolite and hydrothermal eruptions driven by an arrested basalt dike system?. Bull Volc, 67: 186-193.

Nairn I A, Self S, Cole J W, Leonard G S, Scutter C, 2001. Distribution, stratigraphy, and history of proximal deposits from the C. AD 1305 Kaharoa eruptive episode at Tarawera volcano, New Zealand. New Zeal J Geol Geophys, 44: 467-484.

Nairn I A, Shane P R, Cole J W, Leonard G J, Self S, Pearson N, 2004. Rhyolite magma processes of the ~ AD 1315 Kaharoa eruption episode, Tarawera volcano, New Zealand. J Volc Geotherm Res, 131: 265-294.

Sable J E, Houghton B F, Wilson C J N, Carey R J, 2006. Complex proximal sedimentation from Plinian plumes: the example of Tarawera 1886. Bull Volc, 69: 89-103.

Shane P, Hoverd J, 2002. Distal record of multi-sourced tephra in Onepoto Basin, Auckland, New Zealand: implications for volcanic chronology, frequency and hazards. Bull Volc, 64: 441-454.

Shane P, Martin S B, Smith V C, Beggs K F, Darragh M B, Cole J W, Nairn I A, 2007. Multiple rhyolite magmas and basalt injection in the 17.7 ka Rerewhakaaitu eruption episode from Tarawera volcanic complex, New Zealand. J Volc Geotherm Res, 164: 1-26.

Shane P, Smith V C, Nairn I A, 2005. High temperature rhyodacites of the 36 ka Hauparu pyroclastic eruption, Okataina volcanic centre, New Zealand: change in a silicic magmatic system following caldera collapse. J Volc Geotherm Res, 147: 357-376.

Smith V C, Shane P, Nairn I A, 2005. Trends in rhyolite geochemistry, mineralogy, and magma storage during the last 50 kyr at Okataina and Taupo volcanic centres, Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand. J Volc Geotherm Res, 148: 372-406.

Smith V C, Shane P, Nairn I A, Williams C M, 2006. Geochemistry and magmatic properties of eruption episodes from Haroharo linear vent zone, Okataina Volcanic Centre, New Zealand during the last 10 kyr. Bull Volc, 69: 57-88.

Spinks K D, Acocella V, Cole J W, Bassett K N, 2005. Structural control of volcanism and caldera development in the transtensional Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. J Volc Geotherm Res, 144: 7-22.

Spinks K D, Cole J W, Leonard G S, 2004. Caldera volcanism in the Taupo Volcanic Zone. Geol Soc New Zeal, New Zeal Geophys Soc, 26th New Zeal Geotherm Workshop, 6th-9th Dec 2004, Great Lake Centre, Taupo, Field Trip Guides, 7: 110-135.

Vandemeulebrouck J, Hurst A W, Scott B J, 2008. The effects of hydrothermal eruptions and a tectonic earthquake on a cycling crater lake (Inferno Crater Lake, Waimangu, New Zealand). J Volc Geotherm Res, 178: 271-275.

White J D L, Houghton B F, Hodgson K A, Wilson C J N, 1997. Delayed sedimentary response to the A.D. 1886 eruption of Tarawera, New Zealand. Geology, 25: 459-462.

Wilson C J N, Gravley D M, Leonard G S, Rowland J V, 2009. Volcanism in the central Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: tempo, styles and controls. In: Thordarson T, Self S, Larsen G, Rowland S K, Hoskuldsson A (eds), {Studies in Volcanology: The Legacy of George Walker}. Geol Soc London, p 225-247.

Wilson C J N, Houghton B F, McWilliams M O, Lanphere M A, Weaver S D, Briggs R M, 1995a. Volcanic and structural evolution of Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: a review. J Volc Geotherm Res, 68: 1-28.

Wilson C J N, Rogan A M, Smith I E M, Northey D J, Nairn I A, Houghton B F, 1984. Caldera volcanoes of the Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand. J Geophys Res, 89: 8463-8484.

Volcano Types

Lava dome(s)
Caldera(s)
Fissure vent(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Rhyolite
Minor
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Dacite
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
18
579
79,591
362,413

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Okataina Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.