Damavand

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 35.951°N
  • 52.109°E

  • 5670 m
    18598 ft

  • 232010
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Damavand.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Damavand.

Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

09/1993 (BGVN 18:09) Fumarolic vent on the crater rim; sulfur deposits

10/1999 (BGVN 24:10) Morphology and brief description of summit from visiting excursion


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

09/1993 (BGVN 18:09) Fumarolic vent on the crater rim; sulfur deposits

A visit to the summit area . . . on 12 July 1993 revealed a small, powerful fumarolic vent on the S rim of the crater that was emitting SO2-rich gases at a temperature of ~50°C. Sulfur deposits also covered the surrounding slopes. The summit crater was ~150 m wide and 20 m deep, with a 40-m-diameter frozen lake in the bottom, surrounded by patches of snow. . . . there is no permanent glacier because of the dry climate. However, the upper slopes do contain scattered areas of hardened perennial snow (névés).

Information Contacts: J. Sesiano, Univ de Genève.

10/1999 (BGVN 24:10) Morphology and brief description of summit from visiting excursion

On 1 August 1999, a group from the Societe de Volcanologie Geneve ascended the ice- and rock-covered summit. On the way up the N flank they saw vertical coal deposits below 2,450 m elevation, reaching thicknesses of tens of meters. Above 4,000 m elevation huge blocks were seen that appeared to have traveled from ~1 km above. Just below the summit were large sulfur-bearing blocks that appear to be mixed with a clay- like material. Within 100 m of the N rim of the summit chunks of pure sulfur were observed. The circular summit crater was ~150 m in diameter. In the center of the crater lay a small frozen lake approximately 40 m across. From the N rim of the summit, an active fumarole could be seen to the south.

Information Contacts: D. Zurcher and R. Haubrichs, Societe de Volcanologie Geneve (SVG), C.P. 6423, CH-1211, Geneve 6, Switzerland (Bulletin de la SVG, October 1999, p. 6 (in French)).

Damavand volcano towers dramatically 70 km to the NE above Iran's capital city of Tehran and 70 km south of the Caspian Sea. The 5670-m-high stratovolcano is the highest volcano in the Middle East. A younger cone has been constructed during the past 600,000 years over an older edifice, remnants of which were previously interpreted as a caldera wall. Flank vents are rare, and activity at the dominantly trachyandesite volcano has been concentrated at the summit vent, which has produced a series of radial lava flows. Lava effusion has dominated at Damavand; pyroclastic activity has been limited and the only major explosive event produced a welded ignimbrite about 280,000 years ago. The youngest activity has consisted of the eruption of a series of lava flows from the summit vent that cover the western side of the volcano. The youngest dated lava flows were emplaced about 7000 years ago. No historical eruptions are known from Damavand, but hot springs are located on the volcano's flanks, and fumaroles are found at the summit crater.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
5350 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Uranium-series

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Demavend | Demawend


Thermal
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Ab E Garm Thermal
Ask Thermal
Baidjan Thermal
Damavand volcano in the Elbruz mountains, about 80 km NE of Iran's capital city Tehran, is seen here from the volcano's southern flank, at an altitude of 3500 m. The summit of the 5670-m-high stratovolcano contains a well-preserved, 150-m-wide crater with a small frozen lake. Despite its altitude, the region is too arid to support permanent glaciers on Damavand. Young lava flows from the summit and flank vents cover the west side of the volcano.

Photo by J. Sesiano, 1998 (University of Geneva).
Winter snows highlight morphological features of Damavand volcano in this NASA Space Shuttle image (with north to the upper left). Lava flows with prominent levees can be seen at the bottom of the image, and a small well-preserved crater can be seen at the summit. The volcano is located about 80 km NE of the capital city of Tehran and is a popular destination for outdoor recreation.

NASA Space Shuttle image ISS010-E-13393, 2005 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Conical snow-capped Damavand volcano is the highest volcano in the Middle East. It towers dramatically 70 km to the NE above Iran's capital city of Tehran. Activity at the 5670-m-high stratovolcano has been dominated by lava effusion. Young lava flows erupted from the summit vent blanket the western side of the volcano, and the youngest dated lava flows were erupted about 7000 years ago. No historical eruptions are known from Damavand, but hot springs are located on the volcano's flanks and fumaroles are found at the summit crater.

Photo by Arad Mojtahedi, 2006 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Damavand_in_winter.jpg).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Blumenthal M M, van der Kaaden G, Vlodavetz V I, 1964. Turkey & Caucasus. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 17: 1-23.

Davidson J, Hassanzadeh J, Berzins R, Stockli D F, Bashukooh B, Turrin B, Pandamouz A,, 2004. The geology of Damavand volcano, Alborz Mountains, northern Iran. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 116: 16-29.

Gansser A, 1966. Iran. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 17: 1-20.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Liotard J M, Dautria J M, Bosch D, Condomines M, Mehdizadeh H, Ritz J-F, 2008. Origin of the absarokite-banakite association of the Damavand volcano (Iran): trace elements and Sr, Nd, Pb isotope constraints. Internat J Earth Sci, 97:89-102.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Lava dome(s)
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Minor
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachyte / Trachyandesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
27
2,295
59,171
11,945,981

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Damavand Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.