Amsterdam Island

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 37.83°S
  • 77.52°E

  • 881 m
    2890 ft

  • 234001
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Amsterdam Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Amsterdam Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Amsterdam Island.

The elliptical 7 x 10 km Amsterdam Island is the northernmost subaerial volcano on the Antarctic Plate. The basaltic volcano is located near the axis of the East Indian Ocean Ridge adjacent to the Indian Plate. Amsterdam volcano was formed during two episodes of cone growth accompanied by the formation of small calderas. The caldera of the youngest eruptive center, 2 km ENE of the earlier one, contained a lava lake that fed several stages of lava outflows. Minor late-stage eruptions formed more than two dozen scoria cones and many small lava flows. No historical eruptions are known, although the fresh morphology of the latest volcanism at Dumas Crater on the NE flank suggests it may have occurred as recently as a century ago (Nougier, 1982).

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Amsterdam Island. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Amsterdam Island page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Antonelli Cone
Brulot Cone
Chaudron Cone
Dives, Mont De La Stratovolcano 881 m 37° 51' 0" S 77° 31' 0" E
Dumas Cone
Fernand Stratovolcano
Forneau Cone
Hebert Cone
Museau De Tanche Cone
Olympe Cone
Venus Cone
Vulcain Cone


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Grande Marmite Crater 37° 50' 0" S 77° 31' 0" E
Amsterdam Island has an asymmetrical profile as seen from the SSE in this plate from the SMS Gazelle expedition. The flat-lying area left of the summit of the island is the remnant of a paleo-caldera; cliffs at the left expose remnants of the Fernand paleo-volcano. Deposits from a younger volcano cover most of the island, and more than two dozen pyroclastic cones dot its flanks.

Plate from the SMS Gazelle expedition (courtesy of NOAA Photo Library).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Gunn B M, Abranson E C, Nougier J, Watkins N D, Hajash A, 1971. Amsterdam Island, an isolated volcano in the southern Indian Ocean. Contr Mineral Petr, 32: 79-92.

LeMasurier W E, Thomson J W (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of the Antarctic Plate and Southern Oceans. Washington, D C: Amer Geophys Union, 487 p.

Nougier J, 1982. Volcanism of Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands (TAAF): some aspects of volcanism along plate margins. In: Craddock C (ed) {Antarctic Geoscience}, Madison: Univ Wisconsin Press, p 755-765.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Caldera(s)
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
0
0

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Amsterdam Island Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.